PHM1000 Pharmacy Technician - Chap 11: Factors Affecting Drug Activity Walajtys Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Neonate
Life stage: Up to one month after birth
Infant
Life stage: between ages 1 month and 2 years
Child
Life stage: between ages 2 and 12 years
Adolescent
Life stage: between ages 13 and 19 years
Adult
Life stage: between 20 and 70 years
Elderly
Life stage: older than 70 years
neonates and infants
not able to eliminate drugs as efficiently as adults because organ systems not fully developed
children
can metabolize certain drugs more rapidly than adults (ex: clindamycin, theophylline)
adults
experience a gradual decrease in physiological function, which can also effect drug activity
elderly
tend to take more drugs that can affect drug action; more physiological changes such as gastric pH changes, cardiovascular changes that tend to slow distribution; decrease in liver metabolism; decline in kidney function can slow excretion of certain drugs
gender
differences in activity related to hormonal differences in men and women, as well as body composition (affecting drug distribution)
pregnancy
drug activity is affected, tends to reduce the rate of absorption
genetics
drug activity can be affected depending on genetic factors. ex: metabolizing may or may not occur based on certain genetic characteristics
body weight
can affect drug activity, Over or under weight individuals may experience issues related to distribution and absorption
psychological factors
can influence an individuals response to a drug (ex: placebo effect)
CNS effects
adverse drug reaction; result for CNS stimulation; agitation, delirium, hallucinations, disorientation
Hepatoxicity
adverse drug reaction; liver toxicities; hepatitis, hepatic necrosis, biliary tract inflammation.
adverse drug reactions/ adverse effect
unintended side effect of a medication that is negative or in some way injurious to a persons health
hypersensitivity
abnormal sensitivity generally resulting in an allergic reaction (ex: hives)
anaphylactic shock
potentially fatal hypersensitivity reaction to producing severe respiratory distress and cardiovascular collapse
gastrointestinal effects
adverse reactions such as anorexia, nausea, vomiting, constipation and diarrhea
nephrotoxity
adverse reaction; kidney failure
idiosyncrasy
unexpected reaction to a drug the first time it is given; thought to be related to genetic make up
hematological effects
adverse drug reaction; blood coagulation, bleeding, bone marrow disorders
drug dependence
adverse drug reaction; chronic use of narcotic analgesics, sedatives, anti-anxiety agents and amphetamines
teratogenicity
adverse drug reaction; can cause abnormal fetal development when given to pregnant women
carcinogenicity
adverse drug reaction; ability to cause cancer
additive effects
two drugs with similar pharmacological actions result in an effect equal to the sum of the individual effects. (drug-drug interaction)
synergism
occurs when two drugs with similar pharmacological actions produce greater effects then the sum of the individual effects. (drug-drug interaction)
potentation
occurs when one drug with no inherent activity of its own increases the activity or another drug that produces an effect
antidote
given to block the effects of a drug
displacement
a drug bound to a plasma protein is removed when another drug of greater binding potential binds to the same protein (aspirin + warfarin = increased anticoagulant effect)drug-drug interaction
inhibition
a drug blocks the activity of metabolic enzymes in the liver (drug-drug interaction) ex: cimetidine inhibits drug metabolism enzymes in the liver and can cause toxic effects when used with other drugs
induction
a drug causes more metabolic enzymes to be produced, thus increasing metabolic activity. Ex: phenytoin + oral contraceptives = decreased contraceptive effects. drug-drug interaction
urinary excretion
can be altered by raising urinary pH and decreasing renal reabsorption. sodium bicarbonate + phenobarbital = increased excretion of phenobarbital. drug-drug interaction
GI Binding
drug-drug interaction; drugs can bind to others and affect absorption (ex: antacids)
Gastric emptying
drug-drug interaction; certain drugs can affect gastric emptying and in turn, increase or decrease absorption rates
Gastric pH
drug-drug interaction; drugs that alter gastric pH can have varied effects on other drugs - amount absorbed, rate of dissolution, degradation and intestinal motility
intestinal metabolism
drug-drug interaction; drugs can cause GI flora to be killed and affect other drug therapies (oral antibiotics and contraceptives)
enzyme induction
drug-drug interaction; increased concentration of metabolizing enzymes in the liver and results in reduction of pharmacological effect. ex: chronic alcohol use
enzyme inhibition
drug-drug interaction; occurs when two drugs compete for binding sites on the same metabolizing enzyme. Increases the pharmacological effect of one of the drugs. Most common drug-drug interactions. ex: ketoconazole, erythromycin
glomerular filtration
drug-drug interaction; changes in filtration rate, also changes rate of excretion.
renal secretion
drug-drug interaction; two basic or two acidic drugs may compete for the same transport system and cause one or both drugs to accumulate in the blood. ex: probenecid and penicillin. probenecid reduces penicillin secretion
urinary reabsorption
drug-drug interaction; influenced by urine pH and extent of ionization of drug. acidic drugs tend to be absorbed while alkaline drugs do not. basic drugs are excreted in urine. alkaline urine: acidic drugs not reabsorbed, excreted in urine(page 259)
Gastric pH
drug-drug interaction; drugs that alter gastric pH can have varied effects on other drugs - amount absorbed, rate of dissolution, degradation and intestinal motility
intestinal metabolism
drug-drug interaction; drugs can cause GI flora to be killed and affect other drug therapies (oral antibiotics and contraceptives)
enzyme induction
drug-drug interaction; increased concentration of metabolizing enzymes in the liver and results in reduction of pharmacological effect. ex: chronic alcohol use
enzyme inhibition
drug-drug interaction; occurs when two drugs compete for binding sites on the same metabolizing enzyme. Increases the pharmacological effect of one of the drugs. Most common drug-drug interactions. ex: ketoconazole, erythromycin
glomerular filtration
drug-drug interaction; changes in filtration rate, also changes rate of excretion.
renal secretion
drug-drug interaction; two basic or two acidic drugs may compete for the same transport system and cause one or both drugs to accumulate in the blood. ex: probenecid and penicillin. probenecid reduces penicillin secretion
urinary reabsorption
drug-drug interaction; influenced by urine pH and extent of ionization of drug. acidic drugs tend to be absorbed while alkaline drugs do not. basic drugs are excreted in urine. alkaline urine: acidic drugs not reabsorbed, excreted in urine(page 259)
food
drug-diet interaction;can alter absorption and distribution of some drugs depending on chemical reactions, amount of fat, calories, carbohydrates, proteins and time given (see pg 260-1)
dietary factors in metabolism
increased protein = increased metabolism; increased carbohydrates = decreased metabolism; increased fat = no effect; decreased calories = decreased metabolism
MAO Inhibitors
monamine oxidase inhinitors (such as some antidepressants and Parkinson's drug). Must exercise caution with certain drugs and foods that react to these. Foods containing tyramine (beer, wine etc) and amphetamines are some examples.
disease states
drug action can be altered when the normal functions of organs involved in ADME of a drug are changed by disease or other physiological changes
ADME
absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion
cirrhosis
liver disease (potentially fatal) that occurs after long term alcohol abuse. Affects liver metabolism and diminishes elimination rates of drugs
acute viral hepatitis
inflammatory condition of the liver caused by viruses; affects drug disposition;
first-pass effect
the fraction of lost drug during the process of absorption which is generally related to the liver and gut wall;concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation.
circulatory disease states
cause diminished blood flow to organs, cabn affect metabolization of drugs in the liver and can have widespread effects on absorption and to a lesser effect elimination
renal disease states
reduced renal (kidney) function can effect elimination of certain drugs, plasma protein binding of acidic drugs is reduced in severe renal insufficiency;
thyroid disease states
affects aspects of absorption, excretion and metabolism of some drugs. EX: hypothyroidism increases bioavailability of some drug; hyperthyroidism decreases bioavailabilty of some drugs
obstructive jaundice
obstruction of the bile duct that causes hepatic waste product and bile to accumulate in the liver
drug disposition
general term for the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of a drug that has been administered
foods containing tyramine
avoid while taking MAOIs; these include: beer, red wine, aged cheeses, yeast products, chicken livers, pickled herring
cruciferous vegetables
can stimulate the metabolism of a few drugs; i.e brussel sprouts, cabbage, broccoli, bok choy, turnips, alfalfa, arugala
vitamin k
inhibits the action of oral anticoagulants such as coumadin/warfarin sodium (patient eating spinach while on coumadin would not receive full therapeutic effect of the drug)
administration times
interations that alter drug absorption can be minimized by seperating administration of drug and food intake by about 2 hours
enzyme inducers
increase the hepatic enzyme activity that results in greater metabolism of drugs; examples include: phenobarbital, phenytoin, rifampin, carbamazepine; cigarrette smoking and chronic alcohol use also contribute
/ 69
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online