# Saxon Math 76 Vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
 acute angle an angle that has a measure greater than 0* and less than 90* acute triangle a triangle in which each of the three angles measures less than 90* addend a number that is added in an addition problem addition sequence an ordered list of numbers in which the same number is added to the previous term to get the following term algebraic addition the addition of the opposite of a number; used to replace subtraction a.m. before noon (ante meridiem) angle an opening between two intersecting lines, rays, or segments Arabic numerals the digits (0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8, and 9) used in combination with place value to express numbers. For example, 475 is an Arabic numeral. area the number of square units of a given size that cover the surface of a figure average the amount found by dividing the sum of a set of numbers by the number of numbers in the set, also known as arithmetic average or mean base in a triangle or parallelogram, the side from which the height of the triangle or parallelogram is measured Celsius scale one of the scales used on a thermometer to measure temperature. on this scale, water boils at 100*C and freezes at 0*C. normal body temperature is 37*C century one hundred years chance the likelihood that something will happen, expressed as a percentage circle a round graph in which every point on the graph is the same distance from a center point circumference the distance around a circle, also known as the perimeter of a circle common number a number shared by two or more sets, as in common factor, common multiple and common denominator compare to determine whether one number or expression is greater than, less than, or equal to another number or expression compass a tool that aids in the drawing of circles, as well as in other geometric applications composite a number that has more than two factors cone a three-dimensional solid with a circular base and a single vertex congruent a set of figures that have the same shape and size. also, angles or line segments that have the same measure coordinate plane a graph of two perpendicular number lines that have scale marks extended to form a grid on which to plot points coordinates a paired set of numbers like (3, -2) that indicates the location of a point on a coordinate plane. the first number shows the horizontal direction and distance from the origin (on the x-axis); the second number shows the vertical direction and distance from the origin (on the y-axis) counting numbers the numbers in this sequence: 1,2,3,4,5,.... cross products the result of taking a pair of fractions and multiplying the numerator of the first fraction by the denominator of the second fraction and vice versa cube a three-dimensional solid with six square faces. adjacent faces are perpendicular, and opposite faces are parallel cylinder a three-dimensional solid with two circular bases, that are opposite and parallel to each other decade ten years decimal places all of the place values to the right of the decimal point decimal point a period used to separate the ones' place from the tenths' place degree (*) the unit used to measure angles. also, the symbol used to denote unit divisions on a temperature scale denominator the bottom number of a fraction, designating the number of equal parts in a whole number diameter the distance across a circle throught the center of the circle difference the result of subtraction digit any one of the following ten numerical symbols: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 dividend the number that is divided in a division problem divisible the ability to be divided without a remainer; for example 6 is divisible by 1,2,3, and 6 divisor the number by which another number is divided edge a line at which two faces of a solid come together endpoints the points at which a line segment ends equals sign (=) a symbol that indicated that two numbers or expressions are equivalent equilateral triangle a triangle in which all three sides and all three angles are equal in measure equivalent expressions that have the same value; for example, 2/4 is equivalent to 1/2, or 2/4 = 1/2 estimate to roughly determine a size or value; to calculate approzimately using rounded numbers even numbers those numbers that can be divided by 2 without a remainer. the digit in the ones' place of an even number is 0,2,4,6, or 8 experimental probability the probability of an event occurring as determined by data collection exponent a number that indicates repeated multiplication of the base. for example, in 5 to the 2nd, 2 is the exponent and 5 is the base, and this means 5 x 5, or 25 face a flat surface of a solid fact families sets of three numbers which can be formed into two addition facts and two subtraction facts, or two muliplication facts and two division facts factor a number being multiplied. also, a whole number which divides another whole number without a remainer Fahrenheit scale one of the scales, used on a thermometer to measure temperature. on this scale, water boils at 212*F and freezes at 32*F. normal body temperature is 98.6*F fraction a common fraction is part of a whole, expressed as a numerator over a denominator geometry the study of shapes graph a diagram such as a bar graph, a circle graph (pie chart), or a line graph that displays quantitative information greater than/less than sign (< >) a symbol placed between two numbers or expressions to indicate which is greater or which is less greatest common factor (GCF) the largest whole number that is a factor of all members of a given set of whole numbers height in a triangle or parallelogram, the perpendicular distance from the base to the opposite vertex of a trianle or from the base to the parallel side of a parallelogram hexagon any six-sided polygon histogram a special type of bar graph that displays data in equivalent intervals with no space between the bars horizontal parallel with the horizon; perpendicular to vertical hundredths' place the place value two places to the right of the decimal point. each hundredth equals 1/100 improper fraction a fraction in which the numerator is equal to or greater than the denominator; a fraction that is equal to or greater than one integers the set of numbers that includes all the counting numbers, their opposites, and zero intersecting lines lines that cross; lines which share a common point irrational number a number that cannot be expressed as a fraction. examples are ∏ and √2 isosceles triangle a triangle in which at least two of the three sides and angles are equal in measure length a longer side of a rectangle least common multiple (LCM) the smallest number that is a multiple of a given set of whole numbers line a continuous string of points extending in two opposite directions without end line of symmetry a line that divides a figure into two mirror images mass the amount of matter in an object mean the average of a set of numbers median in a set of numbers arranged in order from least to greatest, the middle number, or the average of the two middle numbers metric system an international system of measure based on multiples of ten using units such as meters, liters, and grams mixed numbers an expression made up of a whole number and a fraction, such as 2 3/4 mode the most frequently occurring number or numbers in a set of numbers mulitple a number found by multiplying a given number by a whole number greater than zero; for example, the multiples of 5 are 5,10,15,20,.... multiplication sequence an ordered list of numbers in which the same number is multiplied by the previous term to get the following term negative a number less than zero; the opposite of positive noon midday; 12:00 p.m. number line a line with evenly spaced marks on which a number is associated with each mark numeral a written symbol for a number numerator the top number of a fraction, designating the number of parts being used oblique slanted, sloped, or inclined lines; neither horizontal nor vertical; neither parallel nor perpendicular obtuse angle an angle that has a measure greater than 90* but less than 180* obtuse triangle a triangle in which one angle measures greater than 90* octagon any eight-sided polygon odd numbers those numbers that have a remainder of 1 when divided by 2. the digit in the ones' place of an odd number is 1,3,5,7, or 9 operation of arithmetic mathematical processes performed according to specific rules. these processes are addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division opposites those numbers that can be written with the same digits but with opposite signs. for example, the opposite of 5 is -5. the sum of a number and its opposite is zero origin the point (0,0) on a cordinate plane at which the x-axis and y-axis intersect parallel lines, rays, or segments that remain the same distance apart and do not intersect parallelogram a quadrilateral that has two pairs of parallel sides pentagon a five-sided polygon percent a fraction with the denominator 100 expressed with a percent sign, %. for example, 99% = 99/100 perfect square a number that has as its square root a whole number. examples of perfect squares are 1, 4, and 9 perimeter the distance around a shape perpendicular lines, rays, or segments that intersect to form right angles pi (∏) the Greek letter that stands for the number of diamteters in a circulference (approximately equal to 3.14) place value the value of a digit determined by its position within a numeral p.m. after noon (post meridiem) polygon any straight-sided closed plane figure polyhedron a solid figure on which every face is a polygon positive a number grater than zero; the opposite of negative prime a counting number that has exactly two factors, the number 1 and itself prime factorization the breakdown of a counting number by writing it as a product of its prime factors prism a three-dimensional solid that has two congruent, parallel polygons as its base probability the likelihood that something will happen expressed as a ratio product the result of multiplying proper fraction a fraction in which the numerator is less than the denominator proportion a true statement that dmonstrates two rations are equivalent protractor a tool that is used to measure and draw angles pyramid a three-dimensional solid with a polygon as its base and triangular sides that meet at a vertex quadrilateral any four-sided polygon quotient the result of division radius the distance from the center of a circle. the plural of radius is radii range the difference between the greatest and the least in a set of numbers ratio an expression of the relationship between two numbers using a colon, a fraction, or words, such as 3:2, 3/2, or 3 to 2 ray the portion of a line that begins at one point and continues without end reciprocal the fraction resulting from inverting a given fraction (reversing the numerator and denominator). the product of a fraction and its reciprocal is one rectangle a four-sided polygon that has four right angles rectangular prism a prism with rectangles as bases rectangular solid a three-dimensional solid where all six faces are rectangles. opposite faces are parallel and adjacent faces are perpendicular reduce to divide a fraction by another fraction equal to 1 in order to form an equivalent fraction in which both the numerator and denominator have lesser values. for example, 2/4 reduces to 1/2 reflection a transformation performed by reflecting a figure as in a mirror or flipping a figure over a certain line regular polygon a polygon in which all sides and angles are equal in measure remainder in subtraction, the difference; in division, any number that is left over after dividing integers rhombus a parallelogram that has sides of equal length right angle a square angle, often marked with a square, that has a measure of 90* right triangle a triangle in which one angle measures 90* Roman numerals an ancient form of numbering that does not use place value; for example II is a Roman numeral equivalent to the Arabic numeral 2 rotaion a transformation performed by turning a figure about a certain point rounding finding another number that is near the number given; for example, 587 rounds to 600 sales tax the tax charged on the sale of an item based upon the selling price scale a system of marks at regular intervals used for measurement. also, an instrument that displays such marks scalene triangle a triangle in which all three sides and all three angles are not equal in measure segment a part of a line that has two endpoints sequence an ordered list of numbers that follows a certain rule side a line segment of a polygon; the number of sides indicates the type of polygon similar a set of figures or angles that are the same shape but not necessarily the same size solid a geometric shape that occupies space sphere a smooth geometric solid that is shaped like a ball square a rectangle in which all sides are the same length square root a number that, when multiplied by itself, equals the given number. the square root of 49 is 7 because 7 ∙ 7 = 49. the principal of the positive square root of a number is indicated by this symbol, √ straight angle an angle that forms a straight line and has a measure of 180* sum the result of addition surface area the total area of all of the surfaces of a geometric solid survey a method of collecting data about a particular population tenths' place the place value one place to the right of the decimal point. each tenth equals 1/10 theoretical probability the probability of an event occurring as determined by analysis rather than by experimentation thousandths' place the place value three places to the right of the decimal point. each thousandth equals 1/1000 transformation any of the three forms of movement (rotation, reflection, and translation) made to reposition a figure translation a transformation performed by sliding a figure in one direction without turning the figure trapezium a quadrilateral in which no sides are parallel trapezoid a quadrilateral in which one pair of sides are parallel triangle a polygon that has three sides and three angles, the sum of which measure 180* unit multiplier a fraction equal to one, written with two different but equivalent units of measure; for example, 1 ft/12 in is a unit multiplier U.S.Customary System a U.S. system of measure using units such as fee, gallons and pounds vertex the point at which two sides of a polygon or three or more edges of a polyhedron intersect. the plural of vertex is vertices. note that a cone also has a vertex. this vertex is not made from the intersection of edges, but rather the intersection of the lines that would make up the non-base surface of the cone vertical upright; perpendicular to horizontal volume the amount of space a given shape occupies whole numbers all the counting numbers and zero, as in the sequence: 0,1,2,3,4,.... width a shorter side of a rectangle x-axis the horizontal number line of the coordinate plane y-axis the vertical number line of the coordinate plane
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