fungi protists plants Flashcards

Terms Definitions
poisonous
mushrooms
embryophytes
land plants
bryophytes size
small
dinoflagellata
fire
produce light
megaspores
develop within megasporangia
alveoli
saclike membranous vesicles
Protozoa
animal-like protist. Heterotrophs.
basidiomycota types
club fungi
bryophytes
non vascular plants
ascomycota example
powdery mildew
phakopsora
devastating rust kills soybeans
basidiomycetes
mushrooms, puffballs, stinkhorns, shelf fungi, rusts, and smuts
osmotrophs
uptake of small molecules
protists
eukaryotic secual reproduction, featuring gametes, zygotes, and meiosis first arose with what?
Flowers
Attract pollinators for plants
Famous Dinoflagellats
ciguatera and zooxanthellae
stolons
hyphae that grows accross
how do hyphae connect
stolons
hyphae
filaments that makeup fungi
how do hyphae feed
rhizoids
endomycorrhizae
parternerships between plants and fungi in which the fungal hyphae penetrate the spaces between root cell walls and plasma membranes and grow along surfaces of these membranes
heterokaryons
2 nuclei are genetically distinct
carboniferous
plant photosynthesis transformed a very large amount of carbon dioxide into decay-resistant organic compounds, thereby causing a historic low in atomospheric carbon dioxide levels during the geological period known as?
streptophytes
charophyceans together with land plants form a clade called what?
Alveolata
supergroup named for saclike membranous vesicles that are present at the cell periphery in all of these phyla
toxins
compounds that inhibit animal physiology
Fruits
Attract animal foragers for plants
Mycelium
loose branching network of hyphae
life span of plants
weeks-5,000 years
cuticle
smallprotective covering on plant sirfaces that prevent water loss
basidiomycota reproduction
sexual only, no asexual
sporozoa cause death to who
infants
pseudopodia
cytoplasmic extentions that contract and extend that allow sarcondia to move
fungal asexual reproductive cells produced by the process of mitosis
conidia are?
dikaryotic mycelia
are functionally diploid in fungi
angiosperms
distinguished by the presence of flowers, fruits, and a specialized seed tissue known as endosperm
conjugation
sexual reproduction in ciliates when two cells pair and fuse longitudinally
charophycean algae
bryophytes display several features that are absent from ________ but are displayed in all other land plants?
charophyceans
common anscestor could probably be classified with modern freshwater green algae known as what?
fertilization
converts such layered ovules into seeds
heterotrophic
what word best describes fungal nutrition?
water
fertilization in bryophytes can not occur unless what is present?
gymnosperms
modern phyla consisting of cycads, ginkgos, conifers, and gnetophytes are collectively known as what?
fungi
Kingdom composed of heterotrophs; many obtain energy and nutrients from dead organic matter
spores
fungal fruiting bodies that are specialized to produce the walled reproductive cells known as
gametangia
hyphal branches whos cytoplasm is isolated from the rest of the mycelium by cross walls, these enclose gametes that are basically a mass of cytoplasm containing several haploid nuclei
ascomycetes
dutch elm disease, chestnut blight, apple scab, cup fungi, candida albicans
clamp connections
Hyphal structures that facilitate distribution of nuclei during cell division are most accurately referred to as
Abscisic acid
helps plants withstand unfavorable environmental conditions
Xylem
a vascular tissue, transports water and minerals
Gibberellins
primarily active in plant shoots; promote stem elongation by increasing both cell division and cell elongation
Gametophyte
Produces gametes, which fuse to produce a diploid zygote.
cyclosporin
supress immune response in transplant patient
what to protoza need to reproduce
water
dermal
absorb water, protect plant, gas exchange
cysts
thick, protective walls and can remain dormant through periods of unfavorable climate or low food availability (dinoflagellates commonly produce these)
lycophytes
among the vascular plants, this plant has the simplest and most ancient leaves
Chytridiomycota
Which one of the following fungal phyla reproduces by means of flagellate spores?
embryos
as zygote grows into a young sphorophyte
mitotic divisions
if spores reach favorable conditions the walls will crack and the new gametophytes develp by what?
sphagnum
abundant modern moss contains so much decay resistant mass that dead moss has accumulated over years
embryo
one of the first distinctive traits acquired by land plants
bryophytes (monophyletic)
liverworts, hornworts, and mosses are earths simplest land plants are collectively known as?
evolutionary relationships, ecological roles, habitats, or types of motility
classified according to what?
ascocarps
fruiting bodies of certain fungi with sacs
Excavata
defined by a feeding groove, allowing organisms to ingest small particles of food in their aquatic habitats by phagocytosis (phagotrophy)
a fertilized ovule
a seed develops from what?
gymnosperm seeds
contain female gametophyte tissue that had accumulated large amounts of protein, lipids, and carbohydrates prior to fertilization
Ciliates
notable for a complex mating behavior known as conjugation
ferns
horsetails and whisk ferns were part of a clade that also contained what?
carrageenan
is a complex red algal cell-wall poly-saccharide that has numerous applications in the food industry
agarose
obtained from red algae to seperate DNA molecules by gel electrophoresis
Rhodophyta (red algae), Chlorophyta (green algae), Plantae (land plants), Glaucophyta(blue-green plastids)
4 protist phylums
monocot
seeds produce only one cotyledon (part that nourishes embryo); examples: lilies, daffodils, tulips, palms, corn, grasses
Ethylene
gas; causes certain fruits to ripen; recognized as plant "stress hormone"
Basidiomycota
Spores form in a club-like structure. Short lived reproductive structures called fruiting bodies, bears spores called basidia. smuts and rust cause serious damage to corn wheat...
e.g. mushrooms, bracket fungi on tree and puffballs.
Vascular plants
contain xylem and phloem for transporting materials. 2 types of spore producing and seed producing.
eg. for spore: club mosses, horsetail, ferns
eg. for seed: Gymnosperm (cones) and angiosperm ( flowers)
fungi imperfecti
do not have sexual reproduction stage
what cycles are plants part of
water
oxygen/carbon dioxide
mineral
flowers, fruits, and endosperm
Angiosperms are distinguished from gymnosperms by the presence of
three introns
liverworts lack what that is generally present in mitochondrial genes of other plants
mitosis; zygote
Plant embryos develop by repeated ____ from a single-celled ________ resulting from fertilization.
fungal sexual reproduction
generates new allele combinations that may allow fungi to colonize different types of habitats
Porphyra
multicellular red algae used as a wrap for sushi
moist habitats and microscopic in size
protists common characteristics
rhizomorphs
fungal mycelia that have the shape of roots; transport water to other parts of the same mycelium
fossil foraminiferan shells
extensively used to infer past climatic conditions
karyogamy
The fusion of the nuclei of mated gametes is a process most accurately defined as
trimerophytes and psilophytes
several early plant lineages once exsisted but became extinct. including:
lignophytes
modern and fossil seed plants are also formally known as what?
plant plasma membrane
ingrowths vastly increase the surface area, which means things can move in and out of the cell quicker
slimy mucilages
cell coverings or cell walls that provide protection from attack by herbivores or pathogens
Chitin
Strong, found in the cell wall of fungi.
seed dispersal
wind, water animal fur, eaten by animals and then excreted.
ciliophora avoidence behavior
move away from unpleasant enviorments can sense toxins
extensively branched veins
leaves of other vascular plant phyla have
megaphylls "large leaves"
more competent when it comes to photosynthesis
Parasitic Protists
notable for often using more than one host organism
cytoplasmic streaming and osmosis
are important cellular processes in hyphal growth
K/T event
marks the end of the Cretaceous period and begining of the Teritiary period
Plant Structure
their role is to support and collect nutrients in the soil and from air avoiding dessication
non vascular plants
have neither true vascular tissue nor true roots, stems, or leaves
carbon dioxide, water, and minerals
fungal partner provides to the photosynthetic partner
phagotrophs, osmotrophs, autotrophs, and mixotrophs
protist nutrition occurs in four basic types:
evolved several times
leaves and seeds have evolved how many times?
(1) ascomycete hyphae have simple pores in their septa and lack clamp connections, whereas basidiomycete hyphae display complex septal pores and clamp connections (2) ascomycetes produce sexual spores in sacs, while basidiomycetes produce sexual spores on
how can ascomycetes be distinguished from basidiomycetes?
flagellar motion is not powerful enough to keep larger bodies from sinking
flagellates are typically composed of one or only a few cells are small
to increase genetic variability and regenerate maximum size
Why do diatoms use sexual reproduction?
why did plants eventually develope seeds
they are more effective for dispersial
remains of ancient plants
much of todays coal is a result of what?
accessory pigments are able to absorb underwater lught and transfer the energy to chlorophyll a for use in photosynthesis
How do autotrophic protists use accessory pigments?
mitotic cell divisions of parent to progeny
all protists are able to reproduce themselves by asexual means that involve what?
the sporophyte generation is the larger, more complex, and longer-lived generation
what happens in all land plants except bryophytes ?
the development of first substantial soils, the evolution of modern plants, and the ability of animals to colonize land
the evolution of first land plants was essential to:
ovules and pollen, which are unique to seed plants
plants produce seeds by means of reproductive structures known as what?
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