General Pharmacology Vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Pharmacology
Study of drugs and their action on living organisms.
Chemical name
Gives the exact chemical makeup of the drug and placing of the atoms or molecular struction; it is not capitalized.
Generic name
Name given to a drug before it becomes official; may be used in all countries, by all manufactgurers; it is not capitalized.
Official name
Name listed in TheUnited States Pharmacopoepia-National Formulary; may be the same as the generic.
Trade name (brand name)
Name that is registered by the manufacturer and is followed by the trademard symbol; the name can only be used by the manufacturer; a drug may have several trade names, depending on the number of manufacturers; the first letter of the name is capitalized.
Receptor
a specialized large group of molecules that are linked together that attaches or binds to the drug molecule.
Agonists
drugs that bind with a receptor to produce a therapeutic response.
Antagonists
join with a receptor to prevent the action of an agonist.
Pharmacokinetics
refers to activities within the body after a drug is administered. These activities include absorption, distribution, biotransformation, excretions, and half-life.
Absorption
process by which a drug is made available for use in the body.
Distribution
The systemic circulation distributes drugs to various body tissues or target sites.
Biotransformation
the process by which a drug is converted by the liver to inactive compounds through a series of chemical reactions.
Excretion
The process of eliminating the inactive compounds from teh body through the kidneys.
Half-life
refers to the time required for trhe body to eliminate 50% of the drug.
Adverse Reactions
(side effects) when they are given a drug.
allergic reaction
This occurs from drug administration when the body views the drug as a foriegn substance or an antigen.
Drug Tolerance
a term used to describe a decreased response to a drug, requiring an increase in dosage to achieve the desired effect.
synergism
occurs when drugs interact with each other and produce an effect that is greater than the sum of their seperate actions. (example: 1+1= 4 could be used to illistrate synergism)
antagonist drug reactuib
occurs when one drug interferes with the action of another.
bronchospasm
rapid constriction of the airways
clinical pharmacology
an area of medicine devoted to the evaluation of drugs used for human therapeutic benefit
enteral
the major route by which drugs enter the body through the digestive tract
intradermal
method of parenteral drug delivery where drugs are injected into the dermis of the skin; also called an intracutaneous injection
intramuscular
method of parenteral drug delivery where drugs are injected into layers of muscle beneath the skin
intravenous
method of parenteral drug delivery where drugs are injected into the venous circulation
mechanism of action
how a drug exerts its effects
oral
method of enteral drug delivery in which drugs are swallowed, chewed, or allowed to slowly dissolve in the mouth
parasympathetic nervous system
portion of the autonomic system that is active during periods of rest and which produces the rest or relaxation response
parenteral
the major route by which drugs enter the body by a way other than the digestive tract, usually by injection
peripheral nervous system
division of the nervous system containing all nervous tissue outside the CNS, including the autonomic nervous system
pharmaceutics
the science of preparing and dispensing drugs
pharmacodynamics
the study of how the body responds to drugs and natural substances
pharmacopoeia
medical reference summary indicating standards of drug purity, strength, and directions for synthesis
pharmacotherapeutics
treatment of diseases by the use of drugs
potency
the power or strength of a drug at a specified concentration or dose
rectal
method of enteral drug delivery where drugs are administered by way of the rectum
scheduled drug
in the U.S., a term describing a drug placed into one of five categories (I through V) based on its potential for misuse or abuse
secretion
movement of substances from the blood into the kidney tubule after filtration has occurred
somatic nervous system
consists of nerves that provide voluntary control over skeletal muscle
subcutaneous
method of parenteral drug delivery where drugs are injected into the hypodermis of the skin
sublingual
method of enteral drug delivery where drugs are placed under the tongue
sympathetic nervous system
portion of the autonomic system that is active during periods of stress and which produces the fight-or-flight response
topical
the route by which drugs are placed directly onto the skin and mucous membranes
transdermal
method of drug delivery, usually by a patch, where drugs are absorbed across the layers of the skin for the purpose of entering the bloodstream
transmucosal
method of topical drug delivery where drugs are applied directly to mucosal membranes, including the nasal and respiratory pathways and reproductive openings
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