Terms  Definitions 

period 
Each group of three digits separated by commas in a multidigit number

expression 
A part of a number sentence that combines numbers and operation signs but does not have an equal sign

millions 
The period after thousands

variable 
A letter or symbol that stands for a number or numbers

benchmark 
A known number of things that helps you understand the size or amount of a different number of things

Commutative Property of Addition 
The property that states that when the order of two addends is changed, the sum is the same

round 
To replace a number with another number that tells about how many or how much

Associative Property of Addition 
The property that states that you can group addends in different ways and still get the same sum

Identity Property of Addition 
The property that states that when you add zero to any number, the sum is that number

century 
A measure of time equal to 100 years

equation 
A number sentence which shows that two quantities are equal

decade 
A measure of time equal to 10 years

second 
A small unit of time; 60 seconds = 1 minute

survey 
A method of gathering information to record data

elapsed time 
The time that passes from the start of an activity to the end of that activity

frequency 
The number of times an event ocurs

cumulative frequency 
A running total of items being counted

line plot 
A graph that shows the frequency of data along a number line

mean 
The number found by dividing the sum of the set of numbers by the number of addends

range 
The difference between the greatest number and the least number in a set of data

median 
The middle number in an ordered set of data

outlier 
A value separated from the rest of the data

mode 
The number (s) or item(s)that occur most often in a set of data

stem  and  leaf plot 
A data display that shows groups of data arranged by place value

stem 
A tens digit in a stemand leaf plot

doublebar graph 
A graph used to compare similar kinds of data

leaf 
A ones digit in a stemleaf plot

trends 
On a graph, areas where the data increase, decrease, or stay the same over time

scale 
The numbers placed at fixed distances on a graph to help label the graph

line graph 
A graph that uses a line to show how data change over a period of time

interval 
The difference between two numbers on the sale of a graph

circle graph 
A graph in the shape of a circle that shows data as a whole made up of different parts

inverse operations 
Opposite operations that undo each other, such as addition and subtraction or multiplication and division

Zero Property of Multiplication 
The property that states that the product of 0 and any number is 0

fact family 
A set of related multiplication and division or addition and subtaction equations

Commutative Property of Multiplication 
The property that states that when the order of two factors is changed, the product is the same

multiple 
The product of a given whole number and another whole number

Associative Property of Multiplication 
The property that states that you can group factors in different ways and still get the same product

Identity Property of Multiplication 
The property that states that the product of any number and 1 is that number

order of operations 
Rules for performing operations in expressions with more than one operation; do the operations inside parentheses, then multiply and divide from left to right, then add and subtract from left to right

compatible numbers 
Numbers that are easy to compute mentally

divisible 
Capable of being divided so that the quotient is a whole number and the remainder is zero

Distributive Property 
The property that states that multiplying a sum by a number is the same as multiplying each addend b the number and then adding the products

prime number 
A number that has only two factors: 1 and itself

multistep problem 
A problem requiring more than one step to solve

composite number 
A whole number that has more than two factors

remainder 
The amount left over when a number cannot be divided evenly

square number 
The product of a number and itself

square root 
One of two equal factors of a number

ray 
a part of a line that has one endpoint and continues without end in one direction

point 
An exact location in space

plane 
A flat surface that extends without end in all dirterctions

line 
A straight path of points in a plane that continues without end in both directions with no endpoints

angle 
A figure formed by two line segments or rays that share the same endpoint

line segment 
A part of a line that includes two points called endpoints and all the points between them

vertex 
The point at which two rays of an angle or two or more line segments meet in a plane figure or at which three or more edges meet in a solid figure

protractor 
A tool for measuring the size of an angle

obtuse angle 
An angle that has a measure greater than 90 and less than 180

degree ( ) 
A unit for measuring angles or temperatures

straight angle 
An angle that has a measure of 180

right angle 
An angle that forms a square corner and has a measure of 90

intersecting lines 
Lines that cross each other at exactly one point

acute angle 
An angle that has a measure greater than 0 and less than 90

parallel lines 
Lines in the same plane that never intersect and are always the same distance apart

perpendicular lines 
Two lines that intersect to form four right angles

quadrilateral 
A polygon with four sides

polygon 
A closed plane figure with straight sides, each of which is a line segment

pentagon 
A polygon with five sides

regular polygon 
A polygon whose sides are all the same length

hexagon 
A polygon with six sides

triangle 
A polygon with three sides

octagon 
A polygon with eight sides

triangular pyramid 
A pyramid that has a triangular base and three triangular faces

net 
A twodimensional pattern that can be folded to make a threedimensional figue

edge 
The line segment where two or more faces of a solid figure meet

volume 
The measure of the amount of space a solid figure occupies

face 
A polygon that is a flat surface of a solid figure

cubic unit 
A unit of volume with dimensions of 1 unit * 1 unit * 1 unit

equivalent decimals 
Two or more decimals that name the same amount

area 
The number of square units needed to cover a surface

perimeter 
The distance around a figure

twodimensional 
Measured in two directions, such as length and width

formula 
A set of symbols that expresses a mathematical rule

threedimensional 
Mesured in three directions, such as length, width, and height

circumference 
The distance around a circle

triangular prism 
A solid figure that has two triangular bases and three rectangular faces

milliliter (mL) 
A metric unit for measuring capacity; 1,000 milliliters = 1 liter

kilogram (kg) 
A metric unit for measuring mass; 1 kilogram = 1,000 grams

liter (L) 
A metric unit for measuring capacity; 1 liter  1,000 milliliters

ounce (oz) 
A customary unit for measuring weight; 16 of these are equivalent to 1 pound

pound (lb) 
A customary unit for measuring weight that is equivalent to 16 ounces

ton (T) 
A customary unit for measuring weight that is equivalent to 2,000 pounds

millimeter (mm) 
A metric unit for measuring length or distance; 1,000 millimeters = 1 meter

centimeter (cm) 
A metric unit for measuring length or distance; 100 centimeters = 1 meter

decimeter (dm) 
A metric unit for measuring length or distance; 10 decimeters = 1 meters

meter (m) 
A metric unit for measuring length or distance; 1 meter = 100 centimeters

kilometer (km) 
A metric unit for measuring length or distance; 1 kilometer = 1,000 meters

mile (mi) 
A customary unit for measuring length or distance that is equivalent to 5,280 feet

cup (c) 
A customary unit for measuring capacity that is equivalent to 8 ounces

capacity 
The amount a container can hold when filled

pint (pt) 
A customary unit for measuring capacity that is equivalent to 2 cups

teaspoon (tsp) 
A customary unit for measuring cpacity; 3 of these are equivalent to 1 tablespoon

quart (qt) 
A customary unit of measuring capacity that is equivalent to 2 pints

tablespoon (tbsp) 
A customary unit for measuring capacity that is equivalent to 3 teaspoons

gallon (gal) 
A customary unit for measuring capacity that is equivalent to 4 quarts

unlikely 
Having a less that even chance of ahppening

linear units 
Units for measuring length, width, height, or distance

equally likely 
Having the same chance of happening

inch (in.) 
A customary unit for measuring length or distance; 12 of these are equivalent to 1 foot

mathematical probability 
A comparison of the number of favorable outcomes to the number of possible outcomes of an event

foot (ft) 
A customary unit for measuring length or distance that is equivalent to 12 inches

tree diagram 
An organized list that shows all possible outcomes of an event

yard (yd) 
A customary unit for measuring length or distance that is equivalent to 3 feet

simplest form 
The state a fraction is in when 1 is the only number that can divide evenly into both the numerator and denominator

outcome 
A possible result of an experiment

mixed number 
An amount given as a whole number and a fraction

event 
One outcome or a combination of outcomes in an experiment

like fractions 
Fractions with the same denominator

predict 
To make a reasonable guess about what will happen

unlike fractions 
Fractions with different denominators

likely 
Having a greater than even chance of happening

xaxis 
The horizontal line on a coordinate grid, or plane

yaxis 
Th vertical line on a coordinate grid , or plane

fraction 
A number that names a part of a whole or part of a group

numerator 
The number above the bar in a fraction that tells how many parts of the whole or group are being considered

xcoordinate 
The first number in an ordered pair that tells how far to move horizontally

denominator 
The number below the bar in a fraction that tells how many equal parts are in the whole or group

ycoordinate 
The second number in an ordered pair that tells how far to move vertically

equivalent fractions 
Two or more fractions that name the same amount

equilateral triangle 
A triangle with three equal, or congruent, sides

acute triangle 
A triangle with three acute angles

isosceles triangle 
A triangle with two equal, or congruent, sides

obtuse triangle 
A triangle with one obtuse angle

scalene triangle 
A triangle with no equal, or cobgruent, sides

parallelogram 
A quadrilateral whose opposite sides are parallel and equal, or congruent

right triangle 
A triangle with one right angle

rhombus 
A parallelogram with four equal, or congruent, sides

trapezoid 
A quadrilateral with exactly one pair of parallel sides

chord 
A line segment that has endpoints on a circle

Venn diagram 
A diagram that shows relationships among sets of things

diameter 
A line segment that passes through the center of a circle and has endpoints on the circle

circle 
A closed figure made up of points that are all the same distance from the center

radius 
A line segment that has one endpoint at the center of a circle and the other endpoint on the circle

center 
The point inside a circle that is the same distance from each point on the circle

compass 
A tool used to construct circles

line symmetry 
What a figure has if it can be folded about a line so that its two parts match exactly

transformation 
A movement of a figure to a new position by a translation, reflection, or rotation

rotational symmetry 
What a figure has if it can be turned about a central point and still look the same in at least two positions

translation 
A movement of a figure to a new position along a straight line

congruent 
Having the same size and shape

reflection 
A movement of a figure to a new position by flipping the figure over a line

similar 
Having the same shape but possibly different in size

rotation 
A movement of a figure to a new position by rotating the figure around a point

tessellation 
A repeating pattern of closed figures that covers a surface with no gaps and no overlaps

positive numbers 
All numbers to the right of zero on the number line

degree Fahrenheit ( F) 
A standard unit for measuring temperature

opposites 
Numbers that are the same distance from zero but in opposite directions from zero

degree Celsius ( C) 
A metric unit for measuring temperature

inequality 
A mathemmatical sentence that shows that two expressions do not represent the same quantity

negative numbers 
All numbers to the left of zero on the number line

ordered pair 
A pair of numbers used to locate a point on a coordinate grid; the first number tells how far to move horizontally, and the second number tells how far to move vertically

gram (g) 
A metric unit for measuring mass; 1.000 grams = 1 kilogram

thousandth 
One of one thousand equal parts

mass 
The amount of matter in an object

decimal point 
A symbol used to separate dollars from cents in money and to separate the ones and the tenths places in a decimal

decimal 
A number with one or more digits to the right of the decimal point

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