NPTE: Cardiac (scorebuilders 2008) Flashcards

ventricular tachycardia
Terms Definitions
Phase I cardiac rehab program
• Consists of pt/family education, self-care eval, continuous monitoring of vitals, low-level exercise: AROM, amb, and self-care.

• Ends with: low-level exercise test.

• Lasts 3-5 days.
Phase II cardiac rehab program
• Lasts 2-12 wks.

• Frequency = 2-3x/wk.

• Pts. monitored closely and supervised during all activities.

• Progress to Phase III when: clinically stable, indep. w/ self-monitoring, don't require ECG monitoring
Phase III cardiac rehab program
• Lasts 6-8 wk.

• Frequency: 1x/wk

• Includes exercise, education, and counseling.

• Max symptom-limited exercise test is required.
Phase IV cardiac rehab program
• Lasts throughout the pts. lifetime

• Requires independence with self-monitoring, stable cardiac status, no contraindications to exercise, at least 5 MET capacity
MET level?

• Eating
MET level?

• Toileting
MET level?

• Driving a car
MET level?

• Dressing
MET level?

• Walking (2 mph)
MET level?

• Bathing
MET level?

• Cooking
MET level?

• Light housework
MET level?

• Light gardening
MET level?

• Showering
MET level?

• Sexual intercourse
MET level?

• Dancing
MET level?

• Walking (4 mph)
MET level?

• Swimming
MET level?

• Shoveling snow
MET level?

• Mowing the lawn
Hypertension in:
• Infant
>90/60 mmHg
Hypertension in:
• Children
>120/80 mmHg
Hypertension in:
• Adults - borderline
>140-159/90-99 mmHg
Hypertension in:
• Adults - moderate
>160-179/100-109 mmHg
Hypertension in:
• Adults - severe
>180/110 mmHg
Hypotension exists if:
Systolic pressure <100 mmHg
Pathological Changes in ECG:
• Depressed QRS
Indicates: heart failure, ischemia, pericardial effusion, obesity, COPD
Pathological Changes in ECG:
• Ectopic foci
A location where abnormal myocardial depolarization originates. Occurs if the rhythm of the ectopic pacemaker increases, the rhythm of normal pacemakers is inhibited, or if the conduction path from the normal pacemaker to the ectopic foci is blocked.
Pathological Changes in ECG:
• Elevated QRS
Hypertrophy of myocardium
Pathological Changes in ECG:
• Q wave
previous myocardial infarction
Pathological Changes in ECG:
• ST segment elevation
acute myocardial infarction
Pathological Changes in ECG:
• Atrial fibrillation
hypertension, CHF, CAD, rheumatic heart disease, cor pulmonale, pericarditis, illegal drug use
Pathological Changes in ECG:
• Supraventricular tachycardia
mitral valve prolapse, core pulmonale, digitalis toxicity, rheumatic heart disease
Pathological Changes in ECG:
• Premature atrial contraction
intake of caffeine, emotion stress, smoking, pathologies like CAD, electrolyte imbalance, infection, CHF
Pathological Changes in ECG:
• Ventricular tachycardia
post myocardial infarction, rheumatic heart disease, CAD, cardiomyopathy
Pathological Changes in ECG:
• Ventricular fibrillation
long-term or severe heart disease, post myocardial infarction, hypercalcemia, hypokalemia, hyperkalemia
Pathological Changes in ECG:
• Multifocal ventricular tachycardia
hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypothermia, drug-induced through antiarrhythmic medications
Pathological Changes in ECG:
• Premature ventricular contractions
intake of caffeine, emotional stress, smoking, pathologies like CAD, digitalis toxicity, cardiomyopathy, myocardial infarction
Pathological Changes in ECG:
• Complete heart block (3rd degree)
infection, electrolyte imbalance, CAD, anteroseptal myocardial infarction, impairment with the AV conduction system
Pathological Changes in ECG:
• Asystole
failure of all pacemakers to initiate, conduction system failure, acute MI, ventricular rupture
Cardiac markers for MI
CK/CK-MB, Trop I, Trop II, Myoglobin, LDH-I
Blood test for CHF
BNP, should be below 100 normally
Total cholesterol level
Triglyceride levels
LDL level
HDL level
PT level
prothrombin time. 10-13. Assesses clotting ability of factor I, ii, v,vii, x. Used with Coumadin
PTT level
partial thromboplastin time. 60-70. Assesses clotting ability of all factors except vii, xiii. More sensitive than PT in detecting minor deficiencies. Monitors oral anticoagulants.
Percent of packed RBC in total blood volume. Used to identify abnormal states of hydration. Low = weakness, chills, dyspnea. High = increased risk of thrombus.

- Normal: Males = 40-54. Females = 37-47. Newborns = 49-54. Children = 35-49.
assess for blood loss. Low = hemorrhage. High = polycythemia or dehydration.

- Normal: Males = 14-18. Females = 12-16. Newborns = 16.5-19.5. Children = 11.2-16.5
Catheterization: Name what it measures:
• Swan-Ganz
Pulmonary artery catheterization. Immediate cardiopulmonary pressure measurements: pulmonary artery pressure.
Catheterization: Name what it measures:
• Hickman catheter
indwelling right atrial catheter: inserts into the right atrium, allows removal of blood samples, administration of medication, and monitoring of central venous pressure.
Normal HCO3 level
22-26 mEq/L

• If the HCO3 is below 22, the patient is metabolic acidotic. If the HCO3 is above 26, the patient is metabolic alkalotic.
Normal pCO2 level

• Below 35 is resp alkalotic, above 45 is resp acidotic.
Auscultation of:
• Aortic valve
2nd intercostal space on right by sternum
Auscultation of:
• Pulmonic valve
2nd intercostal space on left by sternum
Auscultation of:
• Tricuspid
under 4th rib on left by sternum
Auscultation of:
• Bicuspid (Mitral)
under 5th rib on left midclavicular line.
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