AP Bio (Chapter 14 - Mendel and Genetics) Flashcards

Terms Definitions
character
heritable feature that varies in individuals.
Eg. plant color.
trait
variant of character.
Eg. color purple.
Stamens
pollen producing organs in plants.
Carpel
egg bearing organs in plants.
true breeding
self pollinating plants produce plants of same variety.
homozygous.
Hybridization
crossing of 2 true-breeding plants.
P Generateion
first breeding generation of true-breeding organisms.
F1 generation
frst Filal generation where the products are heterozygous.
F2 generation
produced when the F1 geneartion self-pollinates.
Filal
son generation.
Law of Segregation
the law that states that for each character an organism inherits, two alleles exist, one from each parent.
Alleles
alternate versions of genes.
Dominant Allele
determines phenotype.
Reccessive allele
no noticable effect on phenotype unless in a homozygous, recessive genotype.
Punnett Square
the method of judging possible combinations of genes.
Homozygous
true breeding or identical alleles, either recessive or dominant. (XX, or xx)
Heterozygous
2 different alleles.
(Xx)
Phenotype
noticable traits in an organism.
Eg. purple flowers.
Genotype
genetic make up.
Eg. Xx, XX, xx
Testcross
breeding recessive homozygote with dominant phenotype to find genotype of other plant.
Law of Independant Assortment
each pair of alleles segregates independantly of other pairs of alleles during gamete formation.
Monohybrids
heterozygous for one character.
Dihybrids
heterozygous for both characters.
Complete dominance
only one allele shows in phenotype.
codominance
both alleles affect phenotype in seperate ways
incomplete dominance
phenotype between two alleles shared equally as in with pink flowers.
Pleitropy
genes with multiple phenotypic effects.
epistasis
one allele at locus alters phenotypic expression of allele at other locus.
Eg. mouse color and pigmint distribution (a mouse is brown or black, only if the gene for pigmint distribution is given)
Quantitative Characters
characteristics vary rather than either or.
polygenetic inheritance
2 or more genes to one phenotypic character.
norm of reaction
range of phenotypic possibilities.
multifactoral
many factors, genetic and enviromental, influence phenotype.
pedigree
big family tree
carriers
those with recessive disorder not shown in phenotype.
Dominant Disorders
Anchondroplasioa - dwarfism
Hunnington's disease (degenerative nervous system - not prevalent until older)
Amniocentesis
a form of testing babies for diseases by taking a sample of the embryotic fluid from the uterus and testing it for diseases.
Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)
a form of testing babies for diseases by taking a piece of the placenta and testing the tissues.
Consaguineous
"same blood".
what happens when close relatives mate, it makes it more likely for recessive dangerous traits to be passed on.
mendelian principles of inheritance
predict offspring traits in meiosis through the formation of gametes and how genes are passed to next generation.
gregor mendel
Austrian monk in 1857 who used pea plants to determine genetics.
Pisum Satria
pea plants (scientific)
seed color/shape
height
flour position/color
pod shape/color
traits tested in mendel's experiments.
gene
trait
allele
form of gene
Law of Dominance
Recessive genotype = recessive phenotype
Dominant Genotype = Dominant genotype.
Law of Segregation (altered after mendel)
CHROMOSOMES seperate during gamete formation
phenotypic ratio
homany dominant phenotypes to how many recessive phenotypes.
genotypic ratio
homozygous dominant: heterozygous: homozygous recessive
8.3 X 10^5
human possible chromosomes for parents gametes. 70 billion cominations possible for zygote.
2^N
number of poles to the power of the haploid number. number of combinations possible.
syngamy
fusion of gametes.
Law of Independant Assortment
every CHROMOSOME (originally allele, but later changed) seperates independantly.
/ 52
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online