Course 9 PME - Vol. 2 Leadership and Management Flashcards

Terms Definitions
According to the text, what are some characteristics of leadership?
Leaders lead, indicating they're out in front and are being followed; leaders are not always on top, and leaders motivate others. Any characteristics listed in skills and abilities checklist.
After completing the leadership assessment, what do you perceive to be your leadership strengths and weaknesses?
List any strengths and weaknesses you found prevalent during your personal assessment survey.
What measurement tools are available to assess leaderships skills?
Scores of assessments, evaluations, tests, indices, surveys, etc...
In developing an effective time management plan, what two step plan can you use?
Establish a "To Do" list and prioritize your tasks.
Explain the A-B-C Priority system.
This system requires you to categorize your tasks by level of importance. Items prioritized as A are "have to do, must be accomplished today." Items listed as B are not quite as urgent. Items C are nice to to do, non time consuming and simple to accomplish.
What is the key to prioritizing tasks?
To establish and focus on 20% of the "80-20" Rule.
How does time management impact work center effectiveness?
It leads to efficiency and increased productivity.
Name a key element to keep in mind when organizing your desk or workstation.
Don't concentrate so much on the "prettiness" of your desk; think, instead, about the level of organization a structured work area contributes to productivity.
How can you use delegation as an effective time saving technique?
Delegation allows you to distribute a portion of your workload to others, usually to subordinates. You can delegate lower priority tasks (categories B and C) that are challenging and an enhancement to subordinate training.
What planning tools are available to help you manage your work center respondsibilities?
Calendars, planners, organizers, and personal digital assistants.
What is recognized worldwide as one of the biggest time-wasters?
The telephone.
Regarding time management, how do we fulfill our respondsibilities as NCOs and demonstrate our adherencee to AF Core Values?
The effective application of time management techniques is a clear manifestation of our commitment to the Air Force Core Values. By properly managing our time, we make a positive impact on work center effectiveness.
What programs should we be actively involved in to maintain a high degree of proficiency in our specialty?
Programs offered through education services, with special emphasis on career development courses and the Community College of the Air Force (CCAF) programs.
In meeting the objective of PME how does time management help?
Effective time management can improve our performance by helping to free up time that can be used to increase our knowledge about the Air Force as a profession and the role we play in it.
What is the defininition of stress?
Stress is a reaction or wear and tear on our bodies experience to an external demand placed by our continually hanging evironment; it has physical and emotional effects on us creating positive or negative feelings or behaviors.
What does GAS stand for and what are it's three stages?
GAS stands for General Adaption Syndrome. The three stages are Alarm Reaction, Resistance, and Exhaustion.
What are the four variables related to the stress intensity level? Give an example of each level.
The four variables are:

1. Personal perception - an individual perceives a potential stessor such as public speaking.

2. Social Support - effective relationships buffer effects of stress as in testimonies from military members thanking their family for supporting them throughout their career.

3. Locus of Control - how people view their fate; people who believe they control their own destinies tend to view work situations to be less stressful.

4. Behavior or Personality Types A & B - Type A people aggressively struggle to acheive more in less time while type B's go with the flow.
What are seven subcategories of organizational stressors?
Job stressor, role stressors, environmental stressors, interpersonal stressors, leadership stressors, organizational structure and change stressors.
What are the differences between role conflict and role ambiguity?
Role conflict occurs when a person's job roles or respondsibilities conflict with one another, often seen at intermediate levels of supervision. Role ambiguity occurs when an individual is not provided enough information about his or her role to properly perform the job (e.g., no job description, performance standards, etc.)
What is the social density and how can it create stress in the workplace?
Social density is an individual's requirement for personal space to feel comfortable. If this personal space (office space) is frequently violated because of overcrowding, stress can result.
What is recognized worldwide as one of the biggest time-wasters?
The telephone.
Regarding time management, how do we fulfill our respondsibilities as NCOs and demonstrate our adherencee to AF Core Values?
The effective application of time management techniques is a clear manifestation of our commitment to the Air Force Core Values. By properly managing our time, we make a positive impact on work center effectiveness.
What programs should we be actively involved in to maintain a high degree of proficiency in our specialty?
Programs offered through education services, with special emphasis on career development courses and the Community College of the Air Force (CCAF) programs.
In meeting the objective of PME how does time management help?
Effective time management can improve our performance by helping to free up time that can be used to increase our knowledge about the Air Force as a profession and the role we play in it.
What is the defininition of stress?
Stress is a reaction or wear and tear on our bodies experience to an external demand placed by our continually hanging evironment; it has physical and emotional effects on us creating positive or negative feelings or behaviors.
What does GAS stand for and what are it's three stages?
GAS stands for General Adaption Syndrome. The three stages are Alarm Reaction, Resistance, and Exhaustion.
What are the four variables related to the stress intensity level? Give an example of each level.
The four variables are:

1. Personal perception - an individual perceives a potential stessor such as public speaking.

2. Social Support - effective relationships buffer effects of stress as in testimonies from military members thanking their family for supporting them throughout their career.

3. Locus of Control - how people view their fate; people who believe they control their own destinies tend to view work situations to be less stressful.

4. Behavior or Personality Types A & B - Type A people aggressively struggle to acheive more in less time while type B's go with the flow.
What are seven subcategories of organizational stressors?
Job stressor, role stressors, environmental stressors, interpersonal stressors, leadership stressors, organizational structure and change stressors.
What are the differences between role conflict and role ambiguity?
Role conflict occurs when a person's job roles or respondsibilities conflict with one another, often seen at intermediate levels of supervision. Role ambiguity occurs when an individual is not provided enough information about his or her role to properly perform the job (e.g., no job description, performance standards, etc.)
What is the social density and how can it create stress in the workplace?
Social density is an individual's requirement for personal space to feel comfortable. If this personal space (office space) is frequently violated because of overcrowding, stress can result.
What does organizational structure and change stressors stem from?
From the level of decision making and the magnitude of rules and regulations.
Why do extra-organizational stressors need be addressed?
If left undetected or addressed, extra-organizational stressors can build up and cause problems, either alone or in concert with organizational stressors.
What are the three outcomes of distress?
The outcome may include any combination of Physiological, Psychological or behavioral outcomes.
What is the most common behavioral reaction to stress seen in the workplace?
Alcohol consumption is one of the most widely recognized and probably the most common serious stress reaction.
How is an organization impacted from the behavior of personal distress?
Personal distress can impact the qualtity and quantity of work produced and result in abuse of equipment, waste or resources and supplies, low morale, etc.
What are the two goals of stress management programs and methods?
To promote individual and/or organizational health and to minimize individual and organizational distress.
What is the purpose of individual stress management methods?
Individual methods aim at changing your view of potential stressors, altering the response pattern and treating specific problems caused by stress.
How does an individual accomplish overload avoidance?
Identify and avoid busy work, delegate or empower when possible, learn to say no, and attempt to negotiate reasonable deadlines.
What are organizational stress methods used for?
Organizational methods are used to help members adjust to and manage those stressors which cannot be removed.
What are the benefits of increased subordinate involvement?
Five potential benefits area reduction in tardiness and absenteeism, improvement in supervisor subordinate relations, greater acceptance of change, greater ease in leading subordinates, and greater buy-in to decisions made.
What is the definition of discipline as it relates to the Air Force?
Discipline is "A specific type or pattern of behaviors intended to ensure work center effectiveness and mission accomplishment brought about by a state of order and obedience."
How does discipline affect the Air Force culture?
The impact can be either positvie or negative. If you are part of a unit that experiences several disciplinary problems, mission effectiveness and team cohesion is endangered. If you are part of a well-disciplined unit, it is likely that the mission is being carried out with minimal problems; self-development and unit cohesionis taking place.
Why is the status of discipline important to the Air Force?
The status of discipline could be compared to the pulse of a person. Disciplinary status makes a statement about the health of a unit and the individuals in the unit. Knowing the status of discipline in your unit will be a good indicator to the supervisor what adjustments should be made.
What is the purpose of the enlisted force structure?
The purpose of the Enlisted Force Structure is to define the specific respondsibilities for each rank, the relationship between each rank and how each rank fits into the organization, and the career progression through the enlisted ranks.
How does the enlisted structure contribute to discipline in the Air Force
The Enlisted Force Structure lays the foundation for effective discipline. It provides guidance and direction for NCOs spelled out in the form of the NCO general respondsibilities. If the NCO fulfill these roles, he or she will better able to establish and maintain control while, at the same time, taking care of the professional development of subordinates.
What is the supervisor's role in helping subordinates adjust to the military environment?
The supervisor should engage in such activities that let subordinates know the supervisor cares about their well being and career development. Taking the time to ensure they fully understand what is expected of them and taking a personal interest in them are great ways to be directly involved and to demonstrate genuine concern for the individual. The supervisor's actions should not be limited to the on-duty activities; an interest in what subordinates do off duty also shows concern and interest. In the end the supervisor wants to focus on activities that show subordinates they are valuable members of the team.
Describe the actions you should take in preventing disciplinary problems.
A should communicate expected standards and behaviors to subordinates. Those standards and expectations should be enforced consistently and fairly. Ensure you are directly involved in your subordinates professional development by capitalizing on opportunities for special training, recognition, and off-duty activities. Most important, be a positive role model and lead by example through your actions as an NCO.
What are some corrective measures you would utilize in order to maintain discipline?
When prevention fails, the supervisor may have to resort to verbal or written counseling. Letters of admonishment or reprimand may be necessary for more serious or frequent infractions, and you must be prepared to provide documentation and information to the First Sergeant and commander concerning disciplinary problems your subordinate is experience in the event non-judicial punishment is required.
Describe the Progressive Discipline Process (PDP).
The PDP is the process of gaining and maintaining discipline within your organization. It provides a way for the supervisor to establish lines of acceptability and communicate those lines to your subordinate. As the supervisor monitors behavior and identifies substandar performance, he or she can apply the PDP utilize the least amount of force necessary to modify the behavior.
Explain how substance abuse impacts productivity in the work center.
Substance abuse contributes to the decline in productivity because the affected individual's ability to perform are impaired by the substance being abused and the effects and distractions that result from the abuse. The individual becomes unable to complete assigned tasks and requires more supervision.
Explain how time in the work center is impacted by substance abuse.
The affected individual is requiredd to spend time away from the duty section in order to take care of the problem. It becomes more difficult to meet suspense's and complete tasks in a timely manner because of the loss. Shop personnel must adjust priorities and work schedules to compensate for the missing person.
How do the negative impacts on time and productivity in the work center impact work center morale?
Others in the work center must do more work to attempt to compensate for the person dealing with a substance abuse problem. They must also work longer hours to accomplish the mission. Morale begins to decline as workers begin to feel overwhelmed and unfairly given more than their fair share of tasks to complete.
Give an example of a potential safety mishap that could result due to substance abuse in your work center.
Provide a personal example focusing on a potential safety mishap that could occur as a result of substance abuse.
Describe the steps you should take as a supervisor to prevent substance abuse in your work center.
Educate through direct involvement and explanation of policies and standards, deglamorize the use of alcohol, and lead by example.
Why is documentation so important to you and the subordinate in the indentification phase of a substance abuse problem?
Documentation provides the experts the information needed to help the person deal with the substance abuse problem. It also helps ensure the appropriate punitive measures are carried out should it be necessary to take such course of action.
Describe the supervior's role during the intervention phase of a substance abuse problem?
Communicating with the individual about the observed behaviors leading you to believe there may be a sustance abuse problem, proper and timely referral to the proper agency, and direct involvement and genuine concern during the treatment phase.
Define ORM.
ORM is a systematic approach to optimizing risk to support the best mission outcomes.
List the principles of ORM.
Accept no unnecessary risk, make decisions at teh appropriate level, accept risk when benefits outweigh the costs, and integrate ORM into Air Force doctrine at all levels.
What are some factors to consider when determining if benefits outweigh the costs?
A comparison of time, money, quality, quantity, and perceptions should be made in order to give information to decision makers to reduce the amount of personal subjectivity needed to make a risk decision.
What step of ORM deals with prioritizing the control measures?
Step 3, analyze risk control measures.
What is the purpose of step 1 of the ORM?
To identify as many hazards in the process as possible.
Why is ORM not just a safety program?
Safety is one consideration in ORM. ORM is a continuous process designed to detect and assess risk using safety as one of the main considerations.
Explain the behavior model.
A person feels a need and sets a goal to fulfill that need. The person then acts in a way that will accomplish the goal. The behavior will provide feedback to help the person determine if the goal is being met or not. If the goal is blocked or not being met, a different set of behavior may be carried out in order to continue trying to attain the goal.
How do coping behaviors inmpact you as a leader?
Understanding coping behaviors will better prepare you to deal with the successes and failures of your subordinate. Knowing these coping behaviors are healthy and normal part of behavior is important just as knowing the coping can become dangerous if it is done at the cost of everything else in the person's life.
Explain the role of learning in behavior.
Learning is the process that conditions us to react to a given situation or process a given set of information in a certain way. Learning helps us to gain an understanding of right and wrong and helps us to respond accordingly.
Explain the differences between Herzberg's and McClelland's motivational theory.
Herzberg's theory asserts that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are caused by different work related factors called hygienes. Worker dissatisfaction occurs when they hygienes are lacking. McClelland's theory states that three critical needs, power affiliation, and acheivement may be fulfilled through the organization. The organization can place you in charge of something or someone, social and interpersonal activities satisfy the acheivement need, and reaching a goal fills the acheivement need.
According to Vroom's Expectancy Theory, how does motivation occur?
Motivation occurs because a person assigns meaning or value to what they see or perceive as a realistic outcome based on their behavior. This type of motivation is very strong because the value is often determined by the person who is doing the behavior instead of the person providing the reward.
How do aspirations fit into the behavior process?
Aspriations are a motivational force that play a role in our long term goals and have an interactive relationship with our needs and behavior in reaching that goal. Aspirations help us to learn things and better ourselves in our effort of goal attainment.
Explain the role of personality in the behavior process.
Personality motivates us and impacts how we are typically going to respond to any given situation. Our personality is made up by many traits and, often times, is determined by how others see us.
How would a poor self-concept in your subordinate make it more challenging for you as a supervisor?
A poor self-concept results in persons not believing that they are not capable or important. It often results in a self-fulfilling prophecy of sorts. Your job as a supervisor is made more difficutlt because you must put forth a great deal of effort to get the person to see themselves in a positive light and getting them to change their behavior.
Explain the difference between self efficacy and locus of control.
Self efficacy refers to the degree of control people feel they have in a given situation. Locus of control relates to whether people feel the outcomes of their behavior are truly a result of their action.
Describe the role of values as a behavior influence.
We use values to make/pass judgement and makee decisions. We use values to assess the actions of others, develop positions on issues, avoid certain tasks. Values are the foundation of our behavior.
Define "team" and "group dynamics."
Webster's Dictionary defines:

Team as "a group organized to work together."

Group Dynamics - is an ongoing process involving interaction of individuals within a team to acheive the desired objective.
How are team goals developed
Teams goals are developed through a group process of team interaction and agreement in which each team is willing to work towards acheiving these goals.
As a supervisor, what techniques would you use to get your subordinates to perceive themselves as team members?
Communicating effectively, conveying work center goals as team goals, ensuring team members know their roles in and how they contribute to mission accomplishment.
What are task elements?
Task elements are those actions associated with accomplishing the team's specific task, solving a problem or accomplishing a goal.
What must a team do to be effective, and how is effectiveness measured?
Team members must actively participate, provide feedback and partake in the decision making process. Measure effectiveness by observing leadership being shared, conflict addressed, resources maximized and creativity encouraged.
What effort is necessary in team building?
The effort in which a team studies its own process of working together and acts to create a climate that encourages and values the contributions of team members.
Name the most important respondsibility of a leader and how is it accomplished?
The most important respondsibility is to develop an exciting vision for the team to acheive. The objective will be accomplished through the cooperation of the team members.
List the categories on non-task elements.
Non-task elements fall into three categories:

1. Personal identity in the team.

2. Relationships among team members.

3. Identification within the organization.
Team members must do what in order to accomplish desired results?
Team members must build commitment, trust, and support for one another.
One important attribute is necessary for long-term goals. What is this attribute?
What conditions must be met for team building to be successful?
There must be a high level of interdependence among team members; team members working on important tasks must have a commitment; and team work must be a critical aspect to acheive the desired results.
List the stages of team development.
What stage is known as the exploration period, and what behaviors are associated with this stage?
Forming stage. Behaviors are being cautious, exploring boundaries, being non-committal, having hidden agendas, having little to not group identity, forming cliques, and feeling a need to be liked.
In which stage is flexibility the key and hierarchy is of little importance?
Performing stage.
What is the definition of conflict?
Conflict can be defined as:

Disharmony brought about through differing behavior, aims, or methods.
Describe the difference between positive and negative conflict?
During positive conflict, individuals with differing points of view and personalities show mutual respect for each other's thoughts and feelings. Positive conflicts results in positive outcomes. In this case communicating can open up and people assert themselves in order to reach the goal rather than win their case. During negative conflict individuals often view others as adversaries. People become very concerned about protecting themselves and attempt to win at all costs.
Explain how managerial behaviors can cause negative conflict in the organization.
Managerial behaviors cause conflict when the leader is not properly using the influence he or she has over others. The failure to make decisions or delgate at the appropriate times slows progress and creates an environment for disagreements and conflict.
Describe the factors to consider before deciding on a conflict management technique.
You should consider who you are dealing with and consider their traits and position. Next you should consider what is at stake, for the importance of the outcome may dictate your approach. Finally, you should consider the situation. The urgency of the situation will also impact your decision.
Explain how collaboration impacts organizational performance.
Collaboration attempts satisfy both parties. It makes the best use of both sides, resources, talents, and ideas. Collaboration can result in a win position for both groups and in many cases the organization enjoys a more solid solution or outcome to the problem.
How does the 5-step approach help to positively manage conflict?
The 5-step approach helps to positively manage conflict because it requires the individuals to identify and define the root cause of the conflict. It aids in getting people to focus on the real issue and uncover underlying factors that are contributing to the situation.
Why is assertiveness effective in overcoming barriers to conflict?
Assertiveness is effective in overcoming barriers because assertive people personify strong self-esteem. They are often risk-takers and even tempered. They don't allow someone else to control their future. Rather than consistently waiting for others to start resolving conflict their way, an assertive person puts control of the situation in their own hands. Assertiveness is not aggression because the individual is acting from different points of view and aim to resolve the conflict for the betterment of the team rather than himself.
How does cross-training contribute to reducing the potential for conflict in an organization?
Cross-training helps to reduce potential for conflict by giving people a better understanding and appreciation for other positions and processes in the work center. This understanding helps the person see and accept differing points of view and lends itself to the individual being empathetic when dealing with others.
Describe how conflict management impacts organizational performance.
Conflict management improves efficiency and effectiveness by allowing workers to focus on their job. It fosters an environment of open communication where creative thinking occurs. This creativity and open communication helps in reaching organizational goals and building individual relationships within the work center.
What are the consequences to the organization of not properly managing conflict?
Improper conflict management results in poor organizational performance because communication breaks down, improvement opportunities are lost, and morale decreases. Problems become more serious and more difficult to fix, resulting in time having to be taken from the job and used to resolve the conflict.
Define organizational effectiveness.
Organizational effectiveness is the attaining or surpassing of objectives and tasks dealing with mission accomplishment.
Describe the following situational factors.

Interperonal factors include relationships among supervisors and subordinates, supervisors and superiors, and supervisors and other supervisors. They affect/influence leadership under the following conditions:

1. A strong personality encounters a weak personality.

2. Someone with ambition deals with another who seems to lack ambition.

3. Expectations of each for the other.

4. Physical stature is enequal (larger person versus smaller person).

5. Aggressive person interatcts with a passive person.
Describe the following situational factors.

Structure of the job or organization
Some organizations such as fire departments require much more directive styles of leadership. More highly technical or research jobs may require more delegating or empowering.
Describe the following situational factors.

The time an individual has to act can have a major impact on situational leadership. In an emergency situation, the supervisor would likely revert to more directive styles in order to save lives and resources. A supervisor with an urgent mission in a base exercise might be more demanding than someone planning next year's company picnic.
Situational Factor:

Outside Influences
Outside influences include social issues and movements that will affect attitudes of subordinates and supervisors alike, environmental conditions, social unrest, and current world
Situational Factor:

Awareness of self
Awareness of self involves your leadership inclinations and tendencies. How would you prefer to lead your subordinates?
Descbribe Directive Behavior.
Directing refers to the extent to which a leader engages in one-way communication. The supervisor spells our the follower's role and clearly tells the subordinate what to do, where to do it, how to do it, and when to do it, and closely supervises the subordinates performance. This doesn't mean the supervisor has to be short tempered or have a nasty attitude. Directive behaviors are those a leader will take to accomplish the task. In other words, they are task oriented behaviors.
Distinguish between the Situational Leadership concepts of Competence and Commitment.
Competence - the degree of knowledge or skills possessed by the subordinate. It is gained from education, training and/or experience. It should also include any transferable skills the subordinate may have such as abilities developed in other jobs which apply to the particular task at hand. Commitment is a combination of both confidence and motivation.

Confidence - a person's self-assurance that leads to the feeling or opinion that, "I can do a task well enough without supervision!" Motivation is a person's interest and enthusiasim for doing a task.
Explain Each of the four Situational Leadership developement levels:

D1 - low competence/high commitment: The D1 lacks or has little skill and knowledge to do the task, but is eager to try it anyway. For example, a subordinate diagnosed as a D1 could be compared to an individual who recently arrived at his first duty station. The person has a lot of enthusiasim for entering a new lifestyle and being part of the US military forces, but has none of the job skills neccessary to be successful.
Explain Each of the four Situational Leadership developement levels:

D2 - some competence/low commitment: At this point, the subordinate has some knowledge or training, but confidence may still be low for a number of reasons. The subordinate may not be able to perform as much as he thought he could, or he could be overwhelmed by the scope of the task, thus limiting his own potential. For example, a D2 subordinate is the follower who is beginning to "learn the ropes." The newly assigned subordinate described above is introduced to computer software he's not familiar with, but he has an understanding of using a computer system. After some time on the task, he gains more competence at manipulating the software, but will come across problems in trying to maximize the software's power. This can definitely influence his willingness to progress further. He may have to consult the user's manuals or seek assistance often.
Explain Each of the four Situational Leadership developement levels:

D3 - High competence/variable commitment: D3 is a skilled individual but whose commitment may vary due to low self-confidence, personal problems, lack of valued recognition (or support). In some cases the person may simply not care (apathy). For example, a D3 has become quite proficient in using the software program by following the guidelines of the tutorial or user guide. She's quite skilled at using the program, but as yet isn't excited by its capabilities. She's not sure the software is useful for the duites assigned.
Explain Each of the four Situational Leadership developement levels:

D4 - High competence/High commitment: The D4 has all the technical and team skills to do the taks and is motivated, self-directed, self-supporting. For example, our software specialist has now become the peak performer in using the program. She's competent in using the software and has much confidence in her ability to master it. She's identified and developed several uses for the program and is looked to by co-workers and supervisors as the expert in using that particular program.
Explain each of the four Situational Leadership styles of leadership:

"Directing" implies that the manager will exhibit more directive behavior; provide specific instructions, control task accomplishment, make most of the decisions and closely supervise workers. Using the S1 style assumes the leaders/managers/supervisors, solve problems generally by themselves.
Explain each of the four Situational Leadership styles of leadership:

"Coaching" implies that the manager still decides what the game plan will be and directs task accomplishment, but may consult with subordinates or ask for their ideas. The manager/leader/supervisor will be the one who identifies problems, sets goals and evaluates the work accomplished.
Explain Situational Leadership Style:

"Supporting" implies an increase in Supportive Behavior and a decrease in Directive Behavior. The leader/manager/supervisor using this style act toward subordinates with more two-way communication involving subordinates in problems solving, process improvement and decision-making. In addition, using this style involves discussing with the subordinate what needs to be done and allowing the individual to decide how, when, where, etc. to accomplish the job.
Explain Situational Leadership Style:

"Delegating" implies that the leader/manager/supervisor assigns respondsibility to the subordinate and the backs off. Many refer to this as "Empowerment". It's not the case that low direction and support means no direction and support.
Describe the situations in which the Directing style is appropriate.
Use the Directing style when you have a D1, someone who is low on competence, but motivated. You could also use Style 1 when: You're in an emergency situation. There is a short timeline and your follower is D2 or D3. A D2 is working on a complicated and very important task. There is a major organizational change. When Style 2 is no longer effective.
Describe the situations in which the Coaching style is appropriate.
Use the Coaching Style when dealing with a D2, a person with some competence, but not all the skills, knowledge or information needed, and who is also unmotivated and/or unsure of their ability. A subordinate has some skills and experience to contribute, but may not have all the information or perspective you have. Working with a D3 who is slipping or regressing because his skills are rusty, his attitude is poor or he's lost sight of the goal. You want to verify a person's skills or attitudes toward a new task.
Describe the situations in which the Supporting style is appropriate.
Use Supporting Style when the person has skills needed to do a task, but is a little insecure or lacks confidence. It could also be used with someone who has skills relevant to doing the task, but doesn't care.
Describe the situations in which the Delegating style is appropriate.
Use the Delegating Style with D4s - motivated, confident, educated, experienced, self-directing, self-supporting persons--subordinates with high competence and high commitment. Other appropriate situations are with D3s, who have all the skills for the task at hand, when you have long timelines, low stakes and built-in reinforcement and you think they're ready to be let go.
How Does the subordinate benefit when Situational Leadership is practiced?
It cultivates overall positive behavior--Subordinates react to their supervisor's behavior. If provided specifc goals and proper direction and support, they'll respond positively. Development--By taking people through the Situational Leadership development process, you'll develop both their competence and their commitment.
How does the organization benefit when the Situational Leadership model is followed?
Training and development of subordinates will be more organized. Production will be easier to manage because everyone will know the goals, understand what they need to do to reach those goals, and when they reach the D3/D4 levels, will contribute more effectively and enhance mission accomplishment. Fulfillment of NCO respondsibilities is easier, making management of the work-center more efficient.
What are the two objectives of performance management?
The first objective is to provide appropriate and effective performance feedback. The second objective is to provide a long term record of subordinate performance for use in making personnel management decisions.
Give an example of each objective of performance management.
Conducting the initial, mid-course, or follow-up performance feedback is an example of the first objective. A completed EPR is an example of the second objective.
How does knowing yourself contribute to performance management?
Knowing yourself will help you to deal with your subordinates because you know how you are going to respond in likely situations in your work center.
In regards to knowing your people, why is it important to match personal interests with jobs?
Matching interests with jobs can help to prevent problems such as boredom or complacency, by putting the right people into the right job. Along with interests, special skills or aptitudes should be considered before any job assignment is made.
Explain how supervisors can get to know their subordinates.
Supervisors can acquire biographical information by communicating with the subordinate and asking them about interests, past experiences, previous employment, needs and values, and their own expectations of the job and work center.
Explain the limitations of a job description.
Job descriptions are activity oriented rather than result oriented. This is a limitation because something else, feedback, must be used to address results expected. The other limitation is subordinates may see the job decscription as defining the limits of their job often refusing to do anything not listed in the description.
What elements should be addressed in order to write an effective performance standard?
Performance standards need to be specific, observable and measurable.
Why should you monitor over a period time long enough to determine your subordinates typical performance?
Determining the subordinates typical behavior will give the evaluator a more accurate picture to make decisions on. It also makes it easier to provide the effective feedback because the supervisor will know the behavior and performance levels of the subordinate.
How do common evaluation pitfalls impact your evaluation?
Pitfalls bring bias, closed mindedness, and logical errors into the actual evaluation. These pitfalls essentially result in an unclear, inaccurate evaluation of the subordinate's performance.
How does preventative feedback help your subordinate?
Preventative feedback helps to start a new relationship off right. It provides the expectations and standards in which the subordinate will be measured by. This type of feedback sets the subordinate up for success by helping him adjust to his new environment.
Explain how properly conducting feedback session strengthens organizational effectiveness.
A properly conducted feedback session will let the subordinate know if they are meeting, exceeding, or failing to meet the standards that have been established. The session will also let the subordinate know why it is happening and a plan to continue or modify the behavior will be developed. This gives subordinate the direction they need in order to be able to fully contribute to the organizations processes.
When should you refer your subordinate to other people or other agencies for follow-up feedback?
When you determine the problem is too much for you to handle or you do not know enough about the issue to help the subordinate make a solid informed decision, you should refer the person to the agency best able to help.
What is the difference between performance feedback and counseling?
Performance feedback's main focus is how well the person is doing in regards to assigned tasks and fulfilling the elements defined in the job description. Counseling serves to address job performance as well as such personal issues, discipline problems, and career decisions.
Explain why the NONdirective counseling approach is often the preferred method of counseling.
The NONdirective approach is oftne preferred because it puts the respondsibility for the solution on the shoulders of the subordinate. This is effective because if conducted properly, this approach usually results into a higher level of open, honest communication. The commitment of the subordinate is greatly increased because they often take pride in ownership of the solution that was developed.
How does effective counseling strengthen organizational effectiveness?
Effective counseling is the vehicle that provides guidance and direction for the subordinate resulting in them becoming a more well rounded and fully developed member of the Air Force. Counseling fosters teamwork and opens the lines of communication necessary for a solid supervisor-subordinate relationship.
Explain how you can improve your subordinate when developing an improvement plan.
Build on their strengths to develop a good foundation of motivation. Building on strengths helps to minimize and eliminate weaknesses in the subordinate.
How does job rotation contribute to the development of the improvement plan?
Job roatations is helpful because it prevents complacency and boredom. It also helps you to make full use of your subordinates because they are able to learn more about areas within the work center and their career field.
What are some things to consider as a supervisor to improve the situation while developing an improvement plan?
You should make sure you are not over or under supervising; also you should maintain good situational awareness of the happenings with your subordinates and your work center.
Briefly describe each of the Change Levels.
4 Level of Change:

Knowledge - A process as simple as reading a publicaiton, manual for AFI can effect change at the knowledge level.

Attitudinal - Attitudes are normally emotionally charged, and more challenging. Attitudinal change involves the adoption of a positive feeling for the task at hand.

Behavioral - Behavior is more difficult to change than knowledge or attitudinal. Both of these must change first in order for a behavioral change to occur. Change at the behavioral level is demonstrated through observable behavior.

Group/Organizational - is the most difficult. It involves the atleration of long-standing and deeply engrained customs and traditions.
Explain why organizational change is a challenge for a manager/supervisor.
At this level, you are respondsible for effecting changes in a multitude of people. One major hurdle will involve changing the "But we have always done it this way!" mindset. Change at this level will generally be more difficult and therefore take more time than each of the other levels.
Briefly describe each of the Change Cycles.
There are two Change Cycles:

Directive - from the top down approach.

Paticipative - works from the bottom up.
Provide an exmaple of when you would implement each of the change cycles.
Military managers would use directive change in most cases. However, particpative change should be used whenever possible. In a work section comprising acheivement-oriented individuals with a high degree of knowledge, the preferred method would be participative. Depending upon the situation and mix of people in your individual shops, you may have the opportunity to use both.
What are some advantages/disadvantages of each of the change cycles?
If you choose the wrong change cycle, it can tend to demotivate your subordinates. In a highly-motivated well-educated and task-oriented work section comprising seasoned hard-chargers, directive change may not be the best approach. In like fashion, participative change might never be realized among a work section staffed by one-stripers.
Identify each of the roles in a change process and describe the respondsibility of each.
During the change process, people usually fill 3 roles.

Change sponsor - is indvidual respondsible for initiating the change and supervising it through each of the three processes.

Change Agent - is the individual respondsible for implementing change within a specific group.

Change Target - individual undergoing the change.
What are some organizational norms? What comprises each?
Four Organizational Norms:

Technology Norm - includes computers, test equipment, weapons systems, etc...

Task Norm - general procedures, job steps, checklists, etc...

Structure Norm - administrative procedures, evaluation systems, etc...

People Norm - Technical or leadership training, new jobs, etc...
What role might the core values play in effecting change?
"Service Before Self" encourages faith in the system.

"Integrity First" encourages respondsibility and loyalty.

"Excellence in All We Do" encourages a quality effort.
What are the stages of the change process? Briefly, describe each.
3 Stages of Change Process:

Unfreezing - involves creating a need for the change.

Changing - moving the four organizational norms from the old stage to the new state.

Refreezing - the process by locking-in the expected outcomes.
Explain the respondsibility an NCO has to each subordinate during the change process.
You have a respondsibility to create a positive atmosphere through which each of your subordinates will feel that change is needed and will be supportive of the process. Concurrently, as NCO supervisors, managers and leaders, you must anticipate and deal with any resistance to change. In doing so, you must gain familiarity with and be able to identify each of the following six groups of personalities in your organization: the innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, late adopters and the diehards. You must realize that people are your single greatest asset, and concentrate your efforts upon those who are willing to "get with the program."
In step 1 of the six-step problem-solving process, how does recgonizing the problem contribute to work center effectiveness?
The proper completion of step 1 is very important because it breaks down the elements of the individual, goal, obstacle and identifies the problem that needs to be solved. By knowing what the problem is, those involved can begin to find a workable, permanent solution. As the problem is sovled, work center personnel are able to focus on the job and mission accomplishment rather than the problem.
Why is it important to gather data at the right point during the six-step problem solving process?
Facts are known truths (concrete information) used to make sound decisions. By gathering these facts and data early in the process, you are better equipped to make these decisions regarding possible solutions. You are also better equipped to be more objective and empathetic towards the situation and the individual involved. The data you collect may also be needed, should your supervisor or commander need information about the problem.
In step 3 of the six-step problem solving process, which two techniques are used to generate a list of possible solutions?
Brainstorming - effective technique used to generate many possible solutions to a problem in a very short period of time.

Creative thinking - promotes freethinking of ideas by changing or recombining old ideas into new possible solutions to problems. These activities provide the problem solvers with material to work with.
How do you know if a possible solution is feasible?
If resources such as time, money, and material are available, a solution may be feasible. You must also ensure that you have the authority to implement a solution in order for it to be a feasible proposal.
What should you do if you have more than one feasible and acceptable solution to choose from after performing step 4?
If you have more than one solution, once you reach step 5, you may want to get input from others to help choose the best solution. You can also consider combining the ideas to find the best solution.
Describe the impact that NOT following-up on the implementation of a solution to a problem (Step 6) would have on a workcenter.
Not following-up on the implementation of the solution could result in not ever determining if the solution chosen in step 5. It may also result in the loss of opportunities to learn from mistakes made because of a poorly chosen solution or a needlessly costly implementation. Follow-up provides the definitive information you are looking for and expecting to see.
Explain how your use of the six-step approach to problem solving can impact you as a supervisor.
By properly utilizing the problem solving process, you will be better able to resolve problems with your subordinates. This will result in your credibility being reinforced and open lines of communication between you and your subordinates. Using this process will also give you more experience that will help you to accept and handle increased levels of respondsibility.
According to Hersey, Blanchard and Johnson what three skills are requisite to leading?
Diagnosing, adapting and communicating are the three skills indicated as being requisite to leadership.
What two key aspects should you focus on when you are diagnosing an organization?
The two key aspects are:

The status of the people.

The status of the environment.
What four categories are used by the USMC to gain a complete picture of the status of its people?
The US Marines list morale, espirit de corps, discipline and proficiency as being good indicators of its peoples' status.
As a leader, what two areas must you look at when assessing the organizational environment?
A leader would be looking at resource availability (human, financial, physical, information), as well as leadership actions (establishing direction, priorities, creating policy, making decisions and providing information).
What type of leader exhibits high task, low relationship style?
The Authoritarian Leader exhibits high task, low relationship style. This type of leader tends to be autocratic and rigid, allowing for little deviation from the schedule.
What type of leader exhibits high task, high relationship style?
The Team Leader exhibits high task, high relationship style. This type of leader is not afraid to dive right in and usually leads by example.
What type of leader exhibits low task, low relationship style?
The Impoverished Leader exhibits low task/low relationship style. Is notorious for delegating, then disappearing, leaving subordinates to fend for themselves.
What type of leader exhibits low task/high relationship style?
The Country Club Leader exhibits low task/high relationship style. Uses reward power as the motivating force.
What are the two categories of leadership power?

Name and describe the four types of position power.
Coercive Power - founded in your authority to use sanctions in response to poor performance.

Connection Power - based on your association with influential people in organizations.

Reward Power - ability to provide things people like.

Legitimate Power - based on the perception that you should make certain decisions based on your title, role or position.
What AFI states that NCOs are delegated authority necessary to exercise leadership commensurate with their rank and respondsibility?
AFI 36-2618, The Enlisted Force Structure.
Name and describe the three types of personal power.
Referent Power - determined by how your followers feel about interacting with you. Depends on your charisma, character, self-concept and interpersonal skills.

Information Power - access to or possession of useful information and your ability to provide and explain the information at the time it's needed.

Expert Power - based on you education and experience displayed through your techinical and professional expertise.
What are the three key attributes of a role model?
Integrity and Commitment (Character Traits)

Mentoring (A supportive relationship)
What term is used to describe a supportive relationship, where a senior member of an organization counsels, coaches, teaches and provides feedback to a junior member? What is the term used to describe the subordinate in this relationship?

Technical Proficiency, as a leadership tenet, is most closely related to which Air Force Core Value?
The core value that most closely relates is "Excellence in All We Do."
When should you understand the capabilities and limitations of your organization?
When developing objectives, creating priorities and assigning tasks.
Into what two categories is planning usually divided?
Planning is commonly divided into tow categories:

Strategic and Operational
Which planning category will most commonly be used by NCOs on a daily basis?
Operational planning, since it will be used most often on a daily basis.
What are the five steps in the planning process?
1. Anyalze the Mission

2. Establish Goals

3. Identify Alternatives

4. Select the best Alternative

5. Implement the Plan
As an Air Force supervisor, you will manage budgets at different organizational levels and with varying degrees of control. Identify and describe two areas mentnioned in the text.
The Respondsibility Center, and organizational department under direct supervision of a single individual soley responsible for its activities, the Cost Center, the lowest level where supplies are used, is usually the flight or work center in an organization.
Describe the purpose of the Unit Personnel Management Roster (UPMR).
Organizational document that lists the people assigned, projected losses/gains, and should accurately reflect the Unit Manning Document (UMD).
What does the Unit Manning Document (UMD) tell you?
This document tells you the number of people authorized, the Air Force Specialty Codes (AFSCs), position numbers and total number assigned to your work center.
What are the primary professional development programs for enlisted people?
Professional Military Education (PME) Courses.
Define Organizing as it pertains to the functions of management.
Organizing is the process of dividing work into manageable sections and coordinating the results to serve a purpose.
What three approaches to job design are discussed in your text?
Job Rotation

Job Enlargement

Job Enrichment
Briefly describe job rotation.
The practice of periodically shifting workers through a set of jobs in a planned sequence.
Briefly describe job enrichment.
The process of upgrading the job-task mix in order to increase the potential for growth, acheivement, responsibility and recognition.
Briefly describe Job Enlargement.
The allocation of a wider variety of similar tasks to a job in order to make it more challenging.
What is the main purpose of controlling function?
In the Controlling Function, organizational activities are regulated so that the elements of performance.
What are the four steps in the controlling process?
1. Establish Standards of Performance

2. Measure Actual Performance

3. Compare Performance Standards

4. Evaluate Performance

5. Take Action
How does your text describe the leading function?
Leading involves harnessing our personal and professional traits to influence other to accomplish the mission.
What is effective planning?
In order for planning to be effective, it requires vision and the ability to communicate that vision to other people.
How would you describe effective organizing?
In order for organizing to be effective, it requires, first, an understanding of the organizational structure and second, an ability to convince your people that cross utilization is best for them and the Air Force.
What does effective controlling require?
In order for controlling to be effective, it requires an understanding of performance standards as they pertain to mission accomplishment and an ability to see what kind of controlling mechanisms are best. There is a balance between over-control and under-control. That balance is based on the dyanmic relationship between people, mission and the situation at hand.
Define Personal Discrimination.
Actions taken by an individual to deprive a person or group of a right because of color, national origin, race, religon or sex. Can occur covertly, overtly, intentionally or unintentionally.
Define Systematic Discrimination.
Actions by an institution or system that, through its policies or procedures, deprive a person or group of a right because of (that person's or group's) color, national origin, race, religon or sex. Can occur covertly, overtly, intentionally or unintentionally.
Explain the ways sexual harrassment occurs and give an example of each.
Verbal - Sexual compliments, pressure for dates or ridicule with harsh sexual language.

Nov-Verbal - Leering, ogling, cartoons, notes, nude drawings, nude pictures or calendars.

Physical - Touches, brushes, hugging, patting, or footsies.
Explain how morale is impacted by human relations incidents.
Alcohol serves as a catalyst for conflict. The person feels motivated because his or her inhibitions are lowered and they often act irrespondsible on underlying prejudices after consuming alcohol. This unacceptable behavior is normally not present in the absence of alcohol.
Describe how morale is impacted by human relations incidents.
Morale is greatly reduced when disriminatory acts are taking place because feel frustrated, helpless, and unaccepted. Discipline, motivation, and group cohesion all suffer because of human relation incidents.
Give an example of how human relations issues impact productivity.
People will respond to having rights or opportunities denied by not performing their assigned work tasks. If work tasks are complete, often the work is substandard and must be reaccomplished. This action or inaction is a result of frustration, anger and embarassment.
Explain how human relations issues negatively impact quality of life.
Human relations incidents impact an individuals ability to positvely interact with the rest of the team. A climate of hate, fear and disrespect results in a degraded quality of life in and out of the work center. Individuals often vent these frustrations in very destructive and harmful ways.
What is the supervisors role in preventing human relations issues?
Supervisors must establish, communicate and enforce policies regarding human relations issues. They must also lead by example in this area and foster an environment of open and honest communication among the individuals in the work center.
Explain the supervisors role in corrective measures when dealing with human relations.
When corrective measures are neccessary, supervisors must be prepared to take action and get the unacceptable behavior to stop. Supervisors must not ignore the acts and must be prepared to provide detailed, factual information about the behaviors to the commander and others in his or her chain of command.
Why is it important for you as a leader to effectively manage diversity in the military?
By managing diversity properly, you as a military leader, allow individuals to reach their fullest potential while in pursuit of mission objectives.
Define diversity.
A composite of racial, gender, ethnic, national origin, cultural, attitudinal, socio-economic and personal differences.
What are the four steps in managing diversity
1) Learn to understand and respect individual differences.

2) Promote assertiveness in your subordinates regarding their feelings.

3) Learn how others want you to treat them.

4) Act as a force for acceptance of diversity.
What are the primary and secondary dimensions of diversity?
Primarry Dimensions - composed of those genetic characteristics over which we have no control, such as: age, ethnic, race, physical abilities and qualities.

Secondary Dimensions - include educational background, income, marital and parental status, religous beliefs and work experience.
What barriers hinder acceptance of diversity?
Hindering barriers are personal bias, stereotyping, prejudice, discrimination and collusion.
How can diversity be managed?
By encouraging open and honest communication.
What can we do to embrace diversity?
By being open-minded, listen to others, ask questions about cultural differences to gain understanding.
What are some negative effects of poor diversity management?
Decreased productivity, conflict among work center members, faulty communication, acts of favortism and dissatisfied workers.
What positive effects occur when diversity is managed effectively?
Reduced interpersonal conflict, better teamwork, enhanced work relationships, increased productivity, higher level of creativity and innovation.
How does embracing diversity impact the work center?
Gives exposure to new insight and ways to do things.
Explain how family care plans can impact mission accomplishment.
Having a well thought out and prepared family care plan provides the means necessary to ensure the family is cared for in the military members absence. Having a solid plan will contribute to reducing stress and allow both the member and the family to focus on the tasks necessary to get each mission accomplished.
Describe the benefits of using a power of attorney as part of your family care plan.
A POA will allow somebody else to carry out various adminstrative functions in the absence of the person, who gives the POA. Properly executing and utilizing a POA will reduce stess and anxiety. It helps to keep unnecessary obstacles to a minimum.
As a supervisor, how does knowing the functions of the on and off base support agencies contribute to the family care plan?
By understanding the function of various on/off base agencies available, you are better able to provide guidance to your subordinates, and point them in the right direction to receive the help they need in setting up their family care plan. It increases the overall efficiency of the process when you know where to go and who to call to get your subordinates the proper assistance they require. It also builds your credibility as a supervisor and NCO.
What is the Air Force policy regarding financial respondsibility?
Air Force members are respondsible for paying their debts in a proper and timely manner. Members are expected to manage their finances in a way that is professional, ethical, and does not bring discredit upon the USAF.
As an Air Force member, how does your proper use of a budget impact mission accomplishment?
Using a budget will allow you to more accurately determine where your money is going. It provides a way to effectively control where your money goes and helps to save money for wants and emergencies. Knowing how and where your money is being spent reduces stress and helps you to stay focused on your job.
In regards to financial respondsibility, describe how fulfilling your supervisory role impacts mission accomplishment.
Fulfilling your role as a supervisor will ensure your subordinates are trained and aware of their respondsibilities in the area of finances. You will also set a positive example, build your credibility, and establish an environment of trust with subordinates. Your support and guidance in this area will reduce the chances that your subordinates will encounter financial problems. It will also reduce the stress and counter productive effects caused by financial problems, and ultimately provide for a more productive and effective work center.
What are the major risk factors associated with suicide?
Suicide Risk Factors:

Poor coping skills, legal problems, substance abuse problems, financial problems, job problems, relationship problems, social isolation and previous attempts.
List the significant warning signs of suicide.
Sucide Warning Signs:

Threats or statements indicating a desire for death, previous suicide attempts, personality/behavior changes, depression, giving away personal belongings, deterioration in work performance and work habits, and a sudden attempt to get all affairs in order.
Explain the process used to assist someone who is considering suicide.
Be actively concerned and listen carefully. Be very positive without being condecscending and try to utilize peer support for encouragement and acceptance. Do your best to get the person to the proper referral agency as soon as you can. In all cases do not leave the person alone.
Explain the imapct of voting has on effective leadership.
Voting contributes to effective leadership by providing a positive example in exercising your rights and respondsibilities as an American citizen and military member. Voting is the result of self-education and awareness of the issues and this leads to credibility to you as leader.
Explain the impact communicating with public officials has on mission accomplishment.
Communicating with public officials lets them know your feelings and concerns on issues. Communication highlights things that are important to you as an idividual and to the military as a whole. It serves to educate officials that you are communicating with about the environment and issues surrounding the military. Communicating with our public officials is an effective way to let them know if we are getting the resources we need to accomplish the mission.
Explain the role of Public Affairs.
Public Affairs (PA) plays an important role as a liasion between the media and the base. It is their job to balance the needs of the unit in terms of security of information along with fair and equal access by the media. PA also keep the base populace informed and helps to organized programs to interact with the local community.
Describe the benefits of a positive encounter with the media.
Your individual efforts in making the encounter a positive one prepare you for assignments of increasing respondsibility. High unit morale and a better public understanding and support also result from positive media encounters.
What is the objective of the Air Force environmental program?
The objective of the Air Force environmental program is to respondsibily manage the irreplaceable natual and cultural resources it holds in public trust.
How does successful implementation of the Air Force environmental program impact mission accomplishment?
Putting forth the effort to comply with the program will lead to a better use of our resources; we maintain a safer, cleaner work environment; and the American people we serve will have a far better perception of the military if we take care of what has been entrusted to us. By conserving, recycling, and disposing of materials properly, we are able to acquire and keep the resources that make our jobs effecient and effective.
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