Fungi 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
microalgae
thallophyte
mycelium
fungal mat
Coccidioides morphology
Hyphae, arthroconidia
molds
filamentous and multicellular
Gyromitrin-N-methyl-N-formyl-hydrazone
hydrolysis yields MMH
Mycosis
fungal infection in animals
Histoplasma unique features
Intracellular growth
haustoria
modified hypha in parasites
Amanita smithiana
Early gi distress
Plasomogamy
union of two parent mycelia
Subcutaneous
only itraconazole for treatment (possibly surgery), ampB for disseminated
Sporothrix schenckii presentation
Lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis (subcutaneous)
citric acid, soy sauce, vinegar
Aspergillus
Conidia
Non-motile spores of asexual fungi
zygomycota
bread mold; asexual and sexual reproduction;
basidiomycete
Member of the fungal phylum Basidiomycota, commonly called club fungus. The name comes from the club-like shape of the basidium.
basidiomycetes
-important decomposers of things like wood
-sexual reproduction involves the formation of fruiting bodies called basidiocarps
opisthokonts
fungi, animals, and their protistan relatives.
coccoides
b) dark-skinned peoples susceptible to more serious disease, probably reflects genetic predisposition.
Acremonium spp.
corneal and nail infections,with oblong conidia
Cryptococcus presentation
Respiratory infection (primary lung lesions usually asymptomatic and self-limiting), AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis
Primary Metabolite
compound with known metabolic function
Patient presents with unexplained weight loss, night sweats, uncalcified lung lesions, and skin ulcers. Sabouraud's agar (+). Suspect?
Blastomyces dermatitidis
associations with plant roots and fungi is called
Mycorrhizae
fermentation
a chemical phenomenon in which an organic molecule splits into simpler substances
Septum (septa)
Cross-walls that divide fungal hyphae into cells; have pores
arbuscular mycorrhizae
type of endomycorrhizae found in glomeromycetes
blastomycetes
endemic in Mississippi and Ohio river valleys, middle-eastern seaboard
Coccidioides presentation
Valley fever, resembles pneumonia or tuberculosis, usually self-limiting; meningitis
Chytridiomycetes
"Chytrids"; only fungi w/ flagella but no retronemes
Orelline and Orellanine containing
Cortinarius orellanus, C. speciosissimus
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
In soil, Latin America primarily, inhalation of conidia, pulmonary infection. Microscopically mariner's wheel.
Ascomycota
A phyla of fungi that produces sexual spores in sac-like structures called asci; they include yeast, Neurospora, and Sordaria
soredium
In lichens, a small cluster of fungal hyphae with embedded algae.
Heterotrophs
do not ingest their food; they secrete exoenzymes that break down complex molecules, and then they absorb the smaller compounds
Sclerotic bodies
brown segmented hyphal forms seen in infected tissue.
What are yeast?
Unicellular gorwth form of funig.. Appear spherical to ellipsoidal. Reproduce by budding.
Lichen
association of fungus and algae - two organisms intertwined to form what looks like individual organism; fungus responsible for nutrients, algae has photosynthesis and returns other nutrients to fungus
the phyla that produces spore filled sacs called asci and has two major groups is called
the Ascomycoda
Dikaryotic
A mycelium formed by the fusion of two hyphae that have genetically different nuclei
mold phase, sporothrix
septate hyphae, turning white to black with age, with delicate conidiophores bearing pyriform(pear-shaped) conidia in rosette clusters.
What is psudohypahe
When yeast buds (from reproduction) do not separate, they can form long chains of yeast cells
basidium, zygosporangium, and ascus all do what?
they are spore producing bodies
Cytoplasmic differences between fungi and bacteria?
Mitochondria & endoplasma vs. none
relation to animals vs plants
~common features shared with animals show relationship -cell walls of chitin like insects not cellulose like plants -energy stored as glycogen like animals not starch like plants
Two forms of fungal reproduction?
Asexual with haploid nucleus, conidia (ex: arthroconidia & blastoconida); Sexual with diploid nucleus, forms sexual spores after mating (ex: zygospores, ascospores, basidiospores)
Lichens is a form of symbiosis between what?
between fungi and algae
What happens in the first part of fungal mating
fungi divide into mating types
What is a clinically important mold with nonseptate hyphae?
Zygomycetes, in soil, decaying fruit & vegies, breads & animal feces.
penicillum
Southeast Asia.
opisthonks
-have posterior flagellum
Pneumocystis treatment
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (frequently given prophylactically in immunosuppressed patients)
chytrids
primarily aquatic; flagellated gametes, chitin; oldest fungi
mycorrhizae
mutually beneficial relationship between fungi & plant roots
Metabolism
primary or secondary metabolites
dikaryoid
2 haploids separately together
chitin
a tough semitransparent horny substance
zygomycetes
-black bread mold
-sexually produced zygosporangia (heterokaryotic structures capable of persisting through unfavorable conditions)
-now include microsporidia (uni-cellular)
pheromones
Sexual reproduction involves the release of sexual signaling what, which may cause a recieving hypha of a suitable mating type to grow toward and fuse with the signaling hypha?
C. albicans treatment
Amphotericin B, fluconazoles
Chytridiomycotina
Have zoospores (motile); single flagella; zygote as resting spore resembles zygomycetes; in moist environment - aquatic or terrestrial; saprotrophs or parasites; coencytic thallus
Cell Wall Termschitinseptate- divided into individual cellsaseptate/coenocytic- opposite^^^Formsmolds- long branching filaments aka hyphaeyeast- oval shaped cellsMycelium- visible mass of hyphaeHaustoria- parasite structure, penetrate tissuesReproductive Structuressporangia- asexualgametangie- sexualKingdom Fungi has divisions determined by gametangiaFungi have no motile stagesNucleushaploid dominant- 1 set of chromosomesdikaryoid- 2 haploid separately togetherdiploid- 2 sets of chromosomesFungal Nutritionchemoheterotrophsenzymes speed up processesexoenzymes for hydrolysis aka breakdown of organic materials due to reaction with water.Reproductionasexual- mitosis---> cytokinesissexual- plasmogamy->karyogamy->meiosis->dikaryotic->diploid->haploidplasmogamy- fussion of haploid cellskayogamy- fussion of dikaryotic cellsmeiosis- process from diploid to haploidDivision Zygomycotazygospores, RhizopusDivision Ascomycotayeasts, meiosis + mitosis, ascus, ascospores, PezizaDivision Basidiomycotamushrooms, CoprinusDivision Deuteromycotafungi imperfecti, no sexual reproductionImportanceMutualism
Sac fungi
Members of Ascomycota; unicellular yeasts, leafspot fungi, cup fungi, morels
basidium
A reproductive appendage that produces sexual spores on the gills of mushrooms (club fungi).
karyogamy
the haploid nuclei fuse, producing diploid cells
microsporidia
unicellular parasites that may be closely related to fungi; they have tiny organelles derived from mitochondria
opportunistic fungi
hospital common, low virulence, inhaled
Aspergillus virulence factors
Conidia adherence, elastases, touch-sensitive hyphae determine sites of weakened integrity or follow vasculature to disseminate, aflatoxin
Chemotropism
one-sided attraction to food source (no gradient like chemotaxis)
(T/F) Cryptococcus has big sugary capsule around cell wall.
true
Asexual reproduction
Instead of producing spores, yeasts reproduce asexually by budding
basidiomycota (club fungi)
elaborate fruiting body called basidiocarp
cryptococus test
pigmented colonies when grown on caffeic acid ("bird seed") agar (phenol oxidase production), latex agglutination test
What are  molds?
AKA Mycelia= Multicellular colonies composed of clumps of intertwined branching hyphae. Molds grow by longitudinal extnesion and produce spores
Pleomorphic
fungi can switch between sexual and asexual stages based on the need and environment; morphologically different and occur at different times and places (rarely at same time); one species can form several types of spores
importance of fungi
~important ecologically- break down organic materials and recycle nutrients
the Hemiascomycetes aseuxally can produce by
fission or budding
(T/F) Aspergillus never grows in the blood
true
Mycelium (mycelia)
The densly branched network of hyphae in a fungus
kayogamy
the fusing of the two haploid nuclei in a dikaryon
haploid
Nuclei of hyphae and spores of most species are what?
cryptococcus symptoms
A chronic, subacute, or (rarely) acute pulmonary, systemic or meningitic infection, AIDS,
primary metabolites
known function = biproducts that are made and can be used for later chemical functions
A fungal infection on someone raising pigeons would likely be what?
Cryptococcal neoformans
Specialized Hyphae
allow them to penetrate the tissues of their host
dimorphic fungi (systemic)
(type of fungi) inhalation via resp tract, only bad in immunosuprressed, T-cell response, endemic
Obligate anarobe
Dies in presence of oxygen. Most Fungi however are aerobic or faculative aerobes.
by undergoing meiosis what does the zygote produce
four haploid spores
dermatophytes + candida (type of fungi)
Filamentous fungi (moulds) that possess keratinolytic enzymes that allow parasitization of all fully keratinized tissues of the body (hair, skin, and nails).
The Zygomycota can produce asexually by what two methods
fragmenation, and spore producing sporangiospores
What fungi cause superficial Fungal infections?
1) Pityriasis versicolog--> hypo or hyperpigmented patches on the skin
2) Tinea Nigra--> Cause dark brown to black painless pathces on soles of hads and feet 
ascomycete; unicellular or filamentous green algae or bacteria
In a linchen, the fungus is usually what and the partner is usually what?
What is the metabolic differences between fungi and bacteria?
Fungi require organic carbon and are not anaerobic; bacteria do not always require organic carbon and many are anaerobic.
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