Philosophy: Quotes Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Thomas Hobbes
Leviathan, Ch. XIII "Equality"
...the weakest has strength enough to kill the strongest...
Thomas Hobbes
Leviathan, Ch. XIII "Conflict"
From this equality of ability arises equality of hope in the attaining our ends.
Thomas Hobbes
Leviathan, Ch. XIII "The State of Nature"
"in the state of nature...three principal causes of quarrel. First, competition; secondly, diffidence; thirdly, glory."
Thomas Hobbes
Leviathan, Ch. XIII "The State of Nature"
"And the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short."
Thomas Hobbes
Leviathan, Ch. XIV "Liberty"
"The right of nature... is the liberty each man has to use his own power... for the preservation of his own nature (his own life)."
Thomas Hobbes
Leviathan, Ch. XIV "Laws of Nature"
"That every man ought to endeavour peace, as far as he has hope of obtaining it..."
Thomas Hobbes
Leviathan, Ch. XIV "Laws of Nature"
"...and when he cannot obtain [peace], that he may seek, and use, all helps and advantages of war."
Thomas Hobbes
Leviathan, Ch. XIV "Laws of Nature"
The sum of the right of nature is to "by all means we can, to defend ourselves."
Thomas Hobbes
Leviathan, Ch. XIV "Laws of Nature"
Law of the Gospel "Whatsoever you require that others should do to you, that do ye to them."
Thomas Hobbes
Leviathan, Ch. XIV "Laws of Nature"
"To lay down a man's right to any thing is to divest himself of the liberty of hindering another of the benefit of his own right to the same."
Aristotle
"Awards should be according to merit."
Aristotle
"The just, then, is a species of the proportionate."
Aristotle
Nicomachean Ethics, Book V
"What is just is-the proportional."
Robert Nozick
Distributive Justice
"The minimal state is the most extensive state that can be justified. Any state more extensive violates people’s rights."
Robert Nozick
Justice Preservation
“A distribution is just if it arises from another just distribution by legitimate means.”
Robert Nozick
Historical Principles and End-Result Principles
“The entitlement theory of justice in distribution is historical; whether a distribution is just depends on how it came about.”
Robert Nozick
Patterning
“From each as they choose, to each as they are chosen.”
Robert Nozick
"Any distributional pattern with any egalitarian component is overturnable by the
voluntary actions of individual persons over time...."
Robert Nozick
" Whatever arises from a just situation by just steps is itself just"
John Rawls
" ...social and economic inequalities... are just only if they result in compensating
benefits for everyone, and in particular for the least advantaged members of society."
John Rawls
" [The principles of justice] are the principles that free and rational persons concerned
to further their own interests would accept in an initial position of equality..."
John Locke
Second Treatise of Government
Chapter II, § 4
"state all men are naturally in...a state of perfect freedom to order their actions and dispose of their possessions and persons...a state also of equality"
John Locke
Second Treatise of Government
Chapter II, § 6
"But though this be a state of liberty, yet it is not a state of license."
John Locke
Second Treatise of Government
Chapter III, § 17
"And hence it is that he who attempts to get another man into his absolute power into a state of war with him..."
John Locke
Second Treatise of Government
Chapter III, § 18
"That makes it lawful for a man to kill a thief who has not in the least hurt him nor declared any design upon his life any farther than by the use of force so to get him in his power..."
John Locke
Second Treatise of Government
Chapter III, § 21
"To avoid this state of war is one great reason of men's putting themselves into society and quitting the state of nature..."
John Locke
Second Treatise of Government
Chapter IV, § 22
"The natural liberty of man is to be free from any superior power on earth and not to be under the wil or legislative authority of man, but to have only the law of nature for his rule."
John Locke
Second Treatise of Government
Chapter V, § 25
"...men...have a right to their preservation and consequently to meat and drink and such other things as nature affords for their subsistence..."
John Locke
" ...men have agreed to a disproportionate and unequal possession of the earth, they
having by a tacit and voluntary consent found out a way how a man may fairly possess
more land than he himself can use the product of..."
John Locke
"The great and chief end, therefore, of men's uniting into commonwealths, and putting
themselves under government, is the preservation of their property."
John Locke
"The state of nature has a law of nature to govern it.... no one ought to harm another
in his life, health, liberty, or possessions...."
John Locke
"...the supreme power cannot take from any man any part of his property without his
own consent..."
Karl Marx
Manifesto of the Communist Party
"The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles."
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Discourse on the Origin of Inequality, Property
"The first man who, having enclosed a piece of ground, bethought himself of saying This is mine... was the real founder of civil society."
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Discourse on the Origin of Inequality, The State of Nature
"Man's first feeling was that of his own existence, and his first care that of self-preservation."
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Discourse on the Origin, Justice
"The cultivation of the earth necessarily brought about its distribution..."
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
On the Social Contract, Real Property
"Each member of the community gives himself to it, at the moment of its foundation, just as he is, with all the resources at his command, including the goods he possesses."
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
On the Social Contract, Real Property
"Every man has naturally a right to everything he needs..."
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
" ...the social contract ... serves in the state as the basis of all rights"
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
" The purpose of every system of legislation ... boils down to the two principal objects, liberty and equality. Liberty because all particular dependence is that much force taken from the body of the state; equality because liberty cannot subsist without it"
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
"You are lost if you forget that the fruits of the earth belong to all and the earth to no
one!
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
...the social state is advantageous to men only insofar as they all have something
and none of them has too much
Karl Marx
From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs
Karl Marx
"Political power, properly so called, is merely the organized power of one class for
oppressing another."
John Locke
Folks must be left with "enough and as good left in common for others.
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