Anatomy & Physiology: Saladin: 4th Edition - Chapter 4 (Genetics and Cellular Function) Flashcards

Terms Definitions
What is translation?
The process of enzymatically Reading an MRNA molecule and synthesizing the protein encoded in it's nucleotide sequence.
What is mutation?
Changes in DNA structure due to replication errors or environmental factors.
What is thymine (T)?
A single - ringed nitrogenous base (Pyrimidine) found in DNA, complementary to Adenine in the double helix in DNA.
What is transcription?
The process of enzymatically reading the nucleotide sequence of a gene and synthesizing a pre - mRNA molecule with a complementary sequence.
What is Apoptosis?
programmed cell death.
What is a base triplet?
a sequence of three DNA nucleotides that codes for one amino acid.
What are daughter cells?
cells that arise from a parent cell by mitosis or meiosis.
What is cytosine (C)?
a single ringed nitrogenous base found in DNA. Complementary to Guanine (G) in the double helix of DNA.
What is a gene?
a segment of DNA that codes for the synthesis of one protein.
Define Genetic Engineering.
any of several techniques that alter the genetic constitution of a cell or organism.
Define Gene Locus.
the site on a chromosome where a given gene is located.
Define Homozygous.
having identical alleles at the same gene locus of two homologous chromosomes.
What is a dominant allele?
an allele that is phenotypically expressed in the presence of any other allele.
Define metastasis.
the spread of cancer cells from the original tumor to a new location, where they seed the development of a new tumor.
Define mitosis.
a form of cell division in which a cell divides once and produces two genetically daughter cells.
What is a nucleotide?
an organic molecule composed of
1) nitrogenous base
2) mono saccharide
3) phosphate group
What is a codminant allele?
where both alleles are expressed.
What is a carcinogen?
an agent capable of causing cancer

(ie. chemicals, radiation, viruses)
Define recombinant DNA.
a molecule composed of the DNA of two different species spliced together.
What is chromatin?
filamentous nuclear material composed of DNA and associated proteins.
What is RNA?
ribonucleic acid; composed of adenine, uracil, thymine and cytosine. Directs protein sythesis which forms a single nucleotide chain.
What is RNA?
interpret DNA code.
Define somatic.
pertaining to the whole body as a whole.
(non-sex cells)
What is guanine (G)?
double-ringed nitrogenous base (purine) found in DNA and RNA. Complementary to Cytosine in DNA.
What is a codon?
a series of three nucleotides in mRNA that codes for one amino acid in a protein or signals the end of a gene.
What is an allele?
different forms of a gene at same location on two homologous chromosomes.
What is a haploid?
having 23 chromosomes instead of the usual 46 (in humans) in homologous pairs.
What is uracil?
a pyrimidine; found ONLY in RNA. Occupies (replaces) thymine which is found in DNA. Complementary to Adenine in RNA.
What is adenine?
a double ringed nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA and ATP.
What is cytokinesis?
division of the cytoplasm of a cell into two cells following nuclear division.
Name the four phases of mitosis.
1) Prophase
2) Metaphase
3) Anaphase
4) Telophase
Define genotype.
alleles (location) for a particular trait.
Define Heterozygous.
different alleles for a particular gene.
What is interphase?
accumulates materials needed to replicate DNA (G1 phase).
Define Genome.
all the genes of one person. (30-35,000 in humans: estimated)
What is a host cell?
any cell belonging to the human body.
What is a chromosome?
a condensed form of chromatin visible in a cell undergoing meiosis or mitosis.
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