NCLEX SAFE & EFFECTIVE CARE ENVIRONMENT Safety & Infection Control Flashcards

Hepatitis A
Terms Definitions
local (focal point) infection symptoms
head
redness
pain/tenderness
swelling
possible drainage (bloody, serous, purulent)
abscess
cellulitis
abscess
localized collection of pus
systemic (generalized) infx symptoms
fever
malaise
weakness
WBC count normal range
5000 - 10,000/mm'3
ESR range
What does it represent?
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
>15-20 mm/h
Indicates the presence of inflammation
What should you do if you suspect infx?
obtain cultures
inflammation
immediate, short term, non speciic response to the side effects of injury
e.g.physical or chemical irritants or invasion of microorganism
only body fluid that doesn't require standard precautions
sweat
Can you place airborne or droplet precautions pt with other pt?
Yes. Only if other pt has the same thing
Can door be open in droplet precaution pt room?
Yes
Tuberculosis symptoms
progressive fatigue, nausea, anorexia, weight loss
irregular menses
low grade fevers over a period of time
night sweats
irritability
cough w/ occasional blood
chest tightness, dull aching
dyspnea
What will pts with a postivie PPD receive?
chest xray to detect old and new lesions
Mantoux test
PPD test
____mm induration is a positive Mantoux test
10 mm (intradermal in forearm)
positive PPD indicates
exposure to TB or presence of active disease
TB multiple puncture test
screening test only
Questionable or positive reactions need to be verified by Mantoux test
TB transmission
aerosilization
may lie dormant for several years and be reactivated in periods of stress
Active cases of TB: who must be notified
State health department
Isoniazid (INH) prophylaxis
antituberculosis medicine (prevention & treatment)
How long to you isolate TB patient after drug therapy is initiated?
2-4 weeks
Hepatitis symptoms
fatigue
jaundice, yellow sclera (eyes)
anorexia, RUQ pain
clay colored stools, tea colored urine
pruritis (bile salts under skin)
Elevated ALT, AST
Prolonged PT
Hepatitis A
who?
transmission
cause
young kids & international travelers
fecal/oral
poor sanitation
Hepatitis B
who?
transmission
cause
drug addicts, male prisoners, transfusion recipients, immigrants
blood/body fluids
dirty needles
Hepatitis C
who?
transmission
persons receiving frequent blood transfusions, international traveler, hemophilia clients
blood/body fluids
Delta or Hepatits D
who?
transmission
drug addicts
coinfects with Hep B adn body fluids
Hepatitis E
who?
route transmission
resembles which other hepatitis?
persons living in underdeveloped countries
oral/fecal route
contaminated water
Resembles Hep A
Toxic hepatitis
drug induced hepatitis (diuretics, Tetracycline, Tylenol, ETOH)
non infection inflammation of liver
Hepatits definition
acute inflammatory disease of the liver resulting in cell damage from liver cell degeneration and necrosis
Hepatitis diet
low fat, high calories & carbs & protein
No ETOH
how do you treat pruritis in hepatitis pt?
calamine lotion
short clean nails
antihistamines
3 main meds for hepatitis
Vitamin K
Antiemetic
Corticosteroid
Of these antiemetics, which do you NOT use in hepatitis?
Tigan
Dramamine
Compazine
Compazine
Lyme disease
multisystem infection transmitted to humans by tick bite
most common in summer months
Lymes disease Stage 1
Rash (erythematous papule that develops into lesion w/ a clear center) at site of tick bite withint 2 -30 days
concentric rings (bulls eye)
Flulike symptoms within 1 - several months
Lymes disease Stage 2
develops within 1-6 months if untreated
cardiac conduction defedcts
Neuro disorders: Bell's Palsy
Lymes disease Stage 3
Arthralgias (joint pain)
occurs 1- several months after initial infection
may persist several years
AIDS: usually one has....
HIV positive
CD4/TC counts below 200
opportunistic infection
P. carinii pneumonia
AIDS opportunistic infection
gradually worsening chest tightness and SOB
progressive hypoxia/cyanosis
C. albicans stomatitis or esophagitis
AIDS opportunistic infection
changes in taste sensation
difficulty swallowing
white exudate in mouth
C. neoformans
AIDS opportunistic infection
severe debilitating meningitis
cytomegalovirus
AIDS opportunistic infection
SIGNIFICANT factor in morbidity and mortality
fever, weight loss
lymphadenopathy
visual impairment
colitis (colon), encephalitis (brain), pneumonitis (lung)
adrenalitis, hepatitis,
Kaposi's sarcoma
most common malignancy
AIDS opportunistic infection
small purplish brown non painful palpable lesions anywhere on body
CBC in AIDS reveals...
leukopenia (WBC) with serious lymphopenia,
anemia,
and thrombocytopenia
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