Voculary for Music 3200 - Music of the World Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Soundscape
The distinctive settings, sounds, and significances of music
Frequency
Number of vibrations per second, determines the pitch
Overtone/ Harmonic
The harmonics above the fundamental
Fundamental tone
"first harmonic" or "first partial", the lowest tone in a harmonic series which determines the perceived pitcho f a sound
timbre
The distinctiveness of a particular voice or instrument, arising from acoustical properties of the harmonic series. Also called quality
Ethnomusicology
Field of study that joins the concerns and methods of anthropology with the study of music
Musical Ethnography
The process of identifying a musical scene and studying the soundscape of which it is a part
fieldwork
research, including observation and participation, of living traditions, also called musical ethnography.
fieldnotes
acoustics
The science that deals with sound
Khoomii
Biphonic Tuvan throat singing, originally from rural Inner Asia and now heard in concert halls Worldwide.
Igil
Tuva
Small country in Central Asia, where throat singers are from
Katajjaq
An Inuit form of throat music, literally "vocal game"
pitch
Highness or lowness of a sound
music
The purposeful organization of the quality, pitch, duration, and intensity of sound.
Vibrato
A regular fluctuation of a sound, produced by varying the pitch of the sound
Straight tone
A sound that lacks any vibrato
nasal tone
A buzzing vocal quality produced by using the sinuses and mask of the face as the sound resonators
Falsetto
Men singing in a high register above the normal male singing range
Idiophone
Instruments that produce sound by being vibrated. Classified by how they're caused to vibrate
Membranophone
Instruments whose sound is produced by a membrane stretched over an opening, i.e. Drums
Chordophone
instruments with strings. One of 5 Sachs-Hornbostel instrument types
Aerophone
Instruments that sound by means of vibrating air; subdivided into trumpets and horns, pipes (flutes and reeds), free aerophones
Electrophone
Instruments that produce sound using electricity. Part of Sachs-Hornbostel system
Sach-Hornbostel System
System of classifying instruments
organology
The study of musical instruments
Intensity
The perceived loudness or softness of a sound
Range (wide range vs narrow range)
The distance between the highest and lowest pitches that can be sung or played by a voice/instrument
Scale
Series of pitches set forth in ascending or descending order
Solfège
Sargam
Raga
The Indian system for organizing melodies according to their distinctive pitch content, ornaments, and range of assocations
Pentatonic Scale
Scale that contains five pitches. Among other instances it is base of Ethiopian mode of Tizita
Ornamentation
Melodic, rhythmic, and timbral elaborations or decorations such as gracings, rekrek, and grace notes
Trills
Melody
Sequence of pitches, also called a "tune", heard in the foreground of music
Conjunct melody
stepwise melodic movement using small intervals (notes next to each other in scale)
Disjunct melody
Melodic motion by leaps of large intervals
Steel Drums
Duduk
An Armenian wind instrument that symbolizes its native country
Drone
steady single tone or a pipe on a bagpipe that produces one
Textures
The perceived relationship of simultaneous musical sounds
Monophony
"a single sound", the simplest musical texture
Biphony
Melody with drone in background
Homophony
A musical texture, as in the western hymn, where the parts perform different pitches but move in the same rhythm. Melody plus accompaniment
Polyphony
Musical texture in which the parts move in contrasting directions, as opposed to homophony. Imitative is same melody in a round.
Heterophony
A musical texture in which two or more parts sound almost the same melody at almost the same time; often with the parts ornamented differently. 2 voices same melody
Harmony
collective sound of a series of chords, serving as a support to a melody.
Beat
An individual pulse
Irregular Meter
Assymetrical groupings with different numbers of beats per measure.
syncopation
A rhythmic effect that provides an unexpected accent, often by temporarily unsettling the meter through a change in the established pattern of stressed and unstressed beats
Strophic
A form in which all verses of text are set to the same melody. Strophic form can include a refrain that is sung between verses
Refrain
A fixed stanza of text and music that recurs between verses of a strophic song
Composition
The process of creating music
Improvisation
process of composing music as it is performed
Highlife in Ghana
Ga
Homowo
Funeral Associations
Ghana - like insurance, group of people who pay dues to the association and when one member dies they buy their coffin and take part in the wake, a 3-day mourning/singing
Great Durbar
Fontomfrom
Agbadza
Ghana - An Ewe dance performed at social gatherings and funerals
Atumpan
Ghana - (AKA West African Talking Drum)Large drums, the central instruments in ensembles used in Asante ceremonies/state occasions
Polyrhythm
Contrastic rhythms that are performed at the same time
Ganesh Chaturthi Festival
Ganesh
Puja
guru
Bollywood
Indian version of Hollywood in Mumbai
Raga
Tala
An Indian rhythmic framework consisting of time cycles that contain a fixed number of counts
Sitar
Indian "guitar"
Tabla
paired drums often in Indian music
Mrdangam
Tanbura (Tampura) (Tanboura)
long-necked, plucked lute. Similar to Sitar without frets, plays the drone for other instruments
Sarod
shankh
Conch shell played in India (Conch used in Polynesia and ancient Americas)
Ballad
Song genre commemorating important events and individuals usually in strophic form
Fado
Portugal - "fate", song genre closely associated with Lisbon and popular within Portuguese expatriate communities
Amàlia Rodriguez
Hagerei
Tizita
Category of tuning and melody, based on a pentatonic scale, widely used in secular music of Ethiopia
Diaspora
People living outside their historic homeland who maintain memories of and attachments to their place of origin
Folk Music
Category of styles of music transmitted by oral tradition, maintained in collective memory by a group of people, associated with nonprofessionals, and regarded as the cultural property of a group of people bounded by national, social, or ethnic identity
raga nilambari
Quinceanera
Latino celebration of of girl turning 15
Mariachi
A Mexican instrumental ensemble that includes the guitarron, vihuela, violin, and trumpets
Guitarron
large, plucked, four- or five-string bass lute with an expanded belly that serves as the bass instrument in Mariachi
Vihuela
A small, strummed folk guitar, a key instrument in the mariachi ensemble
charro
Mexican cowboy, fancy dressed, part of mariachi.
Sombrero
Large Latin American hat worn by charros
botonaduras
Scottish Highland Bagpipe
Gracings
practice of inserting grace notes into bagpipe melodies
birl
Quick ornamental figure of two adjacent pitches in bagpipe music
grips
Quick ornamental figure of two non-adjacent pitches in bagpipe music
Doubling
quick open/close fingering on one fingerhole, bagpipes
Piob Mhór
Scottish Pipes - "great pipes", fill bag by blowing into it
Chanter
Bagpipes - pipe with fingerholes that plays the melody
Drone
Blowpipe
Pipe through which a bagpiper blows to fill the air reservoir(bag)
Uilleann Pipes
Irish small pipes with three drones, a keyed chanter, and a bellows to fill the bag. Has more of a "tinny" sound and more quiet to be played indoors
Cannntaireachd
Scottish - (mouth music) imitating bag pipes with singing. Mostly the gracings (doubling, grips, birls)
Pibroch
Genre of solo bagpipe music which consists of a set of elaborate variations of atheme, called the allrd urlar
Legacy of the MacCrimmons
Ceilidh
Bagpipes - Social/musical event dating back to the 18th century and associated with Celtic traditions
Diaspora
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