Functional Groups Flashcards

Terms Definitions
alkyne
any member of the alkyne series.
amide
an organic compound formed from ammonia by replacing a hydrogen atom by an acyl group.
alkene
any member of the alkene series.
ketone
any of a class of organic compounds containing a carbonyl group, CO, attached to two alkyl groups, as CH3COCH3 or CH3COC2H5.
amine
any of a class of compounds derived from ammonia by replacement of one or more hydrogen atoms with organic groups.
ethyl
-C2H5
Nitrile
Ether
R-O-R
Alkenes
C=C
Hexane
6C
Propane
3C
Heptane
7C
Ester
....O
.....II
R-C -O-R
RNH2
Amine, -amine
slightly
Alcohols are... soluble
Alcohol
R - OH
nucleophile
electron rich Lewis Base
O ||RCNR2
Amide, -amide
pleasant (fruity)
Esters have a... fragrance
Alkane
all single bonds to hydrogen
triple bond hybridization
2 sp, 2 p
Arene
With an aromatic (Benzene) ring. Alternating single and double C-C bonds.
nitriles
a carbon triple bonded to a nitrogen
Carbonyl group (C=O) at the end of chain
Aldehyde
acyl halides
a carbonyl group bonded to a halogen
carboxylic acid
a carbon double bonded to an oxygen (carbonyl group) and bonded to a hydroxyl group
Haloalkane
R - X Alkyl group with a single bond to a halogen
low mp/bp, nonpolar, insoluble
What are the properties of an ester? (mp/bp, bonds, solubility)
aldehydes
R-(C=O)H
ethers
R-O-R'
Aldehyde
H-C=O
alkynes
triple bonds
H is ALWAYS
TERMINAL!
Tetrahedral bond angle
109.5
Aromatic Hydrocarbon / Compound Benzene Ring (6C, 3 double bonds)
Phenyl Group
saturation
no double or triple bonds
Aromatic
Ring of alternating double bonds.
aryl group
Ar- Simple aromatic ring
C-H bond is polar or nonpolar?
Nonpolar
Ketones
Carbonyl group (C=O) between C atoms
E configuration
(from the German entgegen) means opposite and corresponds to the term trans higher atomic numbers are given higher priority more than one atom has lower priority
esters
R-(C=0)-OR' carboxylic acid where H is replaced with an alkyl group, contains carbonyl group C=O
Isomerism
Cmpds have same molecular formula but differ in their structural formulas
Aldehydes & Ketones
Contain a Carbonyl group C=O
cycloalkanes
types of alkanes which have one or more rings of carbon atoms in the chemical structure of their molecules
trans isomer
opposite side of double bond on different carbons
benzene ring
an organic chemical compound with the molecular formula C6H6. It is sometimes abbreviated Ar–H
Bond angle of C and 4 atoms?
Tetrahedral 109.5
Bond angle of C and 2 atoms?
Linear 180
aromatic compound
must have 6 electrons from 3 double bonds delocalized in a pi bond
why are cycloalkanes not aromatic
must have 6 pi electrons
Structural Isomer
Differ in the SEQUENCE of the atoms - as the # of atoms in a molecule increases the # of structural isomers increases
priority naming: carboxyl, hydroxyl, amino, carbonyl
The highest precedence group takes the suffix, with all others taking the prefix form. However, double and triple bonds only take suffix form (-en and -yn) and are used with other suffixes carboxyl, carbonyl, hydroxyl, amino,
Properties of Inorganic Compounds
Ionic &/or Covelant, some very high MP & BP, not flammable, most soluble in H2O, strong or weak electrolytes
Ether C-Zσ bond
-OR Alkoxy Group
Amide C=O Group
-CONH2-CONHR-CONR2
Ketone C=O Group
C=O Carbonyl Group
A C atome in a molecule can be bonded to how many other atoms?
2, 3, or 4
Thiol C-Zσ bond
-SH Mercapto Group
To be polar, a molecule must contain what?
At least 1 polar bond AND be assymetrical (different around the center = polar)
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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