Fungi 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Haustoria
..
septate
having hypha
Epidermophyton
club-shaped, thick-walled, macroconidia
mycology
study of fungi
N-Acetylcystein
Group II mushrooms
Cell Walls
made of chitin
Blastomyces unique features
Broad-based buds
dermatophyte
fungal skin infection
Tinea Corporis-body
Tinea Capitis-scalp
Tinea cruris-jock itch
Tinea Pedis-athletes foot
Days-weeks: nephrotoxicity- interstitial nephritisFocal tubular damage
Supportive Care
mycelium
network of filaments called hyphae
Fungi
essential for terrestrial ecosystems because they break down organic material and recycle vital nutrients;
Mycetomas
lesions involve skin, subcutaneous tissue, fascia, and bone.
Histoplasma presentation
Respiratory infection: generally asymptomatic (95%), sometimes dry cough with blood-tinged sputum and skin lesions (5%)
Bread, bear and wine
Saccharoyces Cerevisiae
Hyphae
Filamentous, branching thred-like form of mold
zygomycete
Member of the fungal phylum Zygomycota, characterized by the formation of a sturdy structure called a zygosporangium during sexual reproduction.
yeast
-reproduce asexually by cell division or budding
Coccidioides
allergic manifestations are often the first presenting symptoms of infection (erythema nodosum, erythema multiforme
pneumocystis
Hallmark of infection is interstitial pneumonitis and plasma cell infiltration.
Aspergillus portal of entry
Inhalation of microconidia
Agonomycetes
Mitosporic fungi; mycelial forms that are sterile but produce differentiated vegetative structures; cannot germinate or produce spores so unidentified; not morphologically distinct; 2 types: chlamydospores, sclerotia
Patient with no known allergies presents with asthma-type symptoms after eating peanuts, SOB, & fever. Labs reveal high levels of IgE & IgG. CXR = fleeting infiltrates, immediate hypersensitivity reaction. Suspect?
Aspergillus
A mushroom consists of
stalk and cap
Soredia
Small clusters of lichen hyphae with embedded algae
septa
cross walls that divide hyphae into cells
karyogramy
the nuclei (of different mating types during sexual reproduction) fuse, forming the ony diploid stage in the fungi.
sporothrix, tissue phase
elongated, cigar-shaped yeasts; these forms are rarely seen in histological sections of tissue.
candida tests
CHROMagar candida, germ tube test, chylamydoconidia, carbo assymilation
Thallophytes
plants w/o stems, roots or leaves; very filamentous and simple (like algae)
No CNS or nicotinic effects
Group IV mushrooms
Coccidioides immitis
In soil, acquired by inhalation, presents w/ pulmonary infection w/ dissemination by hematogenous spread; microscopically fuzzy.
Zygomycota
A phyla of fungi that is terrestrial, and includes fast-growing molds, parasites, and commensal symbionts
ascocarp
The fruiting body of a sac fungus (ascomycete).
dikaryotic
is what the mycelium is called when the haploid nuclei pair off two to a cell
agar identification of dermatophytes
Sabouraud dextrose agar incubate 25-30oC for up to 4 weeks
What are spores?
Reporducing bodies of molds. Rarely seen in skin scrapings
Eukaryote Phylogeny
Fungi still eukaryote but because they live w/i host & absorb nutrients, they are Fungi Kingdom.
what forms inside the special fruting bodies that form during the 3rd part of sexual reproduciton
diploid zygotes
Heterokaryote
A mycelium formed by the fusion of two hyphae that have genetically different nuclei
Lymphocutaneous disease (most common form): - Sporotrichosis
acquisition of infection through traumatic implantation of soil fungus, often due to rose thorn, splinter, or similar types of puncture wounds.lesions begin as painless papules, usually 1-3 weeks after inoculation, and spread distally along lymphatic channels.
What Fungi cause systemic Fungal infections?
1) Histoplasma
2) Blastomces
3) Coccidioides immitis
4) Paracoccidioides Brasilens 
Over 3 dozen chemicals containing tricho nucleus, produced by molds
Inhibit protein synthessiClinically: dermal/mm/ necrosis inflammation
How does flucytosine treat fungal infections?
Inhibits nucleic acid synthesis.
dimorphic fungi
Can grow as a mold or yeast. 37 degrees = yeast like.
25 degrees C= mold like
most pathenogenic fungi is dimorphic
Aspergillus (septated hyphae) and Zygomycetes (non-septa) are both moulds. How do you treat them?
Aspergillus is susceptible to Azoles and Amphotericin B. Zygomycetes is susceptible to only Ampho B. (a very, very toxic drug)
Amanita phalloides, A. verna, A. virosa
Galerina Sp. G. autumnalis, G. Marginata, G. venenata
Whar are Dimorphic fungi?
Fungi that can grow as either a yeast or mold, depending on environmental conditions and temperature. Usually growing as yeast at body temperatures.
Cutaneous bumps caused by Cryptococcus is an indication of what?
That the fungus (yeast) is in your system. Bumps are a manifestation of systemic infection?
lion
pansy animal
Mycosis
Fungal infection
Aspergillus morphology
Hyphae, microconidia
Group IX
Allenic norleucine
deuteromycetes
no known sexual stage
vegetative state of fungi
thallus
Basiodiomycetes
mushroomsmultiple gill structure, umbrella-shaped reproductive bodies-basiocarpshaploid hyphae meet after spores released from mushrooms settle into the ground- form dikaryotic hyphae
Lycoperdonosis
From inhaling puffball spores
deuteromycete
Traditional classification for a fungus with no known sexual stage. When a sexual stage for a so-called deuteromycete is discovered, the species is assigned to a phylum.
Mycorrhizae
Mycorrhizae are enormously important in natural ecosystems and agriculture; they increase plant productivity- Gibrillic Acid
blastomyc
lesions characterized by microabscess formation, papulopustular nodules, and crusty verrucous granulomas of the hands, face and mucocutaneous areas.
Fungal Physiology Characteristics
Chemoorganotrophs; osmotrophic; parasites use exoenzymes to attack & break down substrates & also help metabolize
lichens
~has mutalism ~fungus provides protection and minerals while lichen supplies energy ~first colonizers of rock maybe of land ~resist harsh exposed conditions
Endophytes
photosynthetic organisms that live in organisms or plants
Apothecium(a)
Open, cup-shaped ascocarp produced by some species belonging to the Ascomycota
basidiocarp
Elaborate fruiting body of a dikaryotic mycelium of a club fungus.
Mycelia
networks of branched hyphae adapted for absorption
pheromones
signaling molecules that assist in sexual reproduction of fungi
Penicillium marneffei
may mimic tuberculosis, leishmaniasis or histoplasmosise) skin lesions reflect dissemination…may mimic molluscum contagiosum-like lesions of the face and trunk.
Pneumocystis jiroveci symtpoms
Pulmonary infection, AIDS.
Cryptococus virulence factors
Adherence, phospholipases (degrade cell membranes), capsule (antiphagocytic)
Septic Hyphae
Basidiomycetes & Ascomycetes; have crosswalls; control of water balance so live in dry conditions. 2-4 microns
sexual reproduction
~hyphae release pheromones that attract the hyphae of compatiable fungi ~hyphae fuse which leads the haploid nucleus to fuse ~end up w/ diploid
when the zygomycota produce asexually and hyphae fuse these are called
gametangia:
Lichen
The symbiotic collective formed by the mutualistic association between a fungus and a photosynthetic alga or cyanobacterium
Karyogamy
The fusion of nuclei of two cells
Chytrids
Earliest fungi to diverse;
They can be saprobic or parasitic;
Flagellated spores, called zoospores (classification feature)
Coccidioides - tissue phase
formation of multinucleated spherulesii repeated internal cleavage produces endosporesiii mature spherule ruptures, released endospores develop into new spherules.
Dimorphic yeast
Blastomyces and Candida albicans and Histoplasma
Man who raises carrier pigeons presents with chronic meningitis, F/N/V, & acne. CSF examination reveals polysaccharide antigens. Suspect?
Cryptococcus neoformans
Mycotoxin produced by fusariumhyperestrogenic syndrome in farm animals
Swollen edematous vulvavaginal prolapse
Histoplasma capulatum
In soil contaminated with bird droppings or bats, in Tennessee-Ohio-Mississippi river basins. Conidia by inhalation disseminates from lung to reticuloendothelial cells.
mold
Informal term for a fungus that grows as a filamentous fungus, producing haploid spores by mitosis and forming a visible mycelium.
air pollution
Lichen can colonize bare rock and soil, and can withstand desiccation and great cold, but can't tolerate what?
penicillum - mold phase
filamentous hyphae with sporulating structures typical of genus. Colonies may have diffusible red pigment.
facultative lifecycle
The fungi is directed by the environment - choose best mode for survival; bad environment would direct sexual; good environment would direct asexual. Both stages morphologically distinct.
Treatment for Malassezia furfur:
Selenium sulfide containing shampoo, imidazole
mycorrhizae is a symbiosis between
fungi and plant roots
arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus
A symbiotic fungus whose hyphae grow through the cell wall of plant roots and extend into the root cell (enclosed in tubes formed by invagination of the root cell plasma membrane).
paracoccoides - tissue
thin walled yeast with multiple buds arranged in a "ship's wheel" configuration; thin points of attachment of buds to mother cell.
Which fungi have septate branching at acute angles?
Ascomyrcetes ("sac fungi")
what happens in the basidia
nuclei fuse to form zygotes
Clinical Group I
Phase I 5-24 hrs- gastroPhase II- quiexcent liver toxPhase III hepaticdeath 2-6days after ingestion10-30% lethal
How do Azoles treat fungal infections?
Inhibit cell membrane synthesis (ergosterol); e.g. miconazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole.
what is particular about the Eascomycetes
that they are mostly plant pathogens
What are the name of the two mating types of fungi
positive and negative types
What is the purpose of the Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) test?
It actually shows structure. Tells you where and how the fungi is acting. (i.e. is it invading, etc)
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