HR Management Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
states that it is illegal for an employer to fail or refuse to hire or to discharge any individual or to in any other way discriminate against any individual with respect to any aspect of the employment relationship on the basis of that individual’s race, color, religious beliefs, sex, or national origin
Disparate treatment
discrimination exists when individuals in similar situations are treated differently and when the differential treatment is based on the individual’s race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, or disability status.
Bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ)
states that a condition, like race, sex, or other personal                                          characteristic legitimately affects a person’s ability to perform the                                     job, and therefore can be sued as a legal requirement for selection.
Disparate Impact
discrimination occurs when an apparently neutral employment practice disproportionately excludes a protected group from employment opportunities.
Four-Fifths rule
suggests that disparate impact exists if a selection criteria (such as a test score) results in a selection rate for a protected class that is less than 4/5 (80%) of that for the majority group.
McDonnell-Douglas Test
a test that is the basis for establishing a prima facie case of disparate impact                   discrimination (applicant is member of protected class, applicant was                                   qualified for the job which he or she applied, were turned down for the job,                         company continued to seek other applicants with the same qualifications)
Pattern or practice Discrimination
similar to disparate treatment but occurs on a classwide basis
Protected Class
consists of all individuals who share one or more common characteristics as indicated by law.
Utilization Analysis
a comparison of the racial, sex, and ethnic composition of the employer’s workforce compared to that of the available labor supply
Quid Pro Quo Harassment
sexual harassment in which the harasser offers to exchange something of value for sexual favors.
Hostile Work Environment
Sexual harassment resulting from a climate or culture that is punitive toward people of a different gender
Equal Pay Act of 1963
requires that organizations provide men and women who are doing equal                                   work the same pay
Age Discrimination and Employment Act (ADEA)
prohibits discrimination against employers 40+
Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1979
protects pregnant women from discrimination in the workplace
Civil Rights Act of 1991
makes it easier for individuals who feel they have been discriminated against to take legal action against organizations and provides for the payment of compensatory and punitive damages in cases of discrimination under Title VII
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA)
prohibits discrimination based on disability and all aspects of the employment relationship such as job application procedures, hiring, firing, promotion, compensation, and training, as well as other employment activities such as advertising, recruiting, tenure, layoffs, and leave and fringe benefits.
Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993
requires that employers having more than 50 employees provide up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave for employees after the birth or adoption of a child, to care for a seriously ill child, spouse, or parent, or in the case of an employee’s own serious illness.
Executive Order 11246
prohibits discrimination based upon race, color, etc, for organizations that are federal contractors and subcontractors.
Executive Order 11478
requires the federal government to base all of its own employment policies on merit and fitness and specifies that race, color, sex, religion, and national origin should not be considered.
Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973
requires that executive agencies and subcontractors of the federal government receiving more than $2,500 a year from the government engage in affirmative action for disabled individuals.
Vietnam Era Veterans’ Readjustment Act of 1974
requires that federal contractors and subcontractors take affirmative action toward employing Vietnam era veterans.
Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)
passed in 1938, established a minimum hourly wage for jobs
Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974
was passed to guarantee a basic minimum benefit                                                      that employees could expect to be paid upon retirement
National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act)
was passed in 1935 in an effort to control and legislate collective bargaining between organizations and labor unions, to grant power to labor unions, and to put unions on a more equal footing with managers in terms of the rights of employees.
Labor Management Relations Act (Taft-Hartley Act)
was passed in 1947 in response to public outcries against a wide variety of strikes in the years following WW II; it curtailed and limited union powers and regulates union actions and their internal affairs.
Landrum-Griffin Act
was passed in 1959, and was focused on the elimination of various unethical, illegal, and/or undemocratic practices within unions themselves.
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHA)
grants the federal government the power to establish and enforce occupational safety and health standards for all places of employment directly affecting interstate commerce.
Drug Free Workplace Act of 1988
passed to reduce the use of illegal drugs in the workplace. It applies primarily to government employees and federal contractors, but it also extends to organizations regulated by the Department of Transportation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The actual regulations themselves are aimed at establishing a drug-free workplace and include the requirements, in some cases, for regular drug testing.
Labor Relations
the process of dealing with employees who are represented by unions
Collective Bargaining
is the process by which managers and union leaders negotiate acceptable terms and conditions of employment for those workers represented by the unions
Knights of Labor
an important early union that expanded its goals and its membership to include workers in numerous fields rather than a single industry
American Federation of Labor (AF of L)
another early union; it focused its efforts on improved                                                    working conditions and better employment contracts rather                                                     than getting involved in legislative and political activities
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
another important early union that focused on organizing                                                     employees by industry, regardless of their craft,       skills, or                                                     occupations.
National Labor Relations Act
passed in 1935 and more commonly known as the Wagner Act, granted                           power to labor unions and put inions on a more equal footing with                                     managers in terms of the rights of the employees.
National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)
administers most labor law in the United States
Labor Management Relations Act (Taft-Hartley Act)
passed in 1947 in response to public outcries against a wide variety of strikes in the years following WWII. It curtailed and limited Union powers
Closed Shop
refers to a workplace in which only workers who are already union members may be hired by the employer
Union Shop Agreement
includes various types of union security agreements in addition to a requirement that a nonunion member can be hired, but he or she must join the union within a specified time to keep his or her job
Landrum-Griffin Act (Labor Management Reporting and Disclosure Act)
passed in 1959 and focused on eliminating various unethical, illegal, and undemocratic union practices
Locals
unions organized at the level of a single company, plant, or small geographic region
Shop Steward
an elected position in a local union, is a regular employee who functions as a liaison between union members and supervisors.
Trends in Unionization
membership on the decrease/ Union-management relations – union powers are weakened in most industries (besides automobile and steel industry)/trends in bargaining procedures
Bargaining Unit
refers to the specifically defined group of employees who are eligible for representation by the union
Mandatory Items
including wages, working hours, and benefits, must be included as part of collective bargaining if either party expresses a desire to negotiate one or more of them
Permissive Items
may be included in the collective bargaining if both parties agree
The Negotiation Process
Employers maximum limit, expectation, desired result = bargaining zone = unions demand, expectation unions minimum limit
Impasse
a situation in which one or both parties believe that reaching an agreement in not imminent
Slowdown
occurs when workers perform their jobs at a much slower pace than normal
Wildcat Strike
occurs during the course of a labor contract and is usually undertaken in response to a perceived injustice on the part of management
Arbitration
both sides agree in advance that they will accept the recommendations made by an independent third-party arbitrator
Final-Offer Arbitration
the parties bargain until impasse and then the two parties’ final offers are                                submitted to the arbitrator.
Maturity Curve
a schedule specifying the amount of annual increase a person will receive
Classification System
for job evaluation attempts to group sets of jobs together into clusters, often                   called grades (federal government  GS scale example).
Point System
for job evaluation requires managers to quantify, in objective terms, the value of the various job elements of specific jobs.
Point Manual
used to implement the point system of job evaluation, carefully and specifically defines the degrees of points from first to fifth.
Factor Comparison Method
for job evaluation assess jobs, one a factor-by-factor basis, using a                                                             factor comparison scale as a benchmark.
Pay Compression
occurs when individuals with substantially different levels of experience and/or performance abilities are being paid wages or salaries that are relatively equal.
Social Security
mandated program, originally designed to provide limited income to retired individuals to supplement their personal savings, private pensions, part-time work, and so forth – officially the Old Age Survivors and Disability Insurance Program
Health Maintenance Organizations
medical organizations that provide medical and health                                                    services to employees on a prepaid basis
Private Pension Plans
prearranged plans administered by the organization that provide income to                     the employee at her or his retirement
Defined Benefits Plans
private pension plans in which the size of the benefit is precisely known is                                   usually based on a simple formula using input such as years of service
Defined Contribution Plans
private pension plans in which the size of the benefit depends on                                                how much money is contributed to the plan
Cafeteria-Style Benefits Plans
allow the employee to choose the benefits he or she really wants
Vesting Rights
guaranteed rights to receive pension benefits (under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) of 1974.
Need-based Theories
theories of motivation that focus on what motivates a person, rather than on how               that motivation occurs.
Hierarchy of Needs
probably the best know of the need-based theories; this model specifies five levels of needs that are capable of motivating behavior – physiological, security, social, esteem, and self-actualization
Prepotent
needs, according to Maslow’s theory, are those specific needs (of those five levels in the model) that are capable of motivating behavior at any given point in time.
ERG Theory
a need based theory of motivation proposed by Alderfer that involves three, rather than five, levels of needs, and also allows for someone to regress from a higher-level need to a lower-level need (Existence needs, relatedness needs, and Growth Needs.)
Dual Factor Theory
a need based theory proposed by Herzberg, which identifies motivators and      hygiene factors as two sets of conditions at work that can satisfy needs. The      research on this theory provides little empirical support for the model however.
Process Theories:
motivation theories that focus on how a person becomes motivated and what they          are motivated to do, rather than on what motivates them
Reinforcement Theory
a process theory, usually associated with B.F. Skinner, proposing that all                             behavior is a function of its consequences
Extinction
term that refers to a situation where a behavior is followed by no consequences and eventually disappears.
Behavior Modification
the combination of positive reinforcement with either punishment or extinction            so that an undesired behavior disappears and is replaced with desired behavior.
Partial Reinforcement
means rewarding a behavior only sometimes, but not others (it can be applied                       to punishment as well, but the reward case is simpler)
Interval Schedules
partial reinforcement schedules where behavior is reinforced as a function of the             passage of time. A schedule where someone was rewarded every ten minutes as           long as they were exhibiting desired behavior would be an example.
Ratio Schedule
partial reinforcement schedules where behavior is reinforced as a function of how many times the behavior occurs. Example – rewarding someone every fifth time a desired behavior occurs
Fixed Interval Schedule
interval schedules where the amount of time that must pass before a reward is                                     given is constant over time
Variable Interval Schedule
interval schedules where the amount of time that must pass before a reward                     is given can change from one reward period to another
Fixed Ratio Schedule
ratio schedules where the number of times a behavior must occur before it is                  rewarded remains constant over time.
Variable Ratio Schedule
ratio schedule where the number of times a behavior must occur before it is                    rewarded changes over time.
Expectancy Theory
            fairly complex process theory of motivation that casts the employee in the role of decision maker. Basically, an employee decides to whether or not to exert effort depending on the outcomes he or she anticipates receiving for those efforts, based on calculations made concerning expectancies, instrumentalities, valences, and the links between these three components
Effort-to-Performance Expectancy
the person’s perception of the probability that an increase in effort                                    will result in an increase in performance – ranges from 0 to 1.0.
Performance-to-Outcome Expectancy (instrumentality)
the person’s perception of the probability that improved performance will lead to certain outcomes. Operationally, this is the viewed as the correlation coefficient indicating that as performance improves, the chances of gaining outcomes can either go up (positive correlation), remain unchanged (zero correlation), or go down (a negative correlation).
Valence
refers to the attractiveness or unattractiveness an outcome has for a person
Equity Theory
concerned with a person’s perceived inputs to a (work) setting and the outcomes they receive from that setting. The theory suggests that everyone calculates the ratio of inputs to outcomes, almost the way one would consider a return on any investment.
Agency Theory
addressed potential conflicts of interest among different groups of stakeholders in an organization. The name of theory, and some of its basic principles, is derived from the fact that in most modern organizations, the individuals who own a firm do not actually run it on a day-to-day basis. Problems arise when the interests of the owners (principles) conflict with the interests of the managers (agents).
Intrinsic Motivation
the motivation to do work because it is interesting, engaging, or possibly            challenging, rather than because someone is rewarded us to do the work
Firm-Level Performance
an indication of the likelihood of long-term survival of the firm.                                       Performance at this level generates profits for potential profits sharing, and                    determines the company’s stock price.
Vestibule Training
involves a work-simulation situation in which the job is performed under conditions that closely simulate the real work environment.
Job Rotation
involves systematically moving employees from one job to another
Job Enlargement
was developed to increase the total number of tasks workers perform based on the assumption that doing the same basic task over and over is the primary cause of worker dissatisfaction.
Job Enrichment
attempts to increase both the number of tasks a worker does and the control the worker has over the job
Job Characteristics Approach
an alternative to job specialization that takes into account the work                                       system and employee preferences; it suggests that jobs should be                                 diagnosed and improved along five core dimensions (skill variety, task                              identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback).
Growth-need Strength
presumed to affect how the model works for different people (people with strong desire to grow, develop, and expand their capabilities expected to respond strongly).
Compressed Workweeks
arrangement in which the employee works the required number of hours                                    (typically 40) but does so in less than five days. For example – 4 ten hour                                   days work schedule is fairly common.
Individual Incentive Pay Plans
reward individual performance on a real-time basis (instead of increasing a person’s base salary every year, this method gives an individual some level of salary increase or financial reward in conjunction with outstanding performance in close proximity to when that performance occurred.
Gainsharing
a team- and group-based incentive system designed to share the cost savings from productivity improvements with employees.
Scanlon Plans
gainsharing plans where teams or groups of employees are encouraged to suggest strategies for reducing costs in which the distribution of gain is tilted much more heavily toward employees and across the entire organization (Joseph Scanlon 1927)
Profit Sharing
an incentive system in which, at the end of the year, some portions of the company’s profits is paid into a profit-sharing pool, which is then distributed to all employees
Stock-Option Plan
an incentive plan established to give senior managers the option to buy the          company’s stock in the future at a predetermined fixed price.
Stock Purchase Plans
are typically offered to all the employees of a firm rather than just executives, and serve more as a retention tool. Under these plans, employees are entitled to stock only if they remain with the company for a specified amount of time. If they leave before that time, they have no rights to the shares of stock.
Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs)
group level reward systems in which employees are                                                  gradually given a major stake in the ownership of a corporation
Performance Management Techniques
reinforcement theory and behavior modification, link behavior to consequences, goal theory, performance feedback,
Productivity Measurement and Evaluation System (ProMES)
program developed to improve group or firm level productivity. This approach incorporates ideas from goal setting, with incentives for improvement, and is based on a model of motivation similar to expectancy theory.
Major Categories of Occupational diseases
occupational skin diseases or disorders, dust diseases of the lungs, respiratory conditions due to toxic agents, poisoning, disorders due to physical agents, disorders associated with repeated trauma, and other categories of occupational illnesses
Safety Engineers
experts who carefully study the workplace, try to identify and isolate particularly            dangerous situations, and recommend solutions for dealing with those situations.
OSHA
authorized the U.S. government to create and enforce various standards regarding occupational safety and health.
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