Terms Definitions
When the pH is increased [hydrogen ion concentration (H+) is decreased], in which direction will the HbO2 Dissociation Curve shift?
A. To the "left"
In what direction does the Oxygen (HbO2) Dissociation Curve shift when the pH is decreased?
D. To the right
The Ventilation/Perfusion ratio (V/Q) represents which one of the following?
A. Changes in alveolar ventilation (VA) and pulmonary capillary blood flow (QC)
In which direction will the O2 Dissociation Curve shift, due to an increase in body temperature?
A. To the right
100% O2 may not be sufficient to achieve satisfactory arterial oxygen content under which of the following conditions?
C. Hypoxemia due to physiological shunting
The impact of changes in blood pH on hemoglobin’s affinity for oxygen is called the
B. Bohr effect
) Which of the following describes hypoxia? A. Blood Hb levels are greater than normal (>16 g/dL).
B. Tissue O2 delivery is inadequate to meet cellular needs.
List the 3 different ways CO2 is transported in the blood to the lungs along with the percentage for each form.
HCO3- 80% Carbamino-Hb 12% Dissolved in Plasma 8%
(9) What is the overall main goal of acid- base homeostasis?
Maintain a normal blood pH
True or False: A buffer solution allows large changes in pH upon the addition of an acid or base.
True or False The HCO3- represents the respiratory component of an acidbase system.
With respect to the excretion of H+ and reabsorption, how will the kidneys respond if the blood PaCO2 is high?
Excrete H+ and retain HCO3-
True or False According to the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, the pH of the blood will be normal as long as the ratio of HCO3 to dissolved CO2 is 30 to 1 (30:1).
True or False: In respiratory alkalosis the PaCO2 is less than 35 mmHg
True or False The most common cause of HYPERVENTIALTION in patients with respiratory disease is probably due to a low arterial PaO2 (hypoxemia).
True or False Compensation for respiratory acidosis occurs through a decrease in blood HCO3 levels.
True or False Compensation for metabolic acidosis occurs through a decrease in blood PCO2 levels
True or False In acute respiratory acidosis, for each 10 mm Hg rise in PCO2 above 40 mmHg the plasma HCO3- can be expected to increase by about 1 mEq/L.
An increase in body temperature will shift the oxygen dissociation curve in what direction?
B. Right
True or False: The impact of changes in blood pH on hemoglobin affinity for oxygen is called the chloride shift
The ______________ alters the position of the HbO2 Dissociation curve.
D. Bohr Effect
In healthy young adults, what is considered a normal of PAO2-PaO2 gradient (A-a Gradient)?
D. 5 to 10 mm Hg
Which of the following contains the highest level of PCO2?
C. Cells
All of the following increase the affinity that hemoglobin has for oxygen except:
Increased temperature
The normal total oxygen content of the blood is approximately
C. 19.5 mL/dL
What is the normal CaO2-CvO2 (arteriovenous oxygen content difference) in a healthy adult at rest?
D. 5 mL/dL
Which of the following approximate a normal P50?
B. 26.6 mmHg
A PaO2 of 100 mmHg is normally associated with a hemoglobin saturation (SaO2) of _______________.
A. 97%
What would be the approximate hemoglobin saturation (SaO2) associated with a PaO2 of 65 mmHg?
A. 90%
Where is the lowest PO2 normally found?
B. Cells
The majority of oxygen (O2) is carried:
B. Chemically combined with Hb
The majority of carbon dioxide is carried:
D. As bicarbonate ion (HCO3)
Based on the following values, calculate the Oxygen Delivery (DO2): CaO2 = 16 ml/dl & Cardiac Output 6.0 L/min
DO2 = 6 (16 x 10) DO2 = 6(160) DO2 = 960 ml
There is a total of 14 g/dL hemoglobin (Hb) in the blood, of which 7.5 g is HbO2. What is the calculated SaO2 (%)?
SaO2 = 7.5 / 14 x 100 SaO2 = 54%
While receiving an oxygen concentration (FIO2) of 65%, a patient’s PaO2 is 50 mmHg. What is the mostly likely causing this problem?
A. Significant shunting is present
“Hyperventilation” is normally seen as the compensatory mechanism for _________________.
C. Metabolic Acidosis
Why is the bicarbonate buffer system, considered an open buffer system?
B. Its acid component (carbonic acid) is volatile.
What is the ratio of HCO3 - to dissolved CO2 that results in a pH of 7.40?
Which statement below describes “respiratory alkalosis”?
C. The PaCO2 is less than 35 mmHg
Primary metabolic alkalosis is associated with which of the following?
III. An increase in buffer base
Which of the following might be used to correct metabolic alkalosis? I. Restoring normal fluid volume
C. I, and III only
An increase in the hydrogen ion concentration [H+] of the blood due only to an increase in the arterial PCO2 (hypercapnea), best describes which acid-base disorder?
Acute respiratory acidosis
Interpret the following set of ABG values: pH = 7.22, PCO2 = 60 mm Hg, HCO3 = 24 mEq/L
C. Acute (uncompensated) respiratory acidosis
Which of the following describe the state of “alkalemia”?
I. The HCO3:CO2 ratio exceeds 30:1. II. The blood pH exceeds 7.45. D. I and II only
What is the normal range of PAO2-PaO2 gradient (A-a Gradient) for a healthy young adult breathing room air?
5 to 10 mmHg
Which equation describes O2 delivery to the tissues?
DO2 = QT x [CaO2 x 10]
Describe the PaO2. What is it?
Oxygen dissolved in the blood plasma
Under what conditions may even the delivery of 100% O2 not be sufficient to achieve a satisfactory arterial oxygen content?
When physiologic “shunting” is present
A patient with a normal PaO2, SaO2 and cardiac output is exhibiting signs and symptoms of tissue hypoxia. What is the most likely cause?
Anemic hypoxia
How is the vast majority of O2 carried in the blood?
Combined with Hb
True or False: Gas solubility in liquids varies indirectly with pressure.
True or False: Changes in atmospheric pressure have little to do with gas transport in the body.
If 100 ml of a 50% solution (A) were exposed to 100 ml of a 30% solution (B) across a semipermeable membrane, what would be the strength of each solution following equilibrium?
True or False: Average body cellular fluid has a tonicity equal to a 0.9% solution of NaCl. This is referred to as an isotonic solution.
Cite the formula used to calculate the gram-equivalnet weight of a substance.
gEq = Gram atomic (formula) weight ÷ Valence
True or False: 10 grams of solute dissolved 100 ml of solution can be described as weight to volume solution.
True or False: An acid can be defined as a proton donor or a compound that yields hydrogen ions when placed in an aqueous solution and a base can be defined as any compound that will accept a proton..
What maintains the volume and composition of body fluids?
I. Filtration and reabsorption of sodium by the kidneys. II. Regulation of water balance by vasopressin (ADH).A. I and II
True or False: Evaporative water loss through the lungs may occur due to the presence of an artificial airway and through increased ventilation
The alveolar interstitial region of the lungs remains relatively “dry” primarily because of what?
A. Low capillary hydrostatic pressure
True or False: The normal range for potassium (K+) is 10 to 15 mEq/L
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