Mrs. Brown 7th grade B class Chinese Dynasties Flashcards

Terms Definitions
belief in inherent superiority
"China is a sea which salts all rivers..."
means China would influence all people who had contact with China
Dynastic Cycle (in depth)
1. The founding
- Through a revolt
2. Period of peace, power, & prosperity
- collects taxes & uses them for benefit of people
- took over new territories
- infrastructure
3. Decline of dynasty
- stopped caring about people
- more taxes on people & used for luxury
- didn't keep military
- stop maintaining buildings
4. Fall of dynasty
- revolt
- rebellion
- natural disaster
- invasion
Dynastic Cycle (short)
1. The founding
2. Peace, power, & prosperity
3. Decline of dynasty
4. Fall of dynasty
An underlying base or foundation especially for an organization or system. The basic facilities, services, & installations needed for the functioning of a community or society
Shi Huangdi
1. Founded Qin dynasty
2. United China & was first emperor
3. founded capital city of Xianyang
Qin Capital
1. At Xianyang
Accomplishments of the Qin
1. United China
2. Standardized taxes
3. Standardized cart width
4. Standardized money
5. Standardized weights & measures
6. Standardized writing
7. Standardized roads
8. Built trenches
9. Built irrigation systems
10. Built highways
11. Built bridges
12. Built emperor's tomb
13. Connected Great Wall of China
14. Ended Warring States Period
15. Extended borders of China
16. Code of Qin which unified laws
Government System
1. Autocratic government
2. Divided empire into 36 districts
3. 3 government officials per district, military governor, civil governor, & imperial inspectors
4. Local officials reported to civil governor & military governor who then reported to imperial inspector
5. emperor had 3 advisers who had their own staff & reported to emperor with info from inspectors
Fall of Qin
1. People disgruntled over high taxes, labor, and autocracy
2. discontent led to a rebellion
- rebellion led by peasant, Liu Bang, who founded the Han dynasty
Liu Bang
1. Led peasant revolt against the Qin
Han Capital
1. At Xianyang
Accomplishments of the Han
1. Established civil service system
2. Wu Di Accomplishments
Civil Service System under the Han
1. To join civil service (government) & become government official candidates must pass a test based on Confucian Classics
2. A type of aristocracy because wealthy people could afford a tutor
Wu Di
1. Built Imperial Academy
- was a place where scholars could study The Analects
2. Expanded territory
- into Indochina
- part of Manchuria
- part of Korea
- part of Asia
3. Leveling
4. Defeated Huns
- led to peace
- led to trade along Silk Road
1. Government bought surplus of grains in good harvests & sold it in bad harvests
"Pax Sinica" (and importance)
1. Means peace
2. Led to trade along the Silk Road
Silk Route (AKA Silk Road)
1. Caravan trade route from eastern China to the west
2. Carried silk, jade, paper, & porcelain from China to Greek & Roman traders (middlemen)
3. Traders brought glass, amber, wool, & linen back to China from the west
Han Inventions
1. Silk
2. Jade
3. Paper
4. Porcelain
Fall of Han
1. Revolt overthrew Han
2. Period of warring states: 202-589 (CE)
3. China was reunified in 589 by the Sui dynasty
Emperor Wendi
1. Founded Sui dynasty
Sui Capital
1. At Chang'An
Accomplishments of the Sui
1. Reunited China
2. Reinforced the Great Wall
3. Built palaces
4. Improved civil service exam system
5. Built highways
6. Strengthened government
7. New code of laws
8. Built Grand Canal
Grand Canal
1. Linked Huang He River & Chang Jiang River
2. Which connected north & south
3. Led to trade & transportation
Fall of the Sui
1. Heavily taxed citizens
2. Failed when trying to take over Manchuria & Korea
3. People were overworked
4. Government was weak
5. People revolted
Li Yuan
1. Founded the Tang dynasty
Tang Capital
1. At Chang'An
Li Bai
1. Daoist poet
2. Wrote about happiness
3. Died reaching for his reflection in the water... A wee bit "tipsy"
Du Fu
1. Confucian poet
2. Wrote about human suffering
The Buddhist Problem
1. Reached peak during Tang (and fell in it too)
2. Liked idea of better afterlife
3. Wealthy people gave land & money for Buddhist monasteries
4. Government started worrying about Buddhist movement
- heavily taxed monasteries
- tried to destroy idols
- burned 40,000 shrines
- 4,600 monasteries burned
- forced 260,000 monks & nuns to give up Buddhism
Revival of Confucianism
1. Government built Confucian temples
2. Became religion manufactured by Government
3. Brought back civil service examination
4. So people would study Confucian Classics
5. So people would be brainwashed with ruler-to-ruled relationship
Secretariat and Chancellery
1. On first of the three branches of Tang government
Department of State Affairs
1. Broken up into 6 smaller branches:
- civil office: employed officials
- rites: religious observations & rituals for foreign dignitaries
- revenue: taxes
- justice: laws
- war: defense
- public works: infrastructure
1. Oversaw government as a whole
2. Was the "watchdog" of the government
Tang Agriculture
1. Quick-ripening rice
- 2 harvests per year
- comes from Southeast Asia
= combined with new irrigation system techniques
2. Tea
- had surplus of tea & quick-ripening rice
Tang Tax System
1. In 700's land was taxed & there were no longer tax-free estates
2. The amount of taxes depended on how much land the people owned
- the government benefited, not peasants
3. If peasants couldn't afford the taxes on land, they were forced to sell the land & become tenant farmers with high rent
Tenant Farmer
A person who farms land of another & pays rent with cash or with a portion of the produce
- vicious circle because tenant farmers could never get out of debt
Fall of Tang
1. Gradually declined due to:
- weak emperors
- eunuchs gained too much power
- high taxes then falling taxes
- natural calamities: floods, droughts, diseases
- governors in provinces stopped trusting the emperor & questioned his power
- nomads attacked
Zhao Kuangyin
1. Founded the Song dynasty
The First Song Capital
1. At Kaifeng
1. Threatened the Song (Mongols)
- Song kept peace by paying them silver
- by 1042 Song had to pay 200,000 ounces of silver per year
Jurchen/Jin Dynasty
1. From Manchuria
2. Established Jin dynasty
3. Capital was where Beijing is
The Second Song Capital
1. At Hangzhou
Civil Service System Under the Song
1. Exams at 3 levels
- less than 10% passed the local exam
= if a person passed the 1st exam, he could go take the 2nd exam held at the capital in Kaifeng
less than 10% passed the 2nd exam
= if a person passed the 2nd exam, he gets the title of "Juren
- 3rd exam was the most difficult
= if a person passed the 3rd exam, he was called "Jinshi"
2. Precautions were taken to prevent people from cheating on exams
- searched before the exams
- given a number to prevent favoritism or bribes
- carefully watched to make sure they won't cheat
- had a scribe copy their test
- test judged by two minor judges who then sent it to the chief judge
- you'd be humiliated or killed if caught cheating
1. Means "Elevated Man"
- not guaranteed a government position but could stay at capital and take the 3rd exam
1. Means "Advanced Scholar"
- if a person passed 3rd exam, you were guaranteed a government position
1. Made up of Jinshi who passed highest exam
2. Were in high government positions
Song Inventions
1. Gunpowder was made by the Tang but used for warfare by Song
2. Movable type from Korea
- made in stone pieces
- not great
City Life of the Wealthy
1. Markets had fruits, vegetables, fish, or jewelry
2. Might watch acrobats or an opera at theater
3. Go back to 2 or 3 story home
4. Feed fish in artificial ponds
5. Roam in garden
City Life of the Poor
1. Overcrowded, yet clinics, shelters, & hospitals were built for the poor
2. If there was a natural disaster, food & money was provided
Fall of the Song
1. Fell to the Mongols
2. Genghis Khan took over northern China circa 1220
3. His grandson Kublai Khan took over the rest of China
Battle Advantages and Battle Tactics
1. Surrounded enemy
2. Had cavalry with special saddles & stirrups
3. Gift exchanges to form alliances (tributes)
4. Cavalry had bows & arrows
1. Genghis Khan's birth name
2. Went to live with future wife Borta at age 9
3. On his father's way back home he was poisoned
4. Temujin was summoned home to become chieftain
- his uncles ruled for him
- then Temujin was kicked out
5. Temujin joined a new clan & emerged as a leader at age 30
6. Around 1205 he became Genghis Khan "Universal Ruler" when he united all clans
Genghis Khan
1. Divided his army into 95 units of 1,000 which was called a quran
2. Genghis had his own body guards known as the "Imperial Guard"
3. Had a messenger system
4. Took control of Mongolia & then Manchuria, Korea, northern China, central Asia, & part of Russia
5. Died in 1227
6. Genghis's empire was divided after his death
Messenger System
1. Riders carried messages from one location to the next, obtaining a rested horse at each stop
2. Rode about 200 miles a day
1. Was "Great Khan" ruled Mongolia, northern China, & later, southern China
2. Genghis's son & also helped take over rest of central Asia
1. Grandson of Genghis
2. Led campaign to take control of Russia, part of Europe (Poland, Hungary, & part of Vienna in Austria)
3. Warriors named Golden Horde in Europe
"Golden Horde"
1. "Golden" was for all the riches they stole
2. "Horde" meant elite cavalry force
Kublai Khan
1. Born in China
- raised in China
- educated in China
2. Was the third Great Khan
- ruled Mongolia
3. Liked Chinese Culture
- had Chinese Confucian scholars advise him
4. In 1271, gave "Emperor of China" title to himself
5. Founded the Yuan dynasty in the same year
- Yuan means "Great Origin"
6. Moved Mongol capital (see Yuan Capital)
7. Wanted to take over the Song in southern China
- however, obstacles were in the way
= irrigation systems
= rice paddies
= forts guarded the Song
= somewhat powerful army with superior weapons
< cannons
= fought for 18 years
- Mongols eventually won
8. Embraced Chinese culture
- wore Chinese robes
- listened to Chinese music
- watched Chinese dancers
9. Was open to different religions
- Confucianism (liked the literati)
- Confucian rituals
- built Confucian temples
- mom had converted to Christianity
- wife converted to Buddhism
- allowed Dali Lama (Buddhist leader) to rule Tibet
- let Buddhists build temples
- Muslims practiced Islam freely
- accepted Daoism
10. Liked the idea of keeping Mongols & Chinese apart while still liking China
11. Had a social scale (just an idea)(based on hierarchy)
- Mongols: because they were the army
- foreigners: 3rd tier of government officials (high ranking)
- Muslims: highly skilled people like doctors, architects, & engineers
- northern Chinese
- Song Chinese
12. Extended the Grand Canal from the Huang He River to Khanbalik
13. Built stone roads around canal
14. Extended Genghis Khan's network of roads throughout the Mongol Empire
15. Died of obesity & depression in 1294
Yuan Capital
1. At Khanbalik
Government System Under the Mongols
1. Local government officials reported to the central government
2. Started by the Qin & used by later dynasties
Fall of Yuan
1. Literati resented how foreigners were high government officials
2. Chinese traders resented how Kublai liked foreign traders more
3. Series of weak rulers after Kublai's death
4. Military leaders started fighting for power
5. Huang He flooded
- destroyed crops
- led to famine
- 3,000,000 workers sent to fix the Grand Canal which was in disrepair
- workers hated treatment on Grand Canal
- Southern Chinese didn't like high taxes for repairs on the Grand Canal
6. Small bits of rebellions began in China
- 2 revolutionary groups rose to rid the Mongols
= "Red Turbans" & "White Lotus"
7. Merged into 1 revolutionary group chased the Mongols out of China
8. Zhu Yuanzhang took over (was the leader of Red Turbans)
Zhu Yuanzhang
1. Leader of the Red Turbans
2. Founded the Ming dynasty
3. Was an ugly, pig-faced Buddhist monk
Means brilliant or bright
Ming Capital
1. At Nanjing but moved to Beijing in 1421
1. Ming built them (they were boats)
2. Had important sailing inventions on them
- sails
- rudders
1. Supported overseas trade/travel/exploration
2. Ruled from 1402-1424
Zheng He
1. Admiral of Chinese fleet & oversaw them as they went overseas
2. Went from China, through Indonesia, up to India, through Persian Gulf, then to east Africa, to the Red Sea
3. Brought things back from overseas expeditions
- gold
- silver
- incense
- spices
- ivory
- rhino horn
- herbs
- pearls
- a giraffe
4. Purpose of voyages was for diplomacy
5. Yongle's death led to the ruling of Xuande
1. Ruled after Yongle's death
2. Stopped overseas exploration
Ming Social Classes
1. Society divided on a new hierarchy
- Emperor
- Literati
- peasants
= made food
= paid taxes
- artisans
= made goods as skilled laborers
- traders
= seen as parasites/bloodsuckers
= made a profit off of other peoples' work
= made profits from the west (all countries in European area)
Ming Tribute Systems
1. With Japan & Korea to the east
2. Tibet to the west
3. Different tribute system with Mongols to the north
- Mongols separate again
- paid Mongol tribes to fight other tribes trying to invade in exchange for gifts (if necessary)
Ming Tombs
1. Started by Yongle
2. Total of 13 Ming tombs containing Ming emperors
Imperial Palace
1. Constructed in 1406 under Yongle
2. Completed around 1420
3. Was home for the emperor and his family
4. Government officials were there too
5. Eunuchs also
6. Kong qui bons
7. Imperial tailor, imperial blacksmith, etc.
8. Known as Forbidden City because commoners were forbidden
Temple of Heaven
1. Constructed in 1406 under Yongle
2. Completed around 1420 like the Imperial Palace
3. Was where emperor prayed for good harvest
4. Also for monks
Fall of Ming
1. Eunuchs got too much power
2. Government officials divided (literati can't decide)
3. Government spent more money then they could afford
4. Soldiers weren't paid so they left
5. Local government officials weren't paid so they quit
6. Emperor Tianqi raised taxes
7. Manchus invaded (led by Nurachi)
(68.5) Diplomacy
1. The conduct by government officials of negotiations & other relations between nations
2. Establishing friendly ties & forming alliances
1. Led invasion of China from Manchuria (northern area)
2. He and his son Abahai took over part of Ming territory & founded "The Later Jin Dynasty"
3. After Nurachi died, Abahai took over & ruled almost all of Manchuria
1. By 1636, Abahai started to creep into Ming territory
2. In 1636 Abahai renamed Jin to Qing dynasty or "Pure" dynasty
3. Abahai died in 1643 passing the throne to Shunzi who was 6 years old
(77.5) "Later Jin Dynasty"
1. Founded in 1616
2. Founded by Nurachi and his son Abahai after taking over part of Ming territory
3. Was later changed to the Qing dynasty
(77.6) Dorgon
1. Ruled for 6 year old Shunzi over China after taking over the Ming
(77.7) Li Zicheng
1. Was a Chinese rebel that invaded the Imperial Palace
(77.8) Chongzen
1. Last Ming emperor
2. When Li Zicheng begins invading he realizes his fate
- helps his 2 sons escape in disguise
- empress & empress dowager commit suicide
- killed his daughters & kong qui bons
- hanged himself
(77.9) Shunzi
1. Was 6 years old when he became leader of Manchus
2. Was then emperor of China but Dorgon ruled for him
Manchu Rule
1. Chinese had to learn Manchurian (language)
2. Manchus couldn't marry Chinese
3. Manchus attempted to stop foot binding but couldn't
4. Forced Chinese men to wear their hair in a queue
- so Manchus could tell the Chinese & Manchu apart
- Chinese submission to Manchus
Qing Agriculture
1. New crop: sweet potatoes (poor man's food because it grew easily)
2. Peanuts
3. Tobacco
1. Ruled from 1661-1722 following emperor Shunzi
2. Followed Confucian thought
3. Supported reading & specifically Confucian Classics
- novels & encyclopedias came into the city
4. Supported civil service exams where people were appointed government positions based on how well you did on those tests
5. Supported irrigation
6. Supported flood control
7. Supported leveling
1. Ruled from 1735-1796
2. Ordered the construction of the Summer Palace around 1750
Hsien Feng (Xianfeng)
1. Ruled from 1851-1861
2. Married Xiao Cian
2. Had "relations" with Cixi & had a son, Tongzhi
4. Ruled during the 2nd Opium Wars
5. Cixi got the empress dowager title
6. Died in 1861
1. "Ruled" from 1861-1901
2. Ruled for her son Tongzhi until he was of age
3. Comes back in power when Tongzhi dies
4. Puts her nephew, Guangxu as emperor when he is 4 years old
5. Rules for him
6. Makes 3 things during this time:
- Summer Palace (rebuilt)
- Imperial Palace (improved)
- Marble Boat
1. Gets married when he is of age to rule China
2. His wife becomes pregnant
3. Gets smallpox
4. Dies in 1875
5. Cixi tells his wife to commit suicide
1. Cixi's nephew
2. 4 years old when he is put in power
3. Cixi rules for him
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