CCMH AP4 Nutrition Review Final Exam Study Guide Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Macronutrients
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins & water
Main function & caloric intake of Carbohydrates
energy, 4Kcal; 50-60% of daily caloric intake
Main function & caloric intake of Lipids
storage of energy; 9Kcal; less than 30 % of daily caloric intake
Main function & caloric intake of Protein
structure; 4Kcal; 0.8Kg or 15-25% of daily caloric intake
3 main catagories of carbohydrates
monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides
Monosaccharide
simplest: glucose, fructose, galactose
Disaccharide
sucrose, maltose, lactose & lactulose
Polysaccharide
starch, glycogen, soluble & insoluble
Fiber is subdivided into
soluble & insoluble
RDA for fibers is
25-35 per day
Soluble fiber
helps to reduce blood cholesterol levels
Insoluble fiber
is important for colon health
4 disorders of carbohydrate metabolism
galactosemia, primary lactase deficiency, lactose intolerance, sucrase deficiency
Galatosemia
inherited, early onset, accumulation of galatose in blood, severe symptoms = failure to thrive
Primary lactase deficiency
body cannot digest lactose, GI symptoms, early onset
Lactose intolerance
later onset, varied severity, various causes: inheritance, increased antibiotic use
Sucrase deficiency
similar to lactase deficiency:body cannot digest sucrase, GI symptoms, early onset
Functions of Carbohydrates
primary energy source for energy; balance protein & fat metabolism; fiber: important for bowel fx, waste elimination & blood sugar control; liver detox
Amino acids
the basic building blocks for proteins
Proteins are subdivided into
essential & nonessential
Urea/Ammonia
the main waste product produced by protein metabolism
Dietary sources of protein
complete: animal based; incomplete: plant based
Complete & incomplete protein forms
are based upon the range of amino acids present
Disorders of protein
Celiac disease & Milk protein allergy
2 types of protein malnutrition
Maramus; Kwashiorkor disease
Maramus
"starvation"; both protein & calorie deficiency
Kwashiorkor Disease
protein deficiency with appropriate caloric intake
Functions of amino acids
tissue repair; immune system support; neurotransmitter support; growth; osmotic balance; pH balance
Fats
should comprise no more than 30% of daily caloric intake
Fatty acids are named based on
number of carbohydrates, degree of saturation & location of the first double bond
Saturated fats
have no double bonds
Saturated fats come from
animal sources
Mono-unsaturated Fats
have one double bond
Poly-unsaturated Fats
have many double bonds
Mono & Poly-unsaturated Fats
come from plant sources
2 groups of essential fatty acids
omega 6 (linoleic acid); omega 3 (linolenic acid)
Results of essential fatty acid deficiency
dermatitis & blood clotting
Trans-fats
the hydrogenation of unsaturated fats
Trans-fats promote
increased cholesterol; fatty liver
Function of fats
energy storage; protect & insulate organs; slow gastric emptying
2 major types of cholesterol
based on the density: HDL (high density lipids) & LDL (low density lipids)
LDL (low density lipids)
bad cholesterol because it transports cholesterol to body cells
HDL (high density lipids)
good cholesterol
Risk of heart disease increases
when good + bad cholesterol are over 5.2mmol/l
Total dietary cholesterol should not exceed
300mg/day
Cholesterol
important in the formation of hormones, vitamin D & bile acids
Vitamin D
is formed in the skin
Factors affecting blood cholesterol
increased trans-fats & saturated fats; decreased fiber & decreased exercise
60% of body weight
is water
An adult requires
2-3 litres of water per day
Fat soluble vitamins include
vitamins: A, D, E and K
Water soluble vitamins
B(s), C, folic acid, pantothemic, biotin
Fat soluble vitamins taken in high dosage
have the potential become toxic because these vitamins are stored
Main anti-oxidant nutrients
vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin E and selinium
Function of vitamin C
antibody production, protein metabolism, collagen synthesis/connective tissue, supports liver detox, wound healing, cancer prevention, iron absorption in the GI tract
Scurvy
vitamin C deficiency
Vitamin C toxicity
diarrhea/GI upset, increased uric acid formation, rebound scurvy
Common sources of Vitamin C
fresh fruit especially citrus, kiwi, strawberries, red/orange peppers
RDAf of Vitamin C
75mg/d; maximum = 90mg/d
Vitamin E
found in all cell membranes & protects from oxidation
Sources of Vitamin E
nut/seed oils, avacados
Mineral Selenium
acts closely with vitamin E in protecting cell membranes
Beta carotene
the precursor to vitamin A
Vitamin A deficiency
nycotolopia: night blindness
Function of Vitamin A
eyes: retinol: important for vision/light accomodation; epithelial regeneration; immune functions; bone growth/development; anti-cancer functions
Vitamin A is potentially toxic
especially among pregnant women (fetal malformation: 5000IU maximum)
Beta carotene
is not toxic to pregnant women
Sources of Vitamin A
organ meats, butter, eggs
Sources of Beta Carotene
carrots, orange/red vegetables; (water soluble)
Thiamin (B1) deficiency
can result from high alcohol intake
Beri Beri
disease resulting from thiamin deficiency
Symptoms of thiamin deficiency
anorexia; weakness; impaired memory; neuropathy
Sources of thiamin (B1)
legumes, nuts, seeds, grains
Function of thiamin
carbohydrate & energy metabolism of cellular respiration; formation of acetylcholine: neurotransmitter (especially for memory)
Riboflavin (B2) function
a component of the co-enzyme FAD/FADH+H; important for energy metabolism
Niacin (B3)
can be formed from the amino acid tryptophan
Co-enzyme NAD/NADH+H
niacin is a component
Niacin (B3) deficiency
symptoms of dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia (3 D's)
3 stored water soluble vitamins
pantothenic, B12, B6
Function of Pyridoxine (B6)
amino acid/protein metabolism; neurotransmitter synthesis (serotonin; epinephrine; histamine); hemoglobin synthesis; glycogenolysis: release of glucose from liver
Vitamin B12
requires intrinsic factor for absorption
Impaired absorption of B12
deficiency results in pernicious anemia
Pernicious anemia
type of macrocytic anemia
Folic acid deficiency
results in macrocytic anemia
Functions of B12
synthesis of nucleic acids (DNA/RNA); essential for: red blood cell formation, protecting myelin of nerves; metabolism of fat, protein, carbohydrated; manufacturer of choline: important for memory
Sources of vitamin B12
found in animal or fortified products
Sources of folic acid
found in green leafie vegetables & liver
400mcg/d supplimentation of folic acid
in pregnancy to prevent neural tube defects in infants
Pantothenic Acid (B5)
a component of co-enzyme A
Function of Pantothenic Acid (B5)
important for the metabolism of cholesterol, steroids, fatty acids
Function of Biotin
metabolism of fatty acids, proteins, carbohydrates; maintains healthy skin, hair, nails; related to B12 & folic acid metabolism
Function of choline
part of acetylcholin (memory neurotransmitter); Lipotropic factor: fat metabolism in liver & lipoprotein production; component of nerve tissue/brain
Important nutrients for bone health
calcium, vitamin D, magnesium, phosphorous & florides
RDAf for calcium
for 19-50 yr olds is 1000mg/day
Functions of Calcium
healthy bones & teeth; vasodilation/vasoconstriction, mm contraction/relaxation; neurotransmitter release; blood clotting
Dairy
a good source of calcium
Ricketts
result from a calcium deficiency and/or vitamin D
Ricketts in adults is called
osteomalacia
Osteoporosis
a condition where calcium is lost from bone faster than it is deposited
Function of phosphorous
component of ADP/ATP; cell membranes; buffering blood pH; cell growth/repair; enzyme regulation (phosphorylation); bones & teeth
Phosphorous
is a structural component of bones & teeth
Function of magnesium
bone health; nerve conduction; muscle contraction/relaxation; numerous enzyme reactions (works with B6 in neurotransmitter metabolism)
Sources of magnesium
nuts, seeds, legumes
Magnesium
is important in mm function
Magnesium deficiency
symptoms of mm cramping & heart arhythmia
Vitamin D metabolism
involves the organs, skin, liver & kidneys
Function of vitamin D
stimulates GI absorption of calcium & phosphorous; stimulates kidney reabsorption of calcium & phosphorous; required for healthy bone development
Vitamin D
400IU/day; fat soluble vitamin
Flouride
is important for teeth
Main source of flouride
flouridated water & dental products
Vitamin K
comes from gut bacteria & green vegetables
Vitamin K is critical
for blood clotting
Anticoagulant drugs
decrease the activity of vitamin K and bruising is easy
Iron deficiency
can result in anemia
Iron
essential for the formation of hemoglobin
Most potential for toxicity of all minerals
iron
Chromium
important for glucose metabolism
Copper
important for hemoglobin synthesis
Iodine deficiency
results in goiter/thyroid problems
Zinc
important for immune function; male health (sperm production/prostate health), taste function & appetite
Dairy
according to the Canada's food guide: 2-3 servings per day
Grains
according to the Canada's food guide: 6-8 servings per day
Fruit/Vegetables
according to the Canada's food guide: 7-10 servings per day
Meat/Alternatives
according to the Canada's food guide: 2-3 servings per day
Ketosis, low fiber, low calcium & weight loss
result of popular low carbohydrate, high protein diet
Zone Diet
comprised of 40% carbohydrates; 30% fats & 30% proteins
Anorexia Nervosa
self-starvation is the main characteristic
Bulemia
bingeing & purging of food by various means
Warning signs of anorexia
fear of gaining weight, thin, dry skin, brittle nail/hair, hypothermia, mood alteration/depression/amenoria
Warning signs of bulemia
preoccupation with food, binge eating, compulsive exercising, broken blood vessels in eyes, weakened dental enamel/cavities, TMJ syndrome
Dietary cancer risk factors
low fiber; obesity; high fat diet (especially saturated fats); alcohol & cigarettes; carcinogens/additive in food (nitrates, sulfates & pesticides)
Body Mass Index equation
weight (Kg) / height (m2)
Zone A BMI less than 20
may be associated with health problems for some people
Zone B BMI between 20 & 25
good weight for most people; generally acceptable range
Zone C BMI between 25 & 27
may lead to health problems in some people; generally acceptable range
Zone D BMI more than 27
increasing risk of developing health problems
Food Allergy
medical term; immune system mediated (IgG, IgE)
Food Sensitivity
general term; any system body system can be involved
Food Intolerance
reaction isn't immune mediated; digestive system eg) latose intolerance
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