PaleoBotany Exxam 3 Flashcards

Fern
Terms Definitions
Megaphyll
have leaf gaps and veination in the leaves,
microphyll
at most have one vascular strand
Characterize
Lycopsids
Microphylss,
adaxia sporangia,
exarch xylem in stem,
Characterize
Sphenopsids
Nodes, hollow pith, non laminate leaf in whorles, storlibili are on peltate sporaniaspore - umbrellainternode to internode
Characterize
ferns
i. adventitious roots
ii. mostly compound leaves, much scherencema,
iii. spores on lower part of leaves
iv. some fossils have secondary growth
v. long stalk
vi. protosteleic, syphonostelec, ditieostelic
vii. mezarch
1st occurance
Megaphylls
archiopteris U devonian
1st occurance
Heterospory
charearia U devonian
1st occurance
seed habit
elksinia U devonian
1st occurance
microphylls
bragnylia silurian
Eligulate lycopods
lycopodium, phyloylossum, barayetc
Ligulate lycopods
selaginella, isoeles, lepidodendrons, methosteropus
homosporous lycopods
leceregia. lycopodium, phyloylossum, barayetc
heterosporous lycopods
cyclosostigma, selaginella, isoeles, lepidodendrons
heterospory is lycopods occurs when?
m. devoinian
feature of Lepidodendron –
large tree with cones at the end of branches n a crown, ligule, leaf scar, protoxylem
features of Diaphorodendron
cones borne on tips of lateral branches near tips of vegetative branches, cones monosporate
features of Lepidophloios
larger branches than lepidodendron, monosporangiate
features of Paralycopodites
small tree, dichotomus trunk, deciduous branches ended in cones , bisporangiate cones
features of Sigillaria
leaf grass like leaves, no roots just rhizomorphs
leaves of Cyperites are
long and grass liike
Why is Lepidocarpon almost like a seed? .
Displays the complex nature of seeds in the way they have the microsporangia surround the megasporangia
What major trends do a. Lepidodendropsis/Protostigmaria indicate in terms of isoetalean evolution
in late carboniferous had bipolar growth, they had spirally arranged leaf cushions and no secondary phloem
feature of Chaleuria
main axis lateral braches divide twice, 2 different sized spores (evolving heterosporous),
feature of Oocampsa
main axis, lateral branches with irregular division, spores have zona and spines
features of Calamophyton –
rhizomous structure, dichotomizing branches; They divide into several parts mid-length, then again in distal regions. Some of these divisions bear strongly recurved sporangia
features of Pseudosporochnus,
Older branches fall off, some debate as to weather there are roots, or just 2 trees on top of each other
features of . Iridopteris,
whorled laterals
features of iridopterids -
actinosteele with xylem at the tips,
features of Ibyka, -
psuedomonopodal branches that dichotomize off in 3D.
features of Arachnoxylon. –
whorled laterals,
how do euphyllophytes relate to trimerophytes such as pertica
termina braches are wholed too
how do euphyllophytes relate to Pseudosporochnus ?
lateral branches decussate branches, leaves are whorls
sphenopsids 1st appear in
U. devonian
early sphenopsids where...
large, herbaceous, ribbed stem, much dichotomizing, non-laminate leaves, with terminal strobili
features of calamites
-large herbaceous ribbed stem,
-much dichotomizing,
-non-laminate leaves
- terminal strobili
calimites occur ...
devonian carbiniferous
calimites differ from equestrian how?
Calamites have septae splits in pith and Sterile bracts
Annularia
Calamitaceae leaf
Asterophyllites
Calamitaceae leaf
Arthropitys
Calamitaceae leaf
Astromyelon
Calamitaceae leaf
Calamostachys,
calamitaceae Strobili
Paleostachya,
calamitaceae Strobili
Mazostachys
calamitaceae Strobili
how do Sphenophyllales and how do they differ from calamites and/or Equisetum?
Smaller than calamites,
herbaceous, so more like equisetum,
have a protosteeleic stem and exarch xylem,
Stems and strobili can be quite long,
6-9 wedged shaped leaves per node
Sphenophyllum
permineralized stem of Sphenophyllales
Bowmanites,
stroblil of sphenophyllales
Sphenostrobus,
stroblil of sphenophyllales
Peltastrobus
stroblil of sphenophyllales
Basic features of ferns
Megaphyllus leaf,
foliar borne sporangia,
bi-lateral branching
Basic features of Rhacophyton
secondary growth,
rhyzomus rachis
paired pinaraces off of clepsyloid sporangia borne on pinnae off of the rachis at base of pinnae
rachis
rhizomes stem that curvez up
clepsyloid
dog bone shaped xylem in pinna of rhapcopdyton
Why is rhacophyton not a fern?
lacks big leaves, foliar borne sporangia and crosiers
Rhacophyton age
U. Dev.
major groups of ferns
Ophioglossales, - addlers toungue
Marattiales, tree with advantageous roots
Filicales,
Hydropteridales.
major group of fern that is not a leptosporangium
ophioglossales
Why are clodoxiles considered early ferns?
Flat branches
Zygopteridaceae stem
false, bunch of tiny ones fused together, h shaped pbyllophore traces, radial trachieds show 2° growth
Zygopteridaceae petiole
instead have phyllophore, bear pinnae
Zygopteridaceae reproductive morphology
sorus, on pinneals of leaf
Zygopteridaceae anatomy
philaphae, forked in 2, rhizome
phyllophore
structure between leaf and petiole that bears spores
H traces
phyllophore isolated
Etapteris
philaphae
wha tthe zygoptris have istead of petioles, the are forked
sorus
bunch of sporangia on bottom of zygopteris piinae
early filicians
Botryopteridaceae
Anachoropteridaceae
Tedeleaceae
Tedeleaceae stem
5 pointed protostele
Tedeleaceae petiole
divides it axile and petiole (anchor shaped) YO Ho Ho Teddy!
Tedeleaceae reproductive morpholoy
sporangia with apical annulus
Tedeleaceae anatomy
axilary branches
Botryopteridaceae stem
proto/sphinostele
Botryopteridaceae petiole
vascular strand with M/omgea shape and adaxial projections
Botryopteridaceae reproductive morphology
sporangia terminal on some fronds
Botryopteridaceae anatomy
spiral fronds
Anachoropteridaceae stem
protostele with densely arranged leaves
Anachoropteridaceae petiole
c shaped trace with cancave away from stem
Anachoropteridaceae reproductive morphology
globos, little otherwise known
what do the early ferns tell us about fern evolution?
steele went from protostelic to ectophilic/dictoyxlic and siphonostele
phyllophore
1st pinnae off of rachis
Eusporangium,
- spore of clodoxiles, large # spore no annuus
leptosporangium
sporangium formed from a single epidermal cell
Psaranius
MARATTIALES
big tree,
full of mucilage
Psaranius stem
polycyclyc dictiostele with inner and outer roots
Synangia
found in psaronius , leaves and sporangia fused on the underside of fronds
whon Psaronius became a major element in forests?
u. Dev
Progmnospermopsida characters
A helping of Pteridophytic reproduction and morphology with a helping of gymnosperm anatomy on top.
features of archaopteris
1st tree, m.-u. dev.; grows along water
eustele, branches instead of leaves,bi-pinnate leaves, spiral leaves,
Aneuophytes
upper devonian
Tetraxylopteris features
4 lobed 1° xylem cambium in center and arms, radiates like a clodoxile
date of 1st ovule
u. devonian
nucellus
megasporanium
cupule
covering of ovules in moresnetia
Lyginopteridaceae stem
monostelic, eustele
Lyginopteridaceae type of leaf
neoropteris, alethoperis
Lyginopteridaceae petiole anatomy
1 vasc. strand
Lyginopteridaceae ovule features
copulate, nucellus + integument fused
Lyginopteridaceae pollen organ
synangiate, small # sporangia, trilete
Medullosaceae stem anatomy
polystelic, # of meristele variable, nodes
Medullosaceae leaf type
pinnate
Medullosaceae ovule features
“Pachytesta” 3-zoned integument, free nucellus that forms a pollen chamber/beak
Medullosaceae pollen organ
large and synangiate, some monolete
integuments
megaphyllus structures that enclose megasporangium
capules
not necessarly leaves
Moresnetia features
ovules enclosed in capule, no integements, lagenostomes
rellimia
y- shaped xylem, called triloxboxylon
seed plant features
i. the seed in within it and matures, the integemunt never splits
ii. megaphylls
iii. vasc cambium, cork cambium
iv. has most of the eustel?
1st true roots
progymnosperms U. Dev.
1st arborescence
eospermatopteris M. Dev
1st seed habit
elksinia U. Dev
Hydropteridales
ferns in the water
integemunt organization and salpynx
as integument grew to cover and form a micropyle, a salpynx was no longer needed
elkinsiaceae leaf
siphonopteris
Oliver and Scott
declared lagenostoma had fern foliage and ovules, said they had the capitate grands on capule and rachis
rothwell
showed how reproduction with seeds happened
A. G. Long
described early ovules and showed the evolution of cupules from lobed to fused
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