PHM1000 Pharmacy Technician - Chapter 7: Routes/Formulations Walajtys

Terms Definitions
Intra
into
Intravenous
into the the venous (circulatory) system
intraocular
into the eye; PARENTERAL; solutions, suspensions, ointments, inserts
intracardiac
into the heart
intraarterial
into the artery
intrspinal
into the spine
intraosseous
into the bone
intraarticular
into the joint
intrarespiratory
into the lung
Enteral
anything involving the alimentary tract (mouth to anus)
Parenteral
any sites of administration besides the enteral tract. (i.e. vaginal)
Oral
ENTERAL; Tablets, Capsules, Bulk Powders, Solutions, Suspensions, Elixirs, Syrups, Emulsions
Buccal
ENTERAL; Tablets, Solutions
Sublingual
ENTERAL; Tablets, Lozenges
Rectal
ENTERAL; Solutions, Ointments, Suppositories
intranasal
PARENTERAL; solutions, suspensions, sprays, aerosols, inhalers, powders
inhalation
PARENTERAL; solutions, aerosols, powders,
IV/IM/ID
intravenous/intramuscular/intradermal; PARENTERAL; solutions, suspensions, emulsions
dermal
solutions, tinctures, collodions, liniments, suspensions, ointments, creams, gels, lotions, pastes, plasters, powders, aerosols, transdermal patches
subcutaneous
PARENTERAL; solutions, suspensions, emulsions, implants
vaginal
PARENTERAL; solutions, ointments, creams, aerosol foams; powders; suppositories, tablets, IUDs
pH
measures the acidity or alkalinity of a substance. 7 is neutral. Higher numbers = more alkaline (8-14) Lower numbers = more acidic (1-6).
stomach acid
pH of 1-2
enteric coated
coating on tablets that delays disintegration of a tablet until it reaches the higher pH of the intestine.
disintegration
breaking apart of a tablet into smaller pieces
dissolution
when the smaller pieces of a disintegrated tablet dissolve in a solution
modified release
oral formulations that release the drug so a longer duration of action occurs. SR (sustained release) SA (slow acting), ER/XR (extended release) PA (prolonged action), CR (controlled/continuous release) TR (time release) LA (long acting)
solutions
clear liquid made up of one or more substances dissolved in a solvent(Aqueous solutions)
syrups
concentrated or nearly saturated solution of sucrose in water, contain less than 10% of alcohol.
nonaqueous solution
contain solvent other then water (glycerin, alcohol, propylene glycol can be used in oral solutions)
elixirs
lear sweetened, hydroalcoholic liquids, less sweet and viscous than syrup,alcohol content 5-40%
spirits
alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solutions of volatile substances with alcohol content 62-85%. Typically used for flavoring effect (Peppermint Spirit) but can be used for medicinal purposes (Spirit of Camphor)
tinctures
nonvolatile substances:10gm drugs in 100ml of solutions; Ex: Tincture of Iodine
suspensions
formulations in which the drug is not completely dissolved in the solvent.
emulsions
mixture of two or more immiscible (unblendable) liquids; "Oil and Water don't mix"; an emulsifier is is used to formulate a homogenous mixture between the two ingredients
creaming
one of two distinct phases of separation that occurs with emulsions; occurs when dispersed droplets merge and rise to the top or fall to the bottom of the emulsion; redispersed by shaking
coalescence
breaking or cracking; irreversable seperation of dispersed phase (emulsions)
gelling agents
increase the viscosity or thickness of the medium in which they are placed (GELS)
water soluble
able to dissolve in water
sublingual
under the tongue
hemorrhoid
painful swollen veins in the anal/rectal area
IV
intravenous; 16-20 gauge/1-1.5" needle length
IM
intramuscular; 19-22 gauge/1-1.5" needle length
SC/SQ
subcutaneous; 24-27 gauge/ 3/8 - 1" needle length
ID
intradermal; 25-26 gauge/ 3/8" needle length
necrosis
increase in cell death
buffer system
ingredients in a formulation designed to control pH
sterile
free of all microorganisms, both harmful and harmless
aqueous
water based
diluent
solvent that dissolves a freeze dried powder or dilutes a solution
infusion
gradual injection of an intravenous solution into a patient
syringeability
the ease with which a suspension can be drawn from a container into a syringe
thrombus
blood clot; complication that can occur from IV administration
phlebitis
inflammation of veins; complication that can occur from IV administration
air emboli
occurs when air is injected into the veins; complication that can occur from IV administration
particulate matter
small pieces of material (ex: glass from ampule or vial) that can get through filtration in an IV line and cause complications if it gets into venous system
infusion pumps
used to ensure a constant delivery rate
elastometric pumps
useful for intermittent or very slow, continuous infusions
IM Injection sites
gluteal maximus, deltoid (upper arm) and thigh muscles
IM Injection formulations
solutions, suspensions, colloids in aqueous and oil based solvents, oil-in-water emulsions or water-in-oil emulsions
oil in water emulsions
an oil dispersed in water; mix readily with water based liquids (ex: milk. fat globules dispersed in water)
water in oil emulsions
water based mixed in oil; mix readily with oil based liquids (ex: cod liver oil)
z-tract injection
method of injecting medication into a large muscle using a needle and syringe; seals the medication deeply within the muscle and allows no exit path back into the subcutaneous tissue and skin. Used for medicines that stain the skin or irritate tissues.
SC injection sites
lower abdomen, front of thigh, back, back of upper arm
biocompatability
not irritating; does not promote infection or abcess
wheal
raised or blister-like area on the skin caused by an ID (intradermal) injection
normal volume of tears
estimated to be 7 to 10 microliters
normal commercial volume
50 microliters
% of dose lost from overflow of the eye
80% Only about 20% of a dose is actually absorbed into the eye.
Tear production
2 microliters per minute; turnover is every 2 to 3 minutes
Capacity of adult nasal cavity
20ml
inspiration
breathing in
MDI
metered dose inhalers
percutaneous absorption
absorption of drugs through the skin, often for systemic effect
Rules of percutaneous absorption
more drug is absorbed when applied to larger area; greater amount of rubbing in, the greater the absorption; longer the contact with the skin, the greater absorption; formulations or dressings that increase skin hydration generally improves absorption
stratum corneum
outermost layer of epidurmis
gels
dispersions of solid drugs in jelly like vehicle
lotions
suspensions of solid drugs in an aqueous vehicle
ointments
drugs incorporated into a base (such as petrolatum, polyethylene glycols)
colloidions
liquid preparations of pyroxylin (pulpy or cottonlike polymer) dissolved in a solvent mixture of ether and alcohol (ex: Liquid bandages)
liniments
alcoholic or oil based solutions, generally applied by rubbing (ex: absorbine jr.)
pastes
used for protective action; more solid materials than ointments, stiffer and less penetrating
plasters
provide prolonged contact at application site; solid or semisolid (common backing material: cotton, moleskin, paper)
powders
mixture of drug and inactive base (ex cornstarch)
transdermal systems
patches, tapes, gauzes used to deliver drugs through skin for a systemic effect
glycerinated gelatin
base used to make suppositories; good for prolonged local effects because it softens slowly; preferred for vaginal suppositories
polyethylene glycols
used in suppositories; dissolve when inserted into a body cavity, which allows for storage without refrigeration
solid formulations
tablets, capsules, bulk powder
modified released formulations
primary goal is to reduce the amount of doses; many terms are used to identify these drugs: ER/XR (extended release) prolonged action (PA), sustained release (SR) controlled/continued release (CR) time release (TR) and long acting (LA)
local effect
drug activity is at site of administration
systemic effect
drug introduced into the venous (circulatory) system and carried to site of activity
enteral routes
oral, buccal, sublingual, rectal
enteral dosage forms
tablets, capsules, bulk powders, solutions, suspensions, elixers, syrups, emulsions, lozenges, ointments, suppositores; (know what forms can be used where)
parenteral route
intraocular, intranasal, inhalation, intravenous, intramuscular, intradermal, dermal, dermal, subcutaneous, vaginal
parenteral dosage forms
solutions, suspensions, ointments, inserts, gels, aerosols, powders, colloids, emulsions, tinctures, liniments, creams, lotions, pastes, plasters, transdermal patches, IUDs (IMPORTANT: know what forms can be used where!)
sublingual & buccal
route of administration used when rapid action is desired; some limitations include bitter taste and conditions which may inhibit patient from taking medications orally
rectal administration
given for local effect or to avoid degradation; limitations include: many patients do not prefer rectal dosage forms, seen as inconvenient; absorption is erratic and unpredictable
parenteral administration
used becausee: poor absorption of oral drug, med degraded by stomach/intestinal acids, rapid drug response desired, patient is unconscious/unable to take the drug; disadvantages: cost/skills to administer, risks of administration or if reaction occurs
injection independent
opthalmic, intranasal, inhalation, dermal, vaginal, otic
injection dependent
intravenous, intramuscular, intradermal, subcutaneous, epidural, intrathecal
buffer system
ingredients in a formulation designed to control the pH
sterile
bacteria-free
complications that can occur from IV administration
thrombus, phlebitis, air emboli, particulate material
IM injection formulations
solutions, suspensions, oil-in-water emulsions, water-in-oil emulsions and colloids in aqueous and oil-based solvents
subcutaneous injection sites
lower abdomen, back of arm, front thigh, upper back
viscosity
thickness of liquid
wheal
caused by an ID inhection; raied blister-like area on the skin
ways intranasal dosage is lost
amounts of drug are swallowed; normal mucous flow remove drug; enzymes in mucosa metabolize certain drugs
recommended period for intranasal administration
3 to 5 days; prolonged used can lead to swelling, which can cause a rebound of symptons previously intended to be treated by the nasal spray.
syringability
ease with which a suspension can be be drawn from a container into a syringe
injectability
ease of flow when a suspension is injected into a patient
infusion
gradual intravenous injection of a volume of fluid into a patient ; generally a large volume (i.e. electrolyte solution)
infusion pumps
administration devises used for the administration of certain medications (such as analgesics or insulin) at a controlled rate
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