Med/Surg - Exam 2 - Kathi Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Stroke Volume
the amount of blood ejected with each heartbeat
Cardiac Output
the amount of blood pumped by the ventricle in liters per minute
Preload
degree of stretch of the cardiac muscle fibers at the end of diastole
Contractility
ability of the cardiac muscle to shorten in response to an electrical impulse
Afterload
the resistance to ejection of blood from the ventricle
Ejection Fraction
the percent of end-diastolic volume ejected with each heartbeat
How to determine Cardiac Output
CO = SV x HR
Which of the following is the primary pacemaker of the heart?
a. Bundle of HIS
b. AV Node
c. SA Node
d. Purkinje's Fibers
C. SA Node
Contractility is increased by...
...catecholamines, SNS, some medications
Contractility is decreased by...
...hypoxemia, acidosis, some medications
Valves of the heart?
Bicuspid
Tricuspid
Mitral
Aortic
Tissue layers of the heart?
Myocardium
Pericardium
Endocardium
Changes to the CV System r/t Lifestyle and aging
Athero/Arteriosclerosis
Increased BP
Arteries stiffen
vein valves more incompetent
heart muscle less efficient
disrhythmias common
heart valve stenosis, prolapse
Great Vessels
Aorta
Pulmonary Arteries
Pulmonary Veins
Vena Cava (Superior and Inferior)
Where is the mitral valve located?
Between the Left Atrium and Left Ventricle
Cardiovascular System
Assessment
Health History
-Demographic Information
-Family/Genetic History
-Cultural/Social factors
Risk Factors
-Modifiable (Diet, exercise)
-Nonmodifiable (Family History)
Where is the Tricuspid valve located?
Between the Right Atrium and Right Ventricle
Most Common Clinical Manifestations of Cardiovascular Disease
chest pain
dyspnea
peripheral edema
weight gain
fatigue
dizziness
syncope
changes in LOC
Non-invasive Diagnostic Studies used for Cardiovascular Disease
Electrocardiogram
Echocardiogram
Exercise Tolerance Testing
Radioisotope Testing
Blood Flow Assessments
Electrocardiogram
measures cardiac electrical activity
Exercise Tolerance Testing
measures cardiac response to exercise
Radioisotope imaging
detects ischemia/damage
Invasive Studies used for Cardiovascular Disease
Angiography
Cardiac Catheterization
Hemodynamic Monitoring
Electrophysiology study
Therapeutic Measures used for Cardiovascular Disease
(diagnostic, prevention, or after injury)
Exercise
Smoking Cessation
Balanced Diet
Weight Loss
Support Groups
Oxygen
Antiembolism devices
What does a CKMB indicate?
Acute MI

levels are increased within 6 hours of an acute MI
Diagnostic Blood Studies used in Cardiovascular Disease
Cardiac troponin
cardiac enzymes
myoglobin
blood lipids
Bradycardia
resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute
Tachycardia
heart rate that starts in the ventricles, and exceeds the normal range for a resting heart rate
Ventricular Fibrillation
a condition in which there is uncoordinated contraction of the cardiac muscle of the ventricles in the heart, making them quiver rather than contract properly
Atrial Fibrillation
the fibrillating (quivering) of the heart muscles of the atria, instead of a coordinated contraction
Most Common Cardiac Arrhythmia
Atrial Fibrillation
PVC's
Premature Ventricular Contraction
relatively common event where the heartbeat is initiated by the heart ventricles rather than by the sinoatrial node
Normal Sinus Rhythm
* each P wave is followed by a QRS
* P waves normal for the subject
* P wave rate 60 - 100 bpm with <10% variation
Atherosclerosis
Is an accumulation of hard, thick plaque along the arterial wall, comprised of lipids
When does Atherosclerosis begin?
Childhood
What does atherosclerosis do?
reduces blood flow to the myocardium
cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for who?
men and women of all racial and ethnic groups
what is the most prevalent cardiovascular disease in adults?
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
Signs and Symptoms of Atherosclerosis
NO EARLY SIGNS
chest pain
dizziness
dyspnea
cool skin
prolonged capillary refill
thick nails
dry skin
extremity hair loss
Diagnostic Tests Used for Atherosclerosis
Cholesterol
LDL
HDL
Triglycerides
C-reactive Protein
Which are good lipids?

a. LDL's
b. HDL's
b. HDL's
Therapeutic interventions for Atherosclerosis
Low fat diet
Avoid smoking
Exercise
Lipid-lowering agents
Complications of Atherosclerosis
MI
TIA
Stroke
List of Modifiable Risk Factors
smoking
diet
hypertension
hypercholesterolemia
obesity
physical inactivity
emotional stress
List of NONmodifiable Risk Factors
Gender
Family History
Personal history
ethnicity
age
race
CABG
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
What does a CABG do?
Increases blood flow/oxygen to the myocardium
Main Cause of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)?
Atherosclerosis
Types of Angina
Stable (predictable)
Unstable
Prinzemetal's (variant)
Stable Angina
Arteries cannot increase blood to heart during increased activity...

...usually stops with rest/vasodilator
Unstable Angina
can occur at rest
rest does not relieve symptoms
sign of worsening CAD
Risk for Cardia damage/death
Variant Angina
longer duration of pain
can occur at rest
pain occurs at same time of day
no damage
Probable cause of Variant Angina?
Coronary Artery Spasm
Regimen for Nitroglycerin?
Sublingual pill...

take pill, wait 5 minutes, if pain unrelieved, take another pill, wait another five minutes, if pain still unrelieved, take another pill and call 911
Silent Ischemia
No outward symptoms.

Will show on ECG
Nursing diagnoses for Angina
Ineffective cardiac tissue perfusion
Anxiety
Deficient Knowledge
Noncompliance, ineffective management of therapeutic regimen
Treatment of Anginal pain
Rest
O2 (2L)
Stop activity
Administer medications
Myocardial Infarction
Death of heart muscle
Motto for Myocardial Infarction
"TIME IS MUSCLE"
Pain related to Myocardial Infarction
Sudden Onset
Substernal
Crushing
Severe
Unreleived by Nitro
Where does Myocardial Infarction pain radiate to?
Back
Jaw
Neck
Shoulder
Arm
Signs and Symptoms of Miocardial Infarction
Dyspnea
Decreased BP
Nausea
Vomiting
Extreme Weakness
Diaphoresis
Increased Heart Rate
Pre-hospital care for Myocardial Infarction
Chew 1 uncoated adult aspirin, call 911 in 5 minutes for unrelieved chest pain.
Treatment of Myocardial Infarction
O2
IV meds
dietary restrictions:
decrease Na
decrease Cholesterol
decrease caffeine
Valvular Disorders

Regurgitation
the valve does not close properly and blood backflows through the valve
Valvular Disorders

Stenosis
the valve does not open completely and blood flow through the valve is reduced
Valvular Disorders

Prolapse
the stretching of an atrioventricular valve leaflet into the atrium during diastole
Therapeutic interventions for MI
Oxygen
Aspirin
Morphine Sulfate
Thrombolytics
Vasodilators
Beta-Blockers
Antidysrhythmic
Cardiomyopathy
a series of events that culminates in impaired cardiac output and can lead to heart failure, sudden death, or dysrhythmias.
Types of cardiomyopathy
Dilated
Hypertrophic
Restrictive
Unclassified
Infectious diseases of the heart
Rheumatic endocarditis
Pericarditis
Rheumatic Endocarditis
occurs most often in school-age children
injury to heart tissue is caused by reaction to strep
myocardial and pericardial tissue is also affected
In order to treat endocarditis...
...need to promptly recognize and treat strep throat to prevent rheumatic fever
Pericarditis
Inflammation of the pericardium
Potential Complications for pericarditis
pericardial effusion
cardiac tamponade
Biggest sign of pericarditis
Friction rub at the left sternal border
Heart Failure
The inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood to meet the needs of the tissues for O2 and nutrients
Right-Sided Heart Failure
RV cannot eject sufficient amounts of blood, resulting in a backup in the venous system.
effects of Right-sided heart failure
peripheral Edema, hepatomegaly, ascites, anorexia, nausea, weakness and weight gain
Left-Sided Heart Failure
LV cannot pump blood effectively to systemic circulation.
effects of Left-sided heart failure
increased pulmonary venous pressure, pulmonary congestion with dyspnea, cough, crackles, and impaired gas exchange
Chronic Heart Failure
frequently bi-ventricular
Left =
= Lung
Right =
= Random Circulation
Normal Hct range for female
37-46%
Normal Hct range for male
40-52%
Risk for transfusion when Hct reaches...?
20-25%
Normal Hgb range
12-16
(slightly higher in males)
Danger zone for Hgb
less than 8
Normal platelet range
5,000 - 10,000
what do the lymph nodes do?
filter out bacteria
Where are lymph nodes located?
cervicofacial
supraclavicular
axillary
epitrochlear
inguinal
femoral
what does the spleen do?
filters blood
traps formed particles
destroys bacteria
blood resevoir
where are lymphocytes and monocytes formed?
Spleen
Where are platelets formed?
Bone marrow
What do platelets do?
function in blood coagulation
Plasma
liquid portion of the blood
Key findings in hematologic and lymphatic disorders
enlarged glands
pain
fatigue/weakness
bleeding
activity intolerance
SOB
fainting
vertigo
Key physical findings with hematologic and lymphatic disorders
lymph node enlargement
eccymosis
skin changes: pallor, cyanosis, jaundice, petichiae
Possible nursing diagnoses for hematologic and lymphatic disorders
Risk for infection
Disturbed body image
Social Isolation
What is anemia?
lower-than-normal Hgb and fewer-than-normal circulationg erythrocytes.

signs of an underlying disorder
hypoproliferative anemias
defect in production of RBCs
Hemolytic anemias
excess destruction of RBCs
what causes hypoproliferative anemias?
Due to deficiencies in b12 or Folic Acid, decreased erythropoietin production, or cancer
What causes hemolytic anemias?
due to altered erythropoiesis, hypersplenism, drug-induced or autoimmune processes, mechanical heart valves
Aplastic Anemia
failure of the bone marrow to produce adequate amounts of erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets
Common causes of aplastic anemia
congenital/inherited
exposure to chemicals or radiation
drug induced
viral infection
Key signs and symptoms of aplastic anemia
weakness/fatigue
multiple infections
purpura, petichiae, or ecchymosis
pallor
palpitations/tachycardia
how to treat aplastic anemia
transfusion therapy (Packed RBCs and platelets)
immunosuppressants
key nursing interventions for Aplastic Anemia
admin transfusion therapy as ordered
admin O2
monitor and record vital signs, i/o, labs, and stools, urine and emesis for occult blood
avoid IM injections
monitor for infection, bleeding, bruising
Complications of Aplastic Anemia
hemorrhage
infection
Manifestations of Anemia
fatigue/weakness/malaise
pallor and jaundice
cardiac/resp symptoms
tongue changes
nail changes
Pica
Red Blood Cell Disorders
Anemia
Polycythemia
White Blood Cell Disorders
Leukemia
Hemorrhagic Disorders
DIC
ITP
Hemophilia
Bone Marrow Disorders
Multiple Myeloma
Polycythemia
overabundance of Red blood cells
signs and symptoms of polycythemia
hypertension
visual changes
headache
vertigo
tinnitus
dizziness
bleeding
chest pain
dyspnea
Patient Education for Polycythemia
drink 3L of water daily
avoid restrictive clothing
elevate feet
report s/sx of iron deficiency
report s/sx of bleeding
Potential Complications of Anemia
Heart Failure
Angina
Paresthesias
Confusion
Key Signs and Symptoms of Polycythemia
ruddy complexion
headaches
dizziness
dyspnea/orthopnea
Treating Polycythemia
Phlebotomy
Antimetabolite
Interferon
Myelosuppressants
Imidaxole quinazoline
Key Nursing Interventions for Polycythemia
Encourage fluids and administer IV fluids as ordered
assess cardiovascular and resp status
monitor and record vital signs, I/O, labs, CVP, and fecal occult blood
Key Complications of Polycythemia
Pulmonary Emboli
DVT
Stroke
Iron Deficiency Anemia
iron deficiency caused by inadequate absorption or excessive loss of iron
Causes of Iron Deficiency Anemia
Acute and chronic bleeding
Malabsorption
Pregnancy
Key signs and Symptoms of Iron Deficiency Anemia
Weakness/fatigue
Pallor
History of Bleeding
Diagnosing Iron Deficiency Anemia
Decreased Hb, Hct and iron levels
Increased total iron-binding capacity
Treating iron deficiency anemia
high iron, high roughage, high protein, high ascorbic acid diet
increased fluids, avoid teas
transfusion therapy
mineral supplementation
Key Nursing Interventions for Iron Deficiency Anemia
Assess cardio/resp status
monitor stools, emesis and urine for occult blood
provide mouth skin and foot care
provide rest periods as needed
Key complications of Iron Deficiency Anemia
Angina
Heart Failure
A nurse is caring for a client with non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma. What symptom is typical of non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma?
a. Small, hard, irregular, and tender mass
b. enlarged, non-tender lymph nodes
c. Pain and swelling at the site
d. Cat's eye reflex
b.
Rationale: Enlarged, non-tender, firm, and painless lymph nodes in the supraclavicular area are the main symptoms of non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Which of the following is the least important area of home care instruction to include in discussions with a client with Multiple Myeloma?
a. Skeletal System Symptoms
b. Renal System Symptoms
c. Nervous System Symptoms
d. Cardiovascular System Symptoms
d

Rationale...Multiple myeloma usually doesn't have a direct angle on the heart. Multiple myeloma usually affects the skeletal, renal and nervous system.
Which substance helps control bleeding when given to a client with Hemphilia B?
a. Protamine Sulfate
b. Platelet transfusions
c. Factor IX concentrate
d. Vitamin K
c

Rationale...
Hemophilia B, is caused by a deficiency of factor IX. Vitamin K, protamine sulfate, and platelets are used to stop bleeding, but they arent specific treatments for hemophilia B
A nurse is reviewing the laoratory report for a client who underwent a bone marrow biopsy. the finding that would most strongly support a DX of leukemia is the existence of a large number of immature:
a. lymphocytes
b. thrombocytes
c. reticulocytes
d. leu
d

Rationale...
Leukemia is manifested by an abnormal overproduction of immature leukocytes in the bone marrow. large numbers of lymphocytes, thrombocytes and reticulocytes aren't characteristic of leukemia
A nurse suspects DIC in a client who sustained a pelvic fracture in a motor vehicle accident. Which laboratory test result helps diagnose DIC?
a. Elevated platelet count
b. Decreased fibrinogen level
c. low fibrin split product level
d. decreased PTT
b

Rationale...
DIC involves depletion of such clotting factors as fibrinogen and platelets...as a result, client's fibrinogen and platelet counts are abnormally low.
A nurse is planning care for a client with Hemphilia A. A client with hemophilia A is deficient in which clotting factor?
a. VII
b. VIII
c. IX
d. X
b

Rationale...
Hemophilia A is caused by a deficiency of clotting factor VIII. a deficiency of the other factors does not cause hemophilia A. Hemophilia B results from a deficiency of factor IX.
Which nursing intervention is appropriate when caring for a client diagnosed with sickle cell anemia?
a. keep client flat in bed and logroll every 2 hours
b. assess pain level and administer analgesics, as prescribed
c. restrict fluid intake and maintain
b

Rationale...
clients with Sickle cell anemia do not need to be kept flat or log rolled. fluid intake should be increased. ROM exercises aren't needed Q2hrs, and physical activity would need to be recommended according to joint activity
A nurse is administering cyanocobalamin (B12) to a client with pernicious anemia, secondary to gastrectomy. Which route should the nurse use to most effectively administer the vitmain?
a. Topical
b. Transdermal
c. Enteral
d. Parenteral
d

Rationale...
following a gastrectomy, pt no longer has the intrinsic factor available to provide B12 in his GI tract. B12 is administered parenterally.
A client with sickle cell anemia is ordered morphine 4mg IV. the concentration of the vial is 10mg/mL of solution. how many mL should the nurse administer?
0.4 mL
A client complains of crushing chest pain that radiates to his left arm. he should be presented with the following treatment:
a. aspirin, oxygen, nitro, and morphine
b. aspirin, oxygen, nitro, and codeine
c. oxygen, nitro, meperidine, and thrombolytics
d.
A
Which lifestyle changes should a client diagnosed with coronary artery disease consider?
a. smoking cessation
b. establishing a regular exercise routine
c. weight reduction
d. all of the above
D
A client's cardiac monitor alarm sounds, indicating ventricular tachycardia. the nurse should:
a. perform immediate defibrillation
b. assess the client
c. call the physician
d. administer a precordial thump
B
A complication of peripheral vascular disease may be:
a. stasis ulcer
b. pressure ulcer
c. gastric ulcer
d. duodenal ulcer
A
A key diagnostic test for heart failure is:
a. serum potassium
b. B-type natriuretic oeotide
c. troponin I
d. cardiac enzymes
B
A client who has undergone a bone marrow transplant (BMT) is being prepared for discharge. which statement by the client indicates an understanding of the nurse's instructions?
a. "I should avoid crowds and anyone with an eye infection."
b. &quo
A
A possible complication of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura is:
a. pulmonary emboli
b. sepsis
c. renal calculi
d. hemorrhage
D
A probable nursing diagnosis for the client with leukemia is:
a. risk for imbalanced nutrition: more than body requirements
b. Energy Field disturbance
c. Ineffective health maintenance
d. Risk for activity intolerance
D
Which of these assessment findings may indicate Iron deficiency anemia?
a. Pica
b. Right upper quadrant tenderness
c. costovertebral tenderness
d. butterfly rash
A
While auscultating the heart sounds of a client with mitral insuffucuency, the nurse hears an extra heart sound immediately after the S2. The nurse should document this extra heart sound as a:
a. S1
b. S2
c. S4
d. mitral murmur
B
A nurse administers heparin to a client with Deep vein thrombophlebitis. Which laboratory value should the nurse monitor to determine the effectiveness of heparin?
a. PTT
b. HCT
c. CBC
d. PT
A
A client has just returned from cardiac catherterization. Which nursing intervention would be most appropriate?
a. help the client ambulate to the bathroom
b. restrict fluids
c. monitor peripheral pulses
d. insert an indwelling urinary catheter
C
A client is in the first postoperative day after left femoropopliteal revascularization. Which position would be most appropriate for this client?
a. on his left side
b. in high fowler's position
c. on his right side
d. in left lateral decubitus position
C
A nurse is evaluating a client with left-sided heart failure. Which finding should the nurse expect to assess?
a. ascites
b. dyspnea
c. hepatomegaly
d. Jugular vein distention
B
A client has developed acute pulmonary edema. Which test result should the nurse expect?
a. interstitial edema by chest x-ray
b. metabolic acidosis
c. bradycardia by ECG
d. decreased PAWP by hemodynamic monitoring
A
A nurse is performing discharge teaching for a client with PVD. The nurse should teach the client to:
a. inspect his feet weekly
b. begin a daily walking program
c. wear restrictive clothing
d. stand rather than sit when possible
B
If a nurse knows a clients heart rate, what other value and formula does she need to know to calculate CO (cardiac output)?
Stroke Volume

(CO=SV x HR)
A client comes in to the clinic and states he has a history of hypertension. Which type of medication might the nurse expect the client to be taking to control his BP?
a. antilipemics
b. antibiotics
c. ACE inhibitors
d. antidiabetics
C
Definition of Leukemia
Unregulated proliferation or accumulation of WBCs in the bone marrow
Types of Leukemia
Acute myeloid
Chronic myeloid
Acute lymphocytic
Chronic lymphocytic
Common Causes of Leukemia
Genetic Influence
Viral Pathogenesis
Exposure to Chemicals
Radiation
Pathophysiology of Leukemia
Normal hemopoetic cells are replaced by leukemic cells in the bone marrow
Key signs and symptoms of Leukemia
frequent infections
enlarged lymph nodes, spleen and liver
weakness and fatigue
stomatitis
joint, abdominal and bone pain
Medical management of Leukemia
radiation therapy
antineoplastics
antibiotics
transfusion therapy
neutropenic diet
Key nursing interventions for a pt with Leukemia
Monitor and record V/S, I/O, labs, and daily weight
Admin transfusion therapy as prescribed
monitor for bleeding and infection
maintain protectvie precautions
avoid IM injections, enemas and rectal temperatures
provide post-chemo and post-radiation nursing care
Key teaching topics for Leukemia
Infection control measures
S/Sx of infection and bleeding
Medication therapy
Daily skin, mouth and foot care
Medical identification jewelry
Key Complications of Leukemia
Gross systemic hemorrhage
Fungal and bacterial infection
Pernicious Anemia
Chronic, progressive megaloblastic anemia caused by deficiency of intrinsic factor, which leads to impaired absorption of Vitamin B12.
Causes of Pernicious Anemia
Deficiency of intrinsic factor
Inadequate dietary intake
Gastric mucosal inflammaiton
Genetics
Bacterial or parasitic infections
Pathophysiology of Pernicious Anemia
without intrinsic factor, B12 can't be absorbed. this inhibits dRNA synthesis, resulting in defective maturation of RBCs
Signs and Symptoms of Pernicious Anemia
Weakness/fatigue
Sore mouth
Tingling and paresthesia of hands and feet
Sore, smooth, red tongue
Memory loss
Treating Pernicious Anemia
Transfusion therapy
Vitamins
Well-balanced diet with increased B12
Key Nursing interventions for Pernicious Anemia
Assist with dietary choices
Provide mouth care before and after meals
Prevent falls (SAFETY!!)
Key Complications of Pernicious Anemia
Neurologic defecits
Gastric cancer
Heart failure
Angina
Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
(ITP)
Decreased amount of circulating platelets
Causes of ITP
Unknown
Autoimmune disease
Viral infection
Pathophysiology of ITP
antibody-coated platelets are removed from circulation by reticuloendothelial cells of the spleen and liver.
Key signs and symptoms of ITP
Petichiae
Purpura
Ecchymosis
Epistaxix
Recent viral infection
Treating ITP
IgG antibody, immune globulin IV
Corticosteroids
Key Nursing Interventions for ITP
Assess for bruising, bleeding, infection
Monitor V/S, I/O, labs, daily weight, and stool, emesis and urine for occult blood
Protect from falls
Rotate extremities for BP monitoring
Key complications of ITP
Hemorrhage
Shock
Multiple Myeloma
Abnormal proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow
Causes or Multiple Myeloma
unknown
Risk factors for Multiple Myeloma
Genetic
Environmental
Key Signs and Symptoms of Multiple Myeloma
Constant, severe bone pain
Pain in movement
Peripheral paresthesia
Arthritic Symptoms
Treating Multiple Myeloma
Antineoplastics
Glucocorticoids
Immunosuppresants
Biphosphonates
Radiation Therapy
Key Interventions for multiple Myeloma
Admin IV fluids and blood products as ordered
Assess renal, CV, and Resp status
Assess fluid balance
Monitor for infection and bruising
Assess pain level, admin analgesics as ordered, and evaluate response
Key Complications of Multiple Myeloma
Acute renal failure
Infection
Hematologic Imbalances
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Hemophilia
Hereditary bleeding disorder
Two types of Hemphilia
Hemophilia A
Hemophilia B
Hemophilia A
most common type

caused by deficiency of factor VIII
Hemophilia B
deficiency of factor IX
Causes of Hemophilia
inherited as x-linked recessive trait (mostly by males)

Carried by asymptomatic mothers and sisters
Pathophysiology of Hemophilia A
deficiency of factor VIII causes extended clotting time
Pathophysiology of Hemophilia B
Deficiency of factor IX causes extended clotting time
Key signs and symptoms of Hemophilia
Bleeding into muscles, tissues, and joints after minimal trauma
Pain in joints
Joint swelling
Sponatneous hematuria
Limited ROM
Spontaneous GI bleeding
Medical management of Hemophilia A
STOP THE BLEEDING
Factor VIII Concentrate
Aminocaprionic acid
Desmopressin
Medical management of Hemophilia B
STOP THE BLEEDING
Factor IX Concentrate
Aminocaprionic acid
Desmopressin
Key Nursing Interventions for Hemophilia
Assess patient for internal bleeding, hematuria, melena, hematemesis, joint space hemorrhages, and muscle hematomas
Assess cardiac, renal, and resp status
Admin IV fluids, blood components as prescribed
Apply gentle pressure and cold compresses to external bleeding sites
Key complications of Hemophilia
Infection
Hemorrhage
Basic treatment for MI
Decrease cardiac demands
Increase O2 to cardiac Muscle
Conditions that may lead to left-sided heart failure
High Blood Pressure
MI
Inflammatory Heart Conditions
Hypervolemia
Tachycardia
Where is the Pulmonary valve located?
Between the Right Ventricle and the Pulmonary Arteries
Where is the Aortic Valve located?
Between the Left Ventricle and the Aorta.
Treatments used for heart failure - both left and right sided?
Diuretics, Analgesics, vasodilators, Nitrates, ACE inhibitors, Beta Blockers
What is cardiac arrest?
When the heart ceases to produce and effective pulse and circulate blood
What is pulmonary edema?
complication of left sided heart failure
Signs and Symptoms of Pulmonary Edema?
Sever Dyspnea
Pink, frothy sputum
Tachypnea
Chest Pain
Decreased O2 Saturation
Restlessness
What is the most common thromboembolic problem among patients with heart failure?
Pulmonary Emboli
What is a pericardial effusion?
Accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac
What does pericardial effusion result in?
Increased pressure in all heart chambers
Decreased venous return due to atrial compression
Inability of the ventricles to distend and fill correctly
What is most common after an MI?
Cardiogenic shock
What is cardiogenic shock?
decrease in CO2 leads to inadequate tissue perfusion and initiation of shock syndrome

AKA pump failure
Clinical maifestations of Cardiogenic Shock
Symptoms of heart failure
Shock state
Hypoxia
How does the electrical impulse travel with each heartbeat?
SA node
Intra-atrial tracts
AV Junction
Bundle of HIS
Bundle Branches
Purkinje Fibers
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