Psychology 230 Final Exam WSU Flashcards

Terms Definitions
performance fears
fear of not being able to to perform during sexual behavior
spectatoring
acting as an observer or judge of one's own sexual performance
psychotropic medications
medications prescribed for psychological disorders, such as depression
primary sexual dysfunction
a sexual dysfunction that has always existed (usually biological or physiological causes)
secondary sexual dysfunction
a sexual dysfunction that occurs after a period of normal sexual functioning (usually psychological causes)
situational sexual dysfunction
a sexual dysfunction that occurs only in specific situations
global sexual dysfunction
a sexual dysfunction that occurs in every sexual dysfunction
multimodal
using a variety of techniques for treatment
hypoactive sexual desire (HSD)
diminished or absent sexual interest or desire
sexual aversion
persistent or recurrent extreme aversion to and avoidance of all genital sexual contact
discrepancy in desire
differences in levels of sexual desire in a couple
aphrodisiac
a substance that increases or is believed to increase a person's sexual desire
sexual arousal disorder
diminished or absent lubrication response of sexual excitation
erectile disorder
diminished or absent ability to attain or maintain until completion of the sexual activity, an adequate erection
persistent sexual arousal syndrome
an excessive and unremitting level of sexual arousal. may also be referred to as persistent genital arousal disorder
vasoactive agent
medication that causes dilation of the blood vessels
yohimbine
produced from the bark of the african yohimbe tree; often used as an aphrodisiac
nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) test
a study performed to evaluate erections during sleep that helps clarify the causes of erectile dysfunction
systematic desensitization
a treatment method for sexual dysfunction that involves neutralizing the anxiety-producing aspects of sexual situations and behavior by a process of gradual exposure
sensate focus
a series of touching experiences that are assigned to couples in sex therapy to teach nonverbal communication and reduce anxiety
psychogenic
relating to psychological causes
intracavernous injection
a treatment method for erectile dysfunction in which vasodilating drugs are injected into the penis for the purpose of creating an erection
priapism
a condition in which erections are long lasting and often painful
vacuum constriction device
treatment device for erectile dysfunction used to pull blood into the penis
revascularization
a procedure used in the treatment of vascular erectile dysfunction in which the vascular system is rerouted to ensure better blood flow to the penis
prosthesis implantation
a treatment method for erectile dysfunction in which a prosthesis is surgically implanted into the penis
semirigid rod
flexible rod that is implanted into the penis during prosthetic surgery
orgasmic disorder
a delay or absence of orgasm following a normal phase of sexual excitement
premature ejaculation
pattern of ejaculating with minimal sexual stimulation before, on, or shortly after penetration and before the person wishes it
bibliotherapy
using books and educational material for the treatment of sexual dysfunction or other problems
squeeze technique
a technique in which the ejaculatory reflex is reconditioned using a firm grasp on the penis
stop-start technique
a technique in which the ejaculatory reflex is reconditioned using intermittent pressure on te glans of the penis
retarded (inhibited) ejaculation
condition in which ejaculation is impossible or occurs after strenuous efforts (relatively rare)
retrograde ejaculation
backward flow of ejaculate into bladder instead of being released through the urethra (relatively rare)
vaginismus
involuntary spasms of muscles around vagina in response to attempts at penetration
dyspareunia
genital pain associated with intercourse
pubococcygeus muscle
a muscle that surrounds and supports the vagina
dilators
a graduated series of metal rods used in the treatment of vaginismus
vulvar vestibulitis syndrome
syndrome that causes pain and burning in the vaginal vestibule and often occurs during sexual intercourse, tampon insertion, gynecological exams, bicycle riding, and wearing tight pants
hypertension
abnormally high blood pressure
hypertension
abnormally high blood pressure
angina
chest pains that accompany heart disease
myocardial infarction (MI)
a cutoff of blood to the heart muscle, causing damage to the heart; also referred to as a heart attack
stroke
occurs when blood is cut off from part of the brain, usually because a small blood vessel bursts
hemiplegia
paralysis of one side of the body
aphasia
defects in the ability to express and/or understand speech, signs, or written communication, due to damage to the speech centers of the brain
disinhibition
the loss of normal control over behaviors such as expressing sexuality or taking one's clothes off in public
hypersexuality
abnormally expressive or aggressive sexual behavior, often in public; the term usually refers to behavior due to some disturbance of the brain
hyposexuality
abnormal suppression of sexual desire and behavior; the term usually refers to behavior due to some disturbance of the brain
ostomies
operations to remove part of the small or large intestine or the bladder, resulting in the need to create an artificial opening in the body for the elimination of bodily wastes
stoma
surgical opening made in the abdomen to allow waste products to exit the body
mastectomy
surgical removal of the breast
simple mastectomy
surgical removal of the breast tissue
oophorectomy
surgical removal of the ovaries
prostatectomy
the surgical removal of the prostate gland
cystectomy
surgical removal of the bladder
incontinence
lack of normal voluntary control of urinary functions
indwelling catheter
a permanent catheter, inserted in the bladder, to allow the removal of urine in those who are unable to urinate or are incontinent
penectomy
surgical removal of the penis
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
a disease of the lung that affects breathing
hyperestrogenemia
having an excessive amount of estrogens in the blood
paraplegia
paralysis of the legs and lower part of the body, affecting both sensation and motor response
quadriplegia
paralysis of all four limbs
schizophrenia
any of a group of mental disorders that affect the individual's ability to think, behave, or perceive things normally
neuroleptics
a class of antipsychotic drugs
major depression
a persistent, chronic state in which the person feels he or she has no worth, cannot function normally, and entertains thoughts of or attempts suicide
affective disorders
a class of mental disorders that affect mood
contagion
disease transmission by direct or indirect contact
punishment concept
idea that people who had become infected with certain disease, especially STIs, did something wrong and are being punished
asymptomatic
without recognizable symptoms
latency
a period in which a person is infected with an STI, but does not test positive for it
pubic lice
a parasitic STI that infests the pubic hair and can be transmitted through sexual contact; also called crabs
scabies
a parasitic STI that affeects the skin and is spread during skin-to-skin contact both during sexual and nonsexual contact
gonorrhea
a bacterial STI that causes a puslike discharge and frequent urination in men; many women are asymptomatic
epididymitis
an inflammation of the epididymis in men, usually resulting from STIs
gonococcus bacterium
the bacterium that causes gonorrhea (neisseria gonorrhoeae)
syphilis
a bacterial STI that is divided into primary, secondary, and tertiary stages
congenital syphilis
a syphilis infection acquired by an infant from the mother during pregnancy
chancre
a small, red-brown sore that results from syphilis infection, the sore is actually the site at which the bacteria entered the body
chlamydia
a bacterial STI; although often asymptomatic, it is thought to be one of the most damaging of all STI's
nongonococcal urethritis (NGU)
urethral infection in men that is usually caused by an infection with chlamydia
chancroid
bacterial STI characterized by small bumps that eventually rupture and form painful ulcers
trichomoniasis
vaginal infection that may result in discomfort, discharge, and inflammation
bacterial vaginosis (BV)
bacterial infection that can cause vaginal discharge and odor but is often asymptomatic
lactobacillus
bacterium in the vagina that helps maintain appropriate pH levels
vulvovaginal candidiasis
a vaginal infection that causes a heavy discharge; also referred to as a yeast infection
yeast infection
vaginal infection that causes an increase in vaginal discharge, burning, and itching and may be sexually transmitted; also referred to as VULVOVAGINAL CANDIDIASIS
herpes
highly contagious viral infection that causes eruptions of the skin or mucous membranes
herpes simplex virus (HSV)
the virus that CAUSES herpes
herpes simplex I (HSV-I)
viral infection that causes cold sores on the face or lips
herpes simplex II (HSV-II)
viral infection that is sexually transmitted and causes genital ulcerations
viral shedding
release of viral infections between outbreaks from infected skin
autoinoculate
cause a secondary infection in the body from an already existing infection
prodomal phase
tingling or burning felling that precedes the development of herpes blisters
human papillomavirus (HPV)
sexually transmitted viral infection that can cause genital warts, cervical cancer, or both
genital wart
wartlike growth on the genitals; also called venereal wart, condylomata, or papilloma
cervical dysplasia
disordered growth of cells in the cervix, typically diagnosed with Pap testing
viral hepatitis
viral infection; three main types of viral hepatitis include hepatitis A (HAV), hepatitis B (HBV), and hepatitis C (HCV)
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
retrovirus responsible for the development of AIDS; can be transmitted during vaginal or anal intercourse
acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
a condition of increased susceptibility to opportunistic diseases; results from an infection with HIV, which destroys the body's immune system
T-lymphocyte (T-helper cell)
type of white blood cell that helps to destroy harmful bacteria in the body
reverse transcriptase
a chemical that is contained in the RNA of HIV; it helps to change the virus' DNA
opportunistic disease
disease that occurs when the immune system is depressed; often fatal
viral load
amount of viral particles in a sample of blood. a person with high viral load usually develops AIDS faster than a person with a low viral load
oral candidiasis
an infection in the mouth caused by the excess growth of a fungus that naturally occurs in the body
pneumocystic carinii pneumonia (PCP)
a rare type of pneumonia; an opportunistic disease that often occurs in people with AIDS
toxoplasmosis
a parasite that can cause headache, sore throat, seizures, altered mental status, or coma
cryptococcosis
an acute or chronic infection that can lead to pulmonary or central nervous system infection
cytomegalovirus
a virus that can lead to diarrhea, weight loss, headache, fever, confusion, or blurred vision
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)
a rare form of cancer that occurs in untreated men with AIDS
ELISA (enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay)
screening test used to detect HIV antibodies in blood samples
Western Blot
a test used to confirm a positive ELISA test; more accurate than the ELISA test, but too expensive to be used as the primary screening device for infection
false negative
a negative test result that occurs in a person who is positive for the virus
false positive
a positive test result that occurs in a person who is negative for the virus
highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)
the combo of three or more HIV drugs
HIV RNA testing
test that allows health care providers to monitor the amount of virus in the blood stream
CD4 + T cell amount
test that can determine the T-helper white blood cell count, which will show how well a person's immune system is controlling HIV
What is worldwide number of people living with HIV?
38 million
Where do 90% of children infected with HIV live?
Sub-Saharan Africa
T or F: Chronic illnesses, such as diabetes, can negatively affect sexual functioning.
True
Paraphilia
clinical term used to describe types of sexual expressions that are seen as unusual and potentially problematic. A person who in engages in paraphilia is often referred to as a paraphiliac.
Fetishist
one who focuses intensely on an inanimate object or body part (the fetish) for the arousal of sexual desire
lovemap
term coined by JOHN MONEY to refer to the template of an ideal lover and sexual situation we develop as we grow up
hypophilia
lack of full functioning of the sexual organs due to missing stages of childhood development
hyperphilia
compulsive sexuality due to overcompensating for negative reactions to childhood sexuality
courtship disorder
a theory of paraphilias that a person's paraphilia stems from being stuck in a preliminiary stage of normal courtship progression
conditioning
in behaviorism, the process whereby a person associates a particular behavior with a positive response, for example, if food repeatedly is served to a dog right after the sound of a bell, the dog will salivate at the sound of the bell even when no food is served
Transvestite fetishism
a paraphilia in which the preferred or exclusive method of sexual arousal or orgasm is through wearing the clothing of the other sex
sadism
focus on administering pain and humiliation as the preferred or exclusive method of sexual arousal and orgasm
masochism
focus on receiving pain and humiliation as the preferred or exclusive method of sexual arousal and orgasm
sadomasochism
sexual activities of partners in which one takes a dominant, "master", position, and the other takes a submissive, "slave", position
dominant
describes the active role in sadomasochistic sexuality
submissive
describes the passive role in sadomasochistic activity
flagellation
striking a partner, usually by whipping
caning
beating someone with a rigid cane
birching
whipping someone using the stripped branch of tree
scatophagia
ingestion of feces, often as a sign of submission
urolagnia
ingestion of urine, often as a sign of submission
infantilism
treating the submissive partner as a baby, including dressing the person in diapers in which he or she is forced to relieve him/herself
dominatrix
a professional dominant woman who charges money to engage in bondage and discipline fantasy play with submissive clients
exhibitionist
person who exposes his or her genitals to strangers as a preferred or exclusive means of sexual arousal and orgasm
voyeur
one who observes people undressing or engaging in sex acts without their consent as a preferred or exclusive means of sexual arousal and orgasm
scatolophilia
sexual arousal from making obscene telephone calls
scopophilia
psychoanalytic term for voyeurism, literally "the love of looking"
primary voyeurism
voyeurism as the main and exclusive paraphilia
troilism
any sex sessions involving multiple partners, typically witnessed by others
pedophilia
sex with children as a preferred or exclusive mode of sexual interaction in an adult; child molestation. People who engage in this behavior are called pedophiles, or sexual offenders.
ephebephilia
attraction to children who have just passed puberty; also called hebephilia
recidivism
a tendency to repeat crimes, such as sexual offenses
frotteurism
an intense and recurrent fantasy or behavior that involves touching and rubbing the genitals against a nonconsenting person in a crowded place
toucheurism
the act of compulsively touching strangers with the hands to achieve sexual arousal
zoophilia
sexual attraction to animals in fantasy or through sexual contact as a preferred or exclusive means of sexual arousal and orgasm (also referred to as bestiality)
necrophilia
sexual attraction to dead bodies in fantasy or through sexual contact as a preferred or exclusive means of sexual arousal and orgasm
penile plethysmography
a test performed by measuring the amount of blood that enters the penis in response to a stimulus, which can indicate how arousing the stimulus is for the male
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
psychological test used to assess general personality characteristics
shame aversion
a type of aversion therapy in which the behavior that one wishes to extinguish is linked with strong feelings of shame
systematic desensitization
technique by which a person learns to relax while experiencing arousal or anxiety-provoking stimuli
orgasmic reconditioning
sex therapy technique in which a person switches fantasies just at the moment of masturbatory orgasm to try to condition himself or herself to become excited by more conventional fantasies
satiation therapy
therapy to lessen excitement to an undesired stimulus by masturbating to a desired stimulus and then immediately masturbating again, when desire is lessened, to an undesired stimulus
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
psychological disorder in which a person experiences recurrent and persistent thoughts, impulses, or images that are intrusive and inappropriate and that cause marked anxiety and repetitive behaviors
nymphomaniac
term used to describe women who engage in frequent or promiscuous sex; usually used pejoratively
Don Juanism, or satyriasis
terms used to describe men who engage in frequent or promiscuous sex
rape
forced sexual behavior without a person's consent
sexual assault
coercion of a nonconsenting victim to have sexual contact
rapist psychopathology
theory of rap that identifies psychological issues in a rapist that contribute to rape behavior
victim precipitation theory
theory of rape that identifies victim characteristics or behaviors that contribute to rape ("blame the victim" theory)
feminist theory
theory of rape contending that rape is a tool used in society to keep a woman in her place
sociological theory
theory of rape that identifies power differentials in society as causing rape
rape crisis centers
organizations that offer support services to victims of sexual assault, their families, and friends. Many offer info, referrals, support groups, counseling, educational programs, and workshops
rape trauma syndrome (RTS)
a two-stage stress response pattern that occurs after a rape
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
anxiety disorder recognized by the DSM-IV-TR that can develop after a life threatening or anxiety-producing event and can cause ongoing emotional and psychological symptoms, such as insomnia, depression, flashbacks, and nightmares
acute phase (rape)
first stage of the rape trauma syndrome, in which a victim often feels shock, fear, anger, and or other feelings
long-term phase (rape)
second stage of the rape trauma syndrome, which involves a restoration of order in the victim's lifestyle and reestablishment of control.
silent rape reaction
type of rape trauma syndrome in which a victim does not talk to anyone after the rape
child sexual rape
sexual contact with a minor by an adult
incest
sexual contact between persons who are related or have a caregiving relationship
incest taboo
absolute prohibition of sex between family members
dissociative disorder
psychological disorder involving a disturbance of memory, identity, and consciousness, usually resulting from a traumatic experience
dissociative personality disorder (DPD)
dissociative disorder in which a person develops two or more distinct personalities
traumatic sexualization
common result of sexual abuse in which a child displays compulsive sex play or masturbation and shows an inappropriate amount of sexual knowledge
intimate partner violence (IPV)
pattern of coercive behavior designed to exert power and control over a person in an intimate relationship through the use of intimidation, threats, or harmful or harassing behavior
sexual harassment
unwanted sexual attention from someone in school or the workplace; also includes unwelcome sexual jokes, glances, or comments, or the use of status or power to coerce or attempt to coerce a person into having sex
quid pro quo harassment
type of sexual harassment that involves submission to a particular type of conduct, either explicitly or implicitly, to get education or employment (teacher tells student better grade if they engage in conduct)
hostile environment harassment
type of sexual harassment that occurs when an individual is subjected to unwelcome repeated sexual comments, innuendos, or visually offensive material or touching that interferes with school or work (student or employee might repeatedly tell sexual jokes)
fresco
type of painting done on wet plaster so that the plaster dries with the colors incorporated into it
pornography
sexually oriented material that is created simply for the purpose of arousing the viewers
decency
conformity to recognized standards of propriety, good taste, and modesty - as defined by a particular group (standards of decency differ among groups)
obscenity
legal term for materials that are considered offensive to standards of sexual decency in a society
hard core
describes explicit, genitally oriented sexual depictions; more explicit than soft core, which displays sexual activity often without portrayals of genital penitration
erotica
sexually oriented media that are considered by a viewer or society as within the acceptable bounds of decency
media
all forms of public communication
mass media
media intended for a large, public audience
subliminal
existing or functioning below the threshold of consciousness, such as images or words, often sexual, that are not immediately apparent to the viewer of an advertisement, intended to excite the subconscious mind and improve the viewer's reaction to the ad
prurient
characterized by lascivious thoughts; used as criterion for deciding what is pornographic
pimp
slang term refers to the male in charge of organizing clients for a female prostitute
madam
slang term refers to the woman who is responsible for overseeing a brothel or group of prostitutes
brothel
house of prostitution
john
slang term that refers to a prostitute's client
trick
slang term that refers to the sexual services of a prostitute; also may refer to a john
patriarchal
of or pertaining to a society or system that is dominated by male power
pseudofamily
type of family that develops when prostitutes and pimps live together; rules household responsibilities, and work activities are agreed on by all members of the family.
call girl
higher-class female prostitute who is often contacted by telephone and may either work by the hour or the evening or for longer periods
courtesan
prostitute who often interacts with men of rank or wealth
escort agency
agency set up to arrange escorts for unaccompanied males; sexual services are often involved
lineup
lining up of prostitutes in a brothel so that when clients enter brothel they can choose the prostitute they want
bondage and discipline (B&D) prostitute
prostitute who is paid to engage in bondage and discipline fantasy play with clients
gigolo
man who is hired to have a sexual relationship with a woman and receives financial support from her
rimming
oral stimulation of the anus
water sports
sexual services that involve urinating on or inside one's sexual partner
call boy
higher-class male prostitute who is often contacted by telephone and may either work by the hour or the evening or for longer periods
she-male
slang term that refers to a male who has been on hormones for sex reassignment but has not undergone surgery; she-males often have both a penis and breasts
archetypes
ancient images that Carl Jung believed we are born with and influenced by
comfort girl
a woman in Japan or the Phillipines during WWII who was forced into prostitution by the government to provide sex for soldiers; also called HOSPITALITY GIRL
T or F: Pornography first emerged in the 17th century.
F: 18th century
T or F: Of the estimated 750,000 to 1,000,000 minors who run away from home each year, 85% eventually become involved in prostitution.
True
Someone who has a sexual dysfunction that always existed is:
PRIMARY
Sexual Desire disorders become:
more common for females after menopause
T or F: 33% of women, 16% of men report a lack of interest in sex
True
27% of women have premenopausal lack of interest in sex. What is the postmenopausal rate?
52%
True or False: Sexual Arousal Disorders can be caused by a blood flow issue.
True
What sexual dysfunction has the most treatments?
Male Erectile Disorder
What is the percent of women in the U.S. and worldwide who are unable to lubricate or stay lubricated?
20% US, 30% Worldwide
How many million men in the US have an erectile disorder?
30 million men
Which of the following is NOT a pharmacological treatment for erectile disorder: Cialis, Viagra, Loestrin, Levitra
Loestrin
T or F: Paraphilias are similar to impulse-control disorders
True
Most paraphiliacs are (MALES) or (FEMALES)
MALES
What is the most accurate way to describe most S&M encounters?
They involve ritualized behaviors and no one receives lasting harm
T or F: a developmental theory of paraphilia is that we are born with a general erotic potential that can be attached to almost anything.
True
T or F: psychoanalytic theories of paraphilia say that paraphilias are NOT related to the Oedipal Crisis and Castration Anxiety.
FALSE
T or F: Transvestites do NOT want to change biological gender.
True
T or F: Scopophilia is sexual gratification from watching people undress.
True
T or F: Among nonhuman mammals, forced penile penetration, rape, occurs commonly in a a lot of species.
True
T or F: Women are more likely to commit suicide after being raped.
False, MEN
Which country has the highest rate of rape?
US
What is the victim precipitation theory of rape?
It shifts responsibility of rape onto the victim
T or F: Surveys show in US that about 1/2 of rapes are reported (an increase from a few years ago)
True
T or F: US rate rape is 12X higher than England and 30X higher than Japan
False 12X higher than England and 20X higher than Japan
T or F: Rapists have antisocial personality patterns
True
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Term:
Definition:
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