AP Bio: Ch 19 studying Flashcards

Terms Definitions
tobacco mosaic virus
First virus discovered:
double-stranded DNA, single-stranded DNA, double-stranded RNA, single-stranded RNA
Virus genomes may be:
capsid
the protein coat or shell of a virus particle
capsomere
The protein subunit that makes up a capsid.
viral envelope
A membrane that cloaks the capsid that in turn encloses a viral genome.
bacteriophage
a virus that is parasitic in bacteria
host range
The limited range of host cells that each type of virus can infect and parasitize.
lytic cycle
a viral reproductive cycle in which copies of a virus are made within a host cell, which then bursts open, releasing new viruses
virulent phage
A phage that reproduces only by a lytic cycle.
restriction enzymes
enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides
lysogenic cycle
cycle in which a viral genome replicates as a provirus without destroying the host cell
temperate phage
A phage that is capable of reproducing by either the lytic or lysogenic cycle.
prophage
A phage genome that has been inserted into a specific site on the bacterial chromosome
retrovirus
type of virus that contains RNA as its genetic information, any of a group of viruses that contain two single-strand linear RNA molecules per virion and reverse transcriptase (RNA to DNA)
reverse transcriptase
a polymerase that catalyzes the formation of DNA using RNA as a template
provirus
Viral DNA that inserts into a host genome.
vaccine
immunogen consisting of a suspension of weakened or dead pathogenic cells injected in order to stimulate the production of antibodies
epidemic
a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease
pandemic
an epidemic that is geographically widespread
transposon
a segment of DNA that can become integrated at many different sites along a chromosome (especially a segment of bacterial DNA that can be translocated as a whole)
mobile genetic elements
candidates for the source of viral genome; tansposon and plasmid
mimivirus
Giant Virus (800nm); stands for mimicking microbe
emerging virus
A virus that evolves in a geographically isolated area and is pathogenic to humans
horizontal transmission
external source of the virus
vertical transmission
the route by w/c an infectious disease is transmitted from one generation to the next
prion
infectious particles composed of protein with no nucleic acid
virus
small infectious particles consisting of nucleic acid enclosed in a protein coat and, in come cases, a membranous envelopes
lytic
which cycle destroys the cell?
obligate intracellular
Viruses are ___________ parasites.
restriction enzymes
how to bacteria protect themselves from bacteriophages?
lysogenic
Which cycle are prophages associated with?
mutation, dissemination from small group, other animals
ways emerging viruses occur
endocytosis, fusion of viral envelope to plasma membrane, injection
ways viruses can attack
attachment, entry of phage DNA, synthesis, assembly, release
lytic cycle:
icosahedral
shape of adenovirus
helical
shape of influenza viruses
icosahedral head and tail
shape of t-even viruses
e. coli
first phages studied
no
can viruses make proteins?
no
can viruses reproduce?
lock and key
viruses identify host cells by a ________ system
viroid
in plants, infectious disease agent composed of a single strand of RNA with no capsid
bursting
the lytic cycle kills the cell by __________
restriction enzymes, lysogeny, natural selection
why phages haven't killed all bacteria:
HIV, ebola, west nile
example of emerging virus:
animal
what types of cell have viral envelopes?
3
how many kinds of single-stranded RNA genomes are found in animal viruses?
retrovirus
HIV-AIDS is an example of a ___________.
after
viruses probably evolved before/after cells
plasmids and transposons
candidates for viral source are:
3/4
how many viruses are said to be from other species?
host cell enzymes
viroids use _____ instead of encoding proteins
smaller
viroids are ______ and simpler than viruses
act slowly & indestructable
2 big characteristics of prions:
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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