Renaissance through 20th century music Flashcards

Terms Definitions
During the Renaissance, what was considered the hub of culture in Europe?
Florence, Italy
What was invented during the Renaissance era that helped mass produce music?
Gutenberg Press
Who was the monk that wanted the church to reform and have some liturgical songs in the vernacular?
Martin Luther
What was the group that led the Counter-Reform for the church?
Council of Trent
What piece was written by Guillaume Dufay for the dedication of the Brunelleschi Dome?
Nuper Rosarum Flores
What era was know as the "Golden Age of Polyphony"?
Renaissance
A _________ is a religious piece that sometimes was based on a folk tune, bridging sacred and secular music.
Motet
Notes moving up during words to indicate ascending or using dissonance for "scary" moments is using what technique?
Word-Painting
What is through-composed?
New music for new text
What is imitative polyphony?
Imitation is only similar representation of the previous voice, not an exact copy
What is a procedure for improvising harmonization of the psalms reciation formulas?
Falsobordone
Through-composed, Vernacular language and secular text are examples of
Madrigal
Visual art of the Baroque period tended to be...
Dramatic with unrealistic distortion
The Baroque word for emotions is..
Affections
What is considered one of the most important innovations of the Baroque era, formed by the Florentine Consort?
Monody
An abrupt change in dynamic level is called
Terraced dynamics
Terraced dynamics is a common technique used in which era?
Baroque
A short independent of introductory piece for the keyboard is know as a(n)...
Prelude
A fugue is defined as..
Imitative polyphonic composition
A system of musical shorthand by which composers indicate intervals above the bass line with numbers rather than with notated pitches is knows as ...
Figured Bass
It was most common for a _________ to be played druing the Baroque era
Sonata
The Canzona had continued developments which were ...
Stile antico and Stile moderno
Stile antico is known as...
The first practice
When is Lauda Amina Mea Dominum preformed?
At Vespers
Which instrument most closely resembled the human voice?
Violin
Druing the Baroque era, developments in _________ music directly affected the development in __________ music.
Vocal; Instrumental
What instrument, similar to the range of the violin, did not have the capablility to play sharps and flats easily during the Baroque period?
Flute
Trills, Mordents and Affettis are examples of what in the Baroque era?
Embellishments
Who wrote the Well-Tempered Clavier?
Bach
Who came up with the idea to divide music into intervals?
Pythogoras
Amati, Stadivari and Guarnci are types of what?
Violins
What was considered the stand-out instrumental composition of the Baroque era?
The Sonata
What does Baroque mean in Portuguese?
Odd-shaped pearl
The church, court and city-state government were the main employers of music during which period?
Baroque
What stated that only one mood should be expressed in a piece or movement?
Doctrine of Affections
Which period did composers put homophony and polyphony on the same level?
Baroque
What was the purpose of the bass during the Baroque period?
Harmonic support to the melody
What era did tonality replace modality as the means of organized music?
Baroque
The Stile modero was coined by which composer?
Monteverdi
What opera was the first Grand Opera?
L'Orfeo
There were 2 types of singing used in L'Orfeo. One was recitative, what was the other?
Aria
Recitative style is ....
form that is flexible to match the text - fast talking
What form does Aria usually follow?
Da capo
Bel canto emphasized the beauty of the _______ over the libretto/drama
Voice
What is an oratorio?
Dramatic music set to a religious story
What is Handel's most famous oratorio?
The Messiah
What era did music finally become composed for the public?
Classical
The focus during the Enlightenment was on ...
All things natural
What era was the Doctrine of Affections thrown out the door?
Classical
During the Classical era, what phrase was known as the "questioning" phrase?
Antecedent
What texture was prefered in the Classical era?
Homophony
The Classical style is also referred to as the ...
Viennese Style
Dynamics during the Classical era were...
Longer and more expressive
_______ timber is to Baroque as ________ timber is to Classical.
Instrumental; Vocal
What is an example of a Rondo form?
ABACA
Who is know as the 'Father of the Symphony'?
Haydn
What is polytexual?
Multiple lines of text are sung at the same time
What is an example of polytexual music?
Little Organ Mass
Who is considered the 'Father of Romantisism'?
Rousseau
What is the german word for art song?
Lieder
Who composed the Unfinished Symphony?
Schubert
Some of Schubert's Lieders are based on texts from ...
Von Baumberg
An example of a programmatic symphony is ...
Symphonie Fantastique
What composer was 'born too late' and referred to himself as a Classisist in a Romantic era?
Brahms
What was Robert Shaw's signature performance piece?
A German Requiem
What was a common 20th Century technique?
Shifting rhythms and meters
What is the avodiance of a tonic note and of tonal relationships in music called?
Atonality
Till Eulenspiegels Merry Pranks, Also Sprach Zarathustra and Salome are all pieces composed by...
Strauss
Who is considered the first great impressionist composer?
Debussy
What style is The Rite of Spring in?
Primitive
Sprechstimme means...
Speech voice
Polymeter is...
Use of more than one meter at a time
A Glissando is performed in which piece?
Rhapsody in Blue
Which instrument performs the Glissando in Rhapsody in Blue?
Clarient
Whose techinique was the Twelve Tone Techinique?
Schoenberg
Inserting various objects of different materials between the strings of a piano is called...
Prepared piano
Who was the famous teacher to Copland?
Boulanger
The Renaissance saw the addition of what type of patron?
Nobility
What was considered the most important invention during the Renaissance?
Gutenberg Press
Whan Martin Luther created the chorale form, he wanted songs to be written in this language:
Vernacular
The movement Martin Luther led during the Renaissance was called the:
Protestant Reformation
Portrayal of natural light, Saints seemed human and Pyramid design were commone with which era's visual art?
Renassiance
Who was the architect of the most important dome in the Renaissance?
Brunelleschi
What piece was composed for the dedication of the cupola of this dome?
Nuper rosarum flores
Which piece was a popular secular song form during teh Renassiance?
Madrigal
Which Dunstable song is taken from the book of the Bible, Song of Songs/Song of Solomon?
Quam pulchra est
The sackbut was the Renaissance...
Trombone
Small, mixed-intrument ensembles during the Renaissance times were called...
Consorts
Dance sets, which were the basis for the Baroque dance suite, were in groups of ...
2 or 3
Pastoral scenes represent...
Natural scenes
What is music for one voice with simple accompaniment?
Mondoy
What type of music from the 15th and 16th centuries was an instrumental composition to be "sounded" on instruments rather than sung?
Sonata
What is a section of complete work that has its own formal design and degree of independence, but is conceived as part of a whole?
Movement
What is the system of harmony based on the major and minor scales?
Tonal
What term originally meant irregular, but applies to the dramatic, emotional style of the 17th and early 18th century art?
Baroque
What refers to the idea of constrasting the sonorities of different performing ensembles?
Concertato
What type of music was expected to be performed by all members of refined society?
Madrigal
Which type of music was a shorter, sacred song?
Motet
What is a collection of psalms called?
Psalter
What is the texture of psalms?
Monophonic
Who is considered by many musicologists to be the "greatest composer" as referenced in this class (lived most of adult life in Italy)?
Josquin
What is the name of the famous secular song that made its way into hundreds of Masses?
L'homme arme
Whis of these was not an instrument that was invented by the end of the Renaissance? Piano, Clavichord, Harpsichord, Sackbut
Piano
What is the term for when 2 voices move at different rates of speed?
Mensuation canon
Whose compositions used transparent texture as a reaction to the Council of Trent, and whose polyphonic music had choral effects that implied homophony?
Palestrina
Who wrote Nuper rosarum flores?
Dufay
Several Italian cities developed what type of musical style?
Individual
Which important church, where Giovanni Gabrieli composed, was in a the shape of a cross?
Church of St. Mark
What did the crossed-shaped Church of St. Mark lend itself to?
Polychoral music
Which Spaniard contemporaty of El Greco wrote the motet O vos omnes?
de Victoria
What was the precursor to the Baroque sonata?
The Canzona
What type of dynamics was used in the Baroque era?
Terraced
What is a multi-movement Baroque composition for one or more solo instruments, accompanied by continuo?
Sonata
Which was the first piece to specify which instrument was to play a specific line of music?
Sonata pian'e forte
The Florentine Consort pushed for what style?
Monody
Movement from the Renaissance to the Baroque began with which art form?
Visual art
While Baroque music moved toward homophonic texture that relied on chord structures, it was still harmonically:
Modal
The Italian term cori spezzati is translated to:
Split choirs
How many lines were on the staff in the example of Gabrieli's music?
5
What type of temperament may Bach have supported?
Equal
Baroque ornaments were also called...
Affetti
What was a Baroque imitative polyphonic composition?
Fugue
Sonata pian'e forte is a ...
Double-chorus motet
What is the Italian term to indicate the second practice?
Stile moderno
What refers to a group of instruments, including a lute or a keyboard instrument, and one or more sustaining bass instruments, which accompanied Baroque ensemble compositions?
Basso contino
Which statment is true about Baroque music?
Changes in vocal music directly affected instrumental music
What is a sonata for two solor instruments and continuo?
Trio sonata
What is an ensemble that has an instrument with a different timbre grouped with other instruments?
Broken consort
Lauda anima mea Dominum is from...
The Office for the Dead
Rhythm has become steady and predicatable by the end of the 16th century. As a result, adding these to modern editions does not seem instrusive...
Barlines
Madrigal use of the same melody for different verses was also known as
Strophic
Who wrote the Magnum opus musicum, a collection of motets?
di Lasso
What is a mulit-movement composition for orchestra plus a small group of solo instruments?
Concerto grosso
Which type of music was greater during the Baroque - vocal, dramatic or instrumental?
Vocal and instrumental were equal
What is a rhapsodic, virtuosic keyboard form?
Toccata
What is a collection of stylized dance pieces?
Suite
Which era had the smallest orchestra?
Baroque
The early flute did not have the capablilty to play...
Sharps and flats
Who painted The Last Judgment?
Michelangelo
What type of art form did the Florentine consort want to resurrect?
Greek
During the Baroque era, there were constant clashes between what two groups?
Protestant and Catholic
What is another name for the time between the Baroque and Classical era?
Rococo
Sturm und Drang is translated to:
Storm and Stress
The time leading up to the Classical era was known as the 'Age of ...
Enlightenment
Music during the Classical era was primarily composed for which audience?
Public
Which statement best describes the relationship between vocal and instrumental music during the Classical era?
Instrumental music was more important
The beginning, questioning, part of a balanced phrase is called the...
Antecedent
The last, answering, part of a balanced phrase is called the...
Consequent
What statement best describes the relationship of textures in the Classical era?
Homophony was predominant
What was the type of bass that Couperin used in his Le tic toc choc?
Alberti bass
What form is found in Couperin's Le tic toc choc?
Rondo
The bass that is used in Couperin's Le tic toc choc is ...
Arpeggiated
Which style is more emotional - Rococo, Viennese, Emfindsamer Stil, or Medieval?
Emfindsamer Stil
Which was not part of the patronage system in the Baroque era - Public, City-state governments, Courts or Church?
Public
Baroque music is marked by...
Contrast
What is the name for the text of an opera?
Libretto
What part of an opera is narrow, syllabic, and flexible?
Recitative
What was the term applied to the music of Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven?
Viennese
The vocal term "bel canto" means...
Beautiful voice
What was the advantage of the castrati?
Lung capacity for projection
Which was NOT important to composers during the Classical era - entertainment, emotion, balance, control?
Emotion
Why was the Baroque Doctrine of Affections no longer used in the Classical era?
There were constrating sections in one movement
Crescendos during the Classical era were...
Long and expressive
What timbre became important for the first time during the Classical era?
Orchestral music
Which is NOT a section of sonata-allegro form - Recitative, Development, Recapituation, or Exposition?
Recitative
What is the "tail," or additional closing section of a piece?
Coda
Which is the extended virtuosic passage for a solo instrument, often improvised or composed by the performer?
Cadenza
What led Handel to write oratorios?
Public's loss of interest in stylized opera
Which vocal piece focused more on music, rather than text, and displayed a wide melodic range?
Aria
Which vocal piece focused more on text, and had a few chords to support the vocal line?
Dry recitative
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was known as ...
The Father of Romanticism
The Gloria movement in Haydn's St. Joannis di Deo "Little Organ Mass" uses what incomprehensilbe technique?
Polytexutal writing
Which poet wrote the text to Franz Schubert's Der Morgenkuss?
Von Baumberg
Symphonie Fantastique is an example of what type of music?
Program
Which of the following is an example of the thematic transformation in Symphonie Fantastique?
Diminution
What type of concerted Masses is known for its used of wind instruments?
Harmoniesmesse
Which of Schubert's lieder was an "experimental hybrid opera-in-the-lied"?
Der Morgenkuss
Beethoven's Symphony No. 5 starts and ends in which tonalities?
C minor - C major
What composition was inspired by the pounding rhythms of Beethoven's Piano Sonata No. 8, "Pathetique"?
Beethoven's Symphony No. 5
The lied Liebst du um Schoenheit was written by..
Clara Schumann
"Feeling is all" is a quote by ...
Faust
Berlioz's Symphonie Fantastique is known for its use of ...
Idee fixe
Who composed Eine Kleine Nachtmusik?
Mozart
Who composed Emperor Sring Quartet?
Haydn
Who composed Le tic toc choc?
Couperin
Who composed L'Ofero?
Monteverdi
Who composed Symphonie Fantastique?
Berlioz
Who composed Erlkonig?
Schubert
Who composed A German Requiem?
Brahms
Who composed Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun?
Debussy
Who composed Bolero?
Ravel
Who composed Rite of Spring?
Stravinsky
Who composed Rapsody in Blue?
Gershwin
Who composed Threnody for the Victims of Herioshima?
Penderecki
Who composed Helicopter String Quartet?
Stockhausen
Who composed the pieces Hoedown from Rodeo, Fanfare for the Common Man, Simple Gifts from Appalachian Spring and Billy the Kid?
Copland
Who composed The Perilous Night?
Cage
Who are composers of the 20th century?
Copland, Cage, Stravinsky, Penderecki
Name a composer who used polyphony in the 20th century?
Stravinsky (Rite of Spring) & Penderecki (Heroshima)
What compositions from both the Baroque and Classical eras were used for solo instruments? What which form went with each era.
Baroque - Sonata Classical - solo concerto
What is a mannheim crescendo?
A crescendo by adding more instruments. The increased volume by more insturments creates a physical crescendo.
Who wrote Sonata pian 'e forte?
Gabrieli
What was the first piece to specifiy which instrument played which part?
Gabrieli's Sonata Pian 'e forte
What was the oratorio developed?
The public was tired of overwrought, overly dramatic operas.
Name 2 oratorios.
The Messiah and Elijah
Who wrote The Messiah and Elijah?
Handel
Why was monody developed?
Polyphony was too confusing. People wanted to move back to the monophonic dramas of the Greek era. They wanted to understand the text and have it be more natural
What was different about Brahm's A German Requiem?
It was in the German vernacular, and was not just a translation of the traditional Latin Mass. The text was for celebrating life rather than the "day of wrath".
The Dies Irae part of a traditional Mass is regarding...
The Day of Wrath - regarding Judgement Day
Name a vocal composer from the Renaissance and something he wrote.
John Dowland - Come Again
What are the vocal forms of the Renaissance?
The 3 Ms - Motet, Mass and Madrigal
Which of the 3 Ms are sacred? Whic are secular?
Sacred - Motet and Mass; Secular - Madrigal
Which Renaissance mass used a secular tune and many versions existed?
L'homme arme
Which early Baroque composer was known for his keyboard works? Not Bach.
Couperin
What type of bass line was used in Le tic toc choc?
Alberti bass - which is arpeggiated (not block chords)
Why was figured bass used?
It allowed the performer to improvise other chord tones above the bass, within reason
What is the difference between an aria and recitative?
Aria focuses on melody, to showcase the techniques of the singer. Recitative focused on text which moved the story/libretto song
What are the 2 types of recitative?
Recitative - accompanied by orchestra; Dry recitative - accompanied by chords, sometimes only a keyboard instrument used (harpsichord)
Which composer was well known for his orchestration? Example- Till Eulenspiegel
Richard Strauss
What is the definition of post-romantic?
General term for several romantic styles that succeeded the dominance of German Romanticism and preceded the return of Classicism to the arts
What is symbolism?
Literary movement sharing the ideals of the Impressionists
What is Impressionism?
Style of painting and music that avoids explicit statement instead emphasizing suggestion and atmosphere
What is primitivism?
Style inspired by primitve works of art and by the relaxed life of unshophisticated cultures
What is expressionism?
highly emotional style in art that sought to express distrubed states of mind
What is atonality?
Avoidance of a tonic note and of tonal relationships in music.
What is octave displacement?
Melodic concept involving the selection of pitches from various, sometimes distant, octaves
What is polymeter?
Use of more than one meter at a time - hemiola
What is a glissando?
Expressive "slide" between pitches
What is polyrhythm?
two of more rhythmic patterns performed simultaneously.
What is the twelve-tone technique?
Arrangement of the 12 chromatic ptiches into a row that provides the melodic and harmonic basis for a music composition
What is polytonality?
2 or more keys at the same time
What is concrete music?
Music consisting of recoreded and electronically altered sound
What is musicology?
The scientific study of music
What is ethnomusicology?
Study of music of specific cultures
What is neoclassicism?
20th century version of classicism in music
What is modern dance?
contemporaty dance form, usually performed barefoot
What is augmentation?
Rhythmic variation in which note values are doubled.
What is neoromaticism?
20th century version of a romatic approach to music
What is backbeat?
Heavy accent on the normally weak second and fouth beats in quadruple meter
What is legato?
smooth, unterrupted
What is minimalism?
Style of music based on many repetitions of simple meldoic and rhythm patterns
What is musical comedy?
musical show combining light entertainment with an integrated plot
What is ensemble finale?
Final scene of a musical show, or of an act within the show, in which several soloists simultaneously express in different words and music their individual points of view
What is concept musical?
Musical show presenting ideas subject to the audience's interpretation and leaving situations unresolved
What is a film score?
All of the music accompanying a film
What is source or diagetic music?
Music heard by characters in the film as well as by the film audience
What is functional or nondiagetic music?
music heard by the audience only
What is a classical hollywood film score?
Lush orchestral scores particulary associated with the films of the 30s, 40s and 50s
What is a theremin?
The earlies electronic musical instrument
What is a sound track?
All of the dialogue, sound effects and music of a film
What is a temp?
Temporary film score, composed of existing music, prepared to demonstrate to a film's composer the type of music desired.
What is a grand opera?
Mid 19th century french serious opera style, emphasizing spectacular visual effects. Important components of grand opera include ballets and stirring choruses
What is an opera comique?
In the 19th century, french works that were shorter, more modest, and more realistic than grand operas, but not necessarily humorous
What is verismo?
Realism in opera
What is music drama?
Wagner's concept of music theater, in which the drama and music were theoretically of equal interest
What is a leitmotif?
Recurring melodic fragment or chord bearing dramatic or emotional signaficance, introduced by Wagner in his music dramas
What is an operetta?
Sometimes called light opera. Gilbert and Sullivan's operettas were comic musical shows, poking fun at the conventions of serious opera and at virtually everything else
What is a patter song?
Setting of humorous, most multisyllabic words sung very rapidly, with comic effect
What a minstrel show?
variety show, popular in the mid and late 19th century that included songs, dances and comic repartee performed by white men who blackened their skin to resemble stereotypical african american figures
What is vaudeville?
variety show, popular in the late 19th century, including jokes, stunts, and skits as well as song and dance
What is the second new england school?
group of late 19th century new england composers who studied in germany and contributed to every genre of art music
What is a rubato?
A romantic technique of "robbing" from the tempo at some point and "paying back" at others
What is a character piece?
A relatively short piano piece in a characteristic style or mood including: impromptus, ballades, preludes, nocturnes
What is an impromptus?
Pieces of an improvisatory character
What is a ballades?
Narrative song without words
What is a prelude?
Short mood pieces of no presribed form - before main attraction
What is a nocturnes?
Pieces thought appropriate to the night
What is an etudes?
Studies or "exercises" based on specific pianistic techniques
What is a leider?
A german art song
What is an orchestral suite?
Several sections of varying character drawn from a larger work, such as a ballet
what is a program symphony?
Multimovement orchestal work whose form is based on programmatic concepts
What is an idee fixe?
The term Berlioz used for the melody representing the loved on in his Symphonie Fantastique
What is a thematic transformation?
Variation of thematic or melodic material for programmatic purposes. Sometimes called metamorphosis
What is Dies Irae?
Gregorian chant for the dead. The words are part of the requiem mass
What is diminution?
Rhythmic technique in which note values are halved, doubling the tempo
What is a symphonic poem or tone poem?
One-movement orchestral piece whose form is based on programmatic principles
What is a concert overture?
One-movement orchestral composition, often inspired by literature and dramatic in expression, yet generally subject to analysis according to Classical principles of form
What is a cyclic form?
Multimovement form unified by recurrence of the same or similar melodic material in two or more movements
What is nationalism?
Late 19th century artistic movement in which the consciousness of national characters led artists of many nationalities to turn from the dominance of German influence in the arts to reflect the cultureal characteristics of their own and other countries
Who were THE FIVE?
19th century Russian composers associated with nationalism
What is a motive?
Brief melodic phrase, often with strong rhythmic interest, appropriated for extended development; often serves as a motto or recurring theme throughout a movement or a composition
What is an art song?
Setting of a well-know poet's work to music by a serious composer
What is a song cycle?
Set of songs by one composer, often with texts by the same poet. The songs by be related by subject, melodic material, or both
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