Fungi, Protists, Plants Flashcards

Terms Definitions
yeast
beer/wine
angiosperms
flowering plants
protoza food
heterotrophs
chrysophyta
golden algae
freshwater,photosynthetic
ciliophora nuclei
macronnucleus
micronucleus
heterotrophic
protozoas feed how?
candida albicans
infectious yeast
endosperm
Nourishes the embryo
sporozoa movement
cannot move
ascomycota type
sac fungi
Apicomplexa
medically important protist (alveolata)
Euglenozoa
Photosynthetic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophic flagellates (Euglenophyta, Kinetoplastida)
gymnosperms
nonflowering plants; examples: ginkgos, cycads, gnetophytes, and conifers
Fungi
100,000 species, chemoheterotrophs that absorb nutrients and can be uni or multi cellular
aspergillis
food flavoring, soy sauce
ciliophora asexual reproduction
bunary fission
cytokenesis
division of the cells cytoplasm
seeds
complex structures having specialized tissues that protectively enclose embryos (young sporophytes)
Plants
(1)Plants are typically photosynthetic organisms. (2) Plants most likely evolved from aquatic algal ancestors. (3) Plants have influenced Earth's atmospheric chemistry, climate, and soils. (4)The plant kingdom is monophyletic
heterokaryons
2 nuclei are genetically distinct
seaweeds
multicellular algaem which often produce large and complex bodies
euglenoids
particularly abundant and ecologically significant as photosynthesizers and phagotrophs in wetlands
zygomycetes
mostly composed of aseptate fungi(those lacking cross walls) and distinctive reproductive structuresfungi spend most of their time as haploids; black bread mold;
mitochondria
(excavata) evolutionary origin of mitosomes and hydrogensosomes from what?
algae
mainly aquatic eukaryotic organisms lacking true stems and roots and leaves, applies to about 10 phyla of protists that include photosynthetic nonphotosynthetic species
lignin
carboniferous plants converted huge amounts of atmospheric CO2, into decay resistant materials such as...
Alveolates
protist; have distinctive, small cavities under the surface of their cells
gynosperms
conifers, ginkgos,cycads that dont need H2O for pollination/fertilization and innovated seed dispersal so that offspring has nutrients
how are protoza classified
by movement
where do protoza live
wet/water habitats
protoza outer covering
most lacj one
ciliophora waste
excreted through anal pore
unicellular algae are what
aquatic, plankton
secondary plastids
originate with the endosymbiotic incorporation of a eukaryotic cell having a primary plastid, the host cell digests most of the endosymbiont but retains its plastid
filose pseudopodia
thin, hair-like extensions of cytoplasm
chlorarachniophyta
whos spider shaped cells possess secondary plastids obtained from endosymbiotic green algae
seed plants
what dominates the modern ecosystems?
saprobes
organisms that obtain food from decaying organic matter, which include prokaryotes and fungi
lichens
A mutualistic association between a fungus and alga or cyanobacterium.
phloem
Vascular plant tissue consisting of living cells arranged into elongated tubes that transport ((export sugar)) and other organic nutrients throughout the plant.
leaves
The main photosynthetic organs of vascular plants.
roots
underground organs that absorb water and minerals
gavitropism
growth toward or away from gravity
Euglenozoans
protist; have distinct, stacked disk appearance to mitochondria
Angiosperm
flowering plants. Protect seed withing a fruit. Self pollinating, or cross pollination.
Bryophyte
mosses and liverworts that innovated the cuticle but lacked vascular tissue, needed H2O for fertilization and was only habituated moist areas
fungi cell walls made of what
chitin
leaves and seeds
critical innovations that allowed plant phyla to diversify extensively
lycophylls
tiny leaves on lycophytes with a single unbranched vein
cutin
waxy covering in plants to prevent pathogens, desiccation, and water loss from plants via pores (smaller and bigger)
choanomonada (choanoflagellates)
modern protists most closely related to the common ancestor of animals
secondary endosymbiosis
A plastid surrounded by three membranes would most likely have arisen through
clamp connections
hyphal structures that help distribute nuclei during cell division in basdiiomycetes
ascomycetes
regarded as a higher fungi, sexual spores are sac-like
fertilization
occurs when a male gametophyte extends a slender pollen tube that carries two sperm toward an egg. after a pollen tube enters the micropyle and releases the sperm, the fertalized egg then becomes an embryo, and the ovule's integument develops into a protective seed coat
haploid
although the nuclei of the dikaryotic mycelia remain _____ alternate copies of many alleles occur in seperate nuclei
female gametophytes
develop and produce eggs while enclosed by protective megaspore walls
both spores and seeds
seed plants reproduce using?
protist ancestor
fungi kingdom arose from what anscestor?
liverworts
diverged from the mainstream of plant evolution, indicating they are the most ancient modern plant phylum
dinoflagellates
Group of protists that form "blooms", can be toxic. make up phytoplankton and can be bioluminescent. They generally have two flagella, half are heterotrophic and the other half are photosynthetic, many species are luminescent
gymnosperm
"naked seeds" seeds not enclosed in fruit
Florigens
control the timing of flowering in response to environmental cues
thigmotropism
a directional movement or change in growth in response to touch
Endocytosis
uptake of large particles or molecules by formation of vesicle from the cell membrane; requires energy from ATP.
stromata
small opening in leaf surface that allows gas exchange
plant organs
dermal, ground tissue system, vascular transport
club fungi
mushrooms, braket fungi, smuts, plant parasites
hornworts
Which one of the following types of plant would be classified as nonvascular?
herbaceous plants
plants that produce little or no wood
tracheids
A tubular cell in the xylem of vascular plants that functions primarily in the conduction of water and mineral salts collected by the roots to other parts of the plant
amoebae
the class of protozoa that move by extending tubelike structures called pseudopods
endosporic gametophytes
such gametophytes also grow within the confins of microspore and megaspore walls
basidiomycetes
can be identified as members of this phylum by unique hyphal structures known as clamp connections
ergots
When a fungus infects certain ryes and grasses, it can produce hard masses of mycelium called
osmosis and cytoplasmic streaming
What contributes to hyphal growth?
sporic life cycle
also known as "alternation of generations", produce two types of multicellular organisms: 1. a haploid gametophyte generation that produces gametes(sperm or eggs) 2.a diploid sporophyte generation that produces spores by the process of meiosis
plants with the greatest importance to humans
seed plants
aquatic algal anscestors
plants most likely evolved from what?
molecular and structural
plant systemastists use what from living and fossilized plants to classify them into phylas?
Waxy cuticle
Limits the evaporation of water in plants
Plant-like (Algae)
Type of Protozoa that has chlorophyll, photosynthesis.
alteration of generation
seen in higher plants involeves gamophyte and sporophyte
2 phases of life cycle plants
sorophyte (diploid)
gametophyte (haploid)
nutrition and motility
fungal cell walls also influence what other factors?
absorptive nutrition
a method by which the fungus digest food outside its mycelium by secreting powerful enzyme into its sorundings
protein or carbohydrate slime
some other protists glide along surfaces in a snail-like fashion using what?
by absorbing small organic molecules or ingesting prey
how do protozoa feed?
maternal plant body
plant eggs are fertilized while still attached to the maternal plant, while its still protected
liverworts, mosses, and hornworts: lycophytes and pteridophytes" cycads, ginkgos, conifers, and gnetophytes: angiosperms
what sequence did plants arise?
the animal kingdom
Which group of organisms is most closely related to the Kingdom fungi?
close
if the soil is very dry the stomata ________ , which reduces water loss from plants via these pores
Multicellularity of Amoebozoans
evolved with 2 diverging lineages, 1. green & red algae and 2. multicellular fungi & animals
fungi: plants and animals
have plant-like appearence but animal like in other aspects
undigested substrate
the mycelia grow at their edges as the fungal hyphae extend their tips through the
zygote
when the egg and sperm fuse to form a diploid cell
closes retaining water
when the soil is very dry the stomata?
prior to the divergence of complex charophyceans
reproductive differences suggest that plant eggs and sperm evolved when?
mycorrhiza relationship with fungus and plants works how
fungi grow on plants, hyphae help plants absorb water and minerals
nonmotile etts and smaller flagellate sperm
some protists produce what in zygotic life cycles?
regeneration of maximal cell size, evolutionary potential, increased ability of populations to respond to environmental change, increased genetic variability
what advantages do diatoms obtain from sexual reproduction?
sporic life cycle "alternation of generations"
the life cycle of bryophytes and all other plants involves what life cycle?
why can vascular plants survive in more enviroments
they grow higher, strong stem, get more sunlight
Much of the coal we utilize today derives from the remains of plants living during this period
Why is the Carboniferous period also referred to as the Coal Age?
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