fungi/plants Flashcards

Terms Definitions
stem
support plants
Ectomycorrhizal
intercellular, sheathing- facultative, temperate forests
What ingredient for photosynthesis enters through the stoma?
CO2
Pollination
Ferilization by transferring pollen from male to female is called...
Bryophyte
nonvascular plant; examples are mosses and their relatives
Mineral Nutrients
Essential chemical elements absorbed from the soil in the form of inorganic ions
Yeasts
Unicellular fungi that inhabit liquid or moist habitats, reproduce asexually by simple cell division or by the pinching of small "bud cells" off a parent cell
Mushroom
What is a familiar club fungi?
Flower
the reproductive structure of an angiosperm
Micronutrients
Elements required by the plants in relativelly small amounts, there are 8 of them
Taproot
Consists of one large vertical root that produces many smaller lateral roots
What did plants evolve from?
Multicellular green algae
chlorophyll
what do fungi lack that plants have
Hyphae
Tiny tubes filled with cytoplasm and nuclei that form the body of the fungus are...
Phloem
the vascular tissue in which food moves in some plants
roots
anchor plant, absorb water and mineral from soil.
Lateral Roots
Arise from the outermost layer of soil, sproted from an established root
Thigmotropism
The directional growth of a plant in relation to touch
What fungi is found in Phylum Deutromycota?
Penecillin mold
Why are fungi mistaken for plants?
Rooted in soil
mycelium
a tangled mass that is branches of hyphae
12
The cross section of a tree trunk shows 12 growth rings. How many years old is the tree?
giant puffball
round bodies that contain hundreds of thousands of spores
Strigolactones and process
nonspecific chemical that allows root and fungi proximity knowledge, in response Myc factor, then calcium spike, then prepenetration complex, guides into cell, and new cell wall forms
What are 90% of all plants alive today?
angiosperms
What do the xylem do?
Carry water to the leaves
What human diseases do Phylum Ascomycota cause?
Yeast infections, athletes foot
Lichen diff. from plants
Spores can only reproduce the fungus
what do fungi decompose?
they break down cellulose and nutrients
What is the name of the male part of the plant?
Stamen
by secreting digestive enzymes that break down organic matter
how do fungi obtain nutrients
What is one type of fungus in Phylum Zygomycota?
Black bread molds
Cell Theory applied to Lichen
cells give up individuality to become part of a federation
What are some characteristics of division bryophtya?
Primitive plants, grow less than 10cm tall, lack true roots (have rhizoids instead), no vascular tissue, reproduce by spores
Fungi that cost farmers money
Grain mold, corn smut, what rust are these fungi
What were some problems with life on land?
temperature variation, lack of water, structural support, reproduction
stolons are the mycelia of bread while rhizoids are the hyphae of the bread
what is the difference between stolons and rhizoids in zygomycetes
cuticle
reduces water loss;
Xylem
Vascular plant tissue consisting mainly of tubular dead cells that conduct most of the water and minerals upward from roots to the rest of the plant.
angiospores
keep seeds in container(fruit), 80%-90% of all plants are these, have flowers
bryophytes
another name for non-vascular plants
What is the role of fungi?
Decomposers
Common molds
Bread mold and mildew are...
Pholem
Tissue that conducts food in vascular plants.
Sclerenchyma
have very thick primary and secondary cell walls with fortified lignin, support the plant
What are rhizoids?
1 cell thick hairlike roots
monocots and dicots
what are angiospores grouped into
chitin
polysaccharide found in the cell wall of fungi
Vascular Tissue
the internal transporting tissue in some plants that is made up of tubelike structures
angiosperms
have flowes and fruits which increase fertilization, disperal of seeds
Phototropism
Growth of a plant shoot towards or away from light
Procambium
A primary meristem of roots and shoots that forms the vascular tissue
What does the cork cambium do?
Produces new cork
shoot
the part of the plant that grows upward
Imperfect fungi
Athlete's foot is caused by what fungus?
Angiosperm
a plant that produces seeds that are enclosed in a protective structure
benefits of fungi
decomposers of dead organisms; as food; produce antibiotics
Long-day Plants
A plant that flowers only when the light period is longer than a critical length
The vascular bundle of a monocot is arranged in what formation?
a ring
deuteromycetes
a 4th group that is composed of fungi in which no sexual stage has been seen
Fungus to Plant Conversion
NH3 to urea transport to NH4
True or false: plant diversity is a nonrenewable resource?
TRUE
What are hyphae?
Long filament cells that are the basic structural unit of fungi
Angiosperms and Gymnosperms
What are the two categories of seed plants?
What are 3 functions of the stem?
Support, vascular tissue, and photosynthesis
what does angiosperm produce?
flowers and most of our food, fruits, veggies, grains
What is the apical meristem?
It produces new cells, it is found just behind the root tip.
What happened to the forests of North America in the last 200 years?
they have shrunk by 40%
They transport water and nutrients a great distance
Why do vascular plants grow larger than non-vascular plants?
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