Discovering Computers Fundamentals 2011 - Chapters 1-12 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory
entails having knowledge and understanding of computers and their uses
data, instructions, and information on a computer
computer contains many electric, electronic, and mechanical components
Input Device
Allows you to enter data and instructions into a computer
Output Device
Hardware component convey information to one or more people
System Unit
Case containing the electronic components of the computer which are used to process data
Storage Device
Holds data, instructions, and information for future use
Communications Device
Enables a computer to send and receive data, instructions, and information to and from one or more computers or mobile devices
a series of instructions which tells the computer what to do and how to do it
Operating System
a set of programs which coordinates all the activities among computer hardware devices.
Utility Program
system is a type of system which allows a user to perform maintenance-type tasks usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs
Categories of Computers
Personal computers , Mobile computers and mobile devicesGame consolesServersMainframesSupercomputersEmbedded computers
is the fastest, most powerful computer; the fastest supercomputers are capable of processing more than one quadrillion instructions in a single second
Embedded Computer
is a special-purpose computer which functions as a component in a larger product
Embedded Computers Are In
Consumer Electronics, Home Automation Devices, Automobiles, Process Controllers, Robotics, Computer Devices, Ofice Machines
a work arrangement in which employees work away from a company’s standard workplace and often communicate with the office through a computer
a worldwide collection of networks linking millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals
IP address
a number which uniquely identifies each computer or device connected to the Internet
Domain Name
the text version of an IP address
IP Address
Doman Name
Top Level Doman Name
World Wide Web or Web
consists of a worldwide collection of electronic documents
Web pages
worldwide collection of electronic documents
URL / web address
Uniform Resource Locator
path to a specific web page grsm/planyourvisit
13 ( types ) of Web sites
Portal, News, Informational, Business / Marketing, Blog, Wiki, Online Social Network, Educational, Entertainment, Advacocy, Web Application, Content Aggregator, Personal
a collaborative Web site which allows users to add to modify, or delete the Web site content via their Web browser
Content Aggregator
a business which gathers and organizes Web content and then distributes, or feeds, the content to subscribers for free or a fee
refers to any application which combines text with Graphics, Animation, Audio, Video, Virtual Reality
a digital representation of nontext information
Graphic formats
a small version of a larger graphic
includes music, speech, or any other sound
MP3 format
reduces an audio file to about 1/10 its original size, but preserves much of the original quality of the sound
the process of transferring data in a continuous and even flow
a program which extends the capability of a Web browser
Popular Plug-In's
Acrobat Reader, Flash Player, Java, QuickTime, Real Player, Shockwave Player, Silverlight, Windows Media Player
a real-time typed conversation which takes place on a computer
chat room
a location on an Internet server which permits users to chat with each other
(Voice over IP) enables users to speak to other users over the Internet
(File Transfer Protocol) is permits file uploading and downloading
the code of acceptable Internet behavior
System software
serves as the interface between the user, the application software, and the computer’s hardware it also consists of the programs which control or maintain the operations of the computer and its devices
Utility programs
type of system software that allows a user to perform maintenance type tasks usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs
Word processing software
allows users to create and manipulate documents
Developing a document
Create a document, Edit a document, Format a document
Creating a Document
Enter text and numbers , Insert Images, Perform other Documents
Edit a Document
Making changes to existing content, Inserting, Deleting, Cutting, Copying, and Pasting
Format a Document
Change appearance; font , font size
a collection of data organized in a manner which allows access, retrieval, and use of data
a request for specific date from a database
(DB) Field Name
uniquely identifies each field
(DB) Records
group of related fields
Presentation software
allows users to create visual aids for presentations to communicate ideas, messages, and other information to a group
software suite
a collection of individual programs available together as a unit , eg. MS Office 2010
personal information manager (PIM)
is application software including appointment calendar, address book, notebook
Web page authoring software
helps users of all skill levels create Web pages which include multimedia and interactive content
Web-based training
is a type of CBT which uses Internet technology and consists of application software on the Web
is a type of education in which students learn by using and completing exercises with instructional software
System Unit
The inside of the system unit on a desktop personal computer includes; drive bays, power supply, sound card, video card, processor, memory
also called the central processing unit (CPU), interprets and carries out the basic instructions which operate a computer
Control unit
component of a processor that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer
Arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
component of a processor that performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operations
(KB or K), # bytes 1000 / 1024, 1/2 page of text
(MB), # bytes: 1M, 500 pages of text
(GB), # bytes: 1B, 500,000 pages of text
(TB), # bytes: 1T, 500, 000, 000
Memory Module
where RAM chips usually reside
Memory Slots
small circuit board that houses RAM chips and is held in a memory slot on the motherboard
Memory Cache
speeds the processes of the computer because it stores frequently used instructions and data
The amount of RAM necessary in a computer often depends on the types of software you plan to use
Read-only memory (ROM)
refers to memory chips storing permanent data and instructions
Firmware Chips
permanently written data, instructions, or information
Flash memory
can be erased electronically and rewritten
technology provides high speeds and consumes little power
Access time
the amount of time it takes the processor to read from memory
1 Thousandth of a second
1 Millionth of a second
1 Billionth of a second
1 Trillionth of a second
Bluetooth port
short range
IrDA port
MIDI port
music device
allows the various devices both inside and attached to the system unit to communicate with each other
Data Bus
is used to transfer actual data
Address Bus
is used to transfer information about where the data should reside in memory
Computer can have these types of Buses
System, Backside, Expansion
Expansion Bus
expansion bus allows the processor to communicate with peripherals.
Input Device
any data and instructions entered into the memory of a computer
an input device which contains keys users press to enter data and instructions into a computer
F3 Key
Touch Screen
a touch-sensitive display device
a freestanding computer which includes a touch screen
Voice Input
the process of entering input by speaking into a microphone
Voice Recognition
the computer’s capability of distinguishing spoken words
Audio Input
the process of entering any sound into the computer
Video Conference
a meeting between two or more geographically separated people
Web Cam
Capture video and still images, Send e-mail messages with video attachments, Add live images to instant messages, Broadcast live images over the Internet, Make video elephone calls
data processed into a useful form
Display Device
visually conveys text, graphics, and video information
packaged as a separate peripheral, eg. Widescreen and LCD
Liquid crystal display (LCD)
uses a liquid compound to present information on a display device
the number of horizontal and vertical pixels in a display device.
Response Time
lower the # faster the response time
higher the nits, brighter the image
Dot Pitch
lower the #, the sharper the image
Contrast Ratio
higher contrast ratios represent colors better
DPI (Dots Per Inch)
most ink-jet printers can print from 1200 to 4800 dpi
Impact (Printer)
like a dot matrix printer - actually strikes the paper
Non-Impact (Printer)
forms characters and graphics on a piece of paper without actually striking the paper
holds data, instructions, and information for future use
Storage Medium
the physical material on which a computer keeps data, instructions, and information
is the number of bytes a storage medium can hold
1 Thousand / 1024
1 Million 1,048,576
1 Billion
1 Trillion
Hard Disk
contains one or more inflexible, circular platters which use magnetic particles to store data, instructions, and information
Head Crash
occurs when a read/write head touches the surface of a platter
duplicate of a file, program, or disk placed on separate storage
(redundant array of independent disks) is a group of two or more integrated hard disks; duplicates data and implements duplication in different ways
Disk Controller
consists of a special-purpose chip and electronic circuits which control the transfer of data, instructions, and information from a disk to and from the system bus and other components of the computer
Cloud Storage
an Internet service which provides storage to computer users
Reasons to Subscribe to Cloud Storage
Access files from any computer, Allow others to access their files, View time-critical data and images immediately, Store offsite backups, Provide center functions
Blue-ray Disc ROM
(BD-ROM) has a storage capacity of 100 GB
Types of Storage
Tape, Microfiche, Microfilm, Enterprise Storage, Magnetic Stripe Cards, Smart Cards,
Magnetic Strip Cards
contains a magnetic stripe which stores information
Smart Card
stores data on a thin microprocessor embedded in the card
store microscopic images of documents on a roll or sheet film
store microscopic images of documents on a roll or sheet film
Magnetic Disks
20 - 30 years
Optical Discs
50 - 100 years
Solid State Drives
140 years
500 years
System software
consists of the programs which control or maintain the operations of the computer and its devices
Operating System Instructions
start and shut down a computer, provide a user interface, manage programs, manage memory, coordinate tasks, configure devices, est. internet connection, monitor performance, provide utilities, automatically update, control a network, administer security
process of starting or restarting a computer
Cold Boot
Turning on a computer has been powered off completely
Warm Boot
Using the operating system to restart a computer
User Interface
controls how you enter data and instructions and how information is displayed on the screen
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
you interact with menus and visual images
Command-Line Interface
a user uses the keyboard to enter data and instructions
is a small program tells the operating system how to communicate with a specific device
Plug and Play
automatically configures new devices as you install them
Operating systems often provide users with the capability of
managing files, searching for files, viewing images, securing a computer, uninstalling programs, cleaning up disks, defragmenting disks, diagnosing problems, backing up files and disks, setting up screen savers
Types of Operating System
stand-alone, server, embedded
Disk Defragmenter
reorganizes files and unused space on a computer’s hard disk so the operating system accesses data more quickly and programs run faster
a potentially damaging computer program affects a computer negatively by altering the way the computer works
Copies itself repeatedly, using up resources and possibly shutting down the computer or network
Trojan Horse
A malicious program hides within or looks like a legitimate program
Antivirus Program
protects a computer against viruses
is a program placed on a computer without the user’s knowledge secretly collects information about the user
displays an online advertisement in a banner or pop-up window
Spyware Remover
detects and deletes spyware and other similar programs
Adware Remover
is a program which detects and deletes adware
are programs remove or block certain items from being displayed eg. Anti-spam programs, Web filters, Phishing Filters, Pop-Up Blockers
File Compression Utility
shrinks the size of a file
Zipped Files
compressed files that can be uncompressed
Computer Communications
blogs, chat rooms, email, fax, FTP, IM, internet, newsgroups, RSS, video conferencing, VoIP, web, web 2.0, web folders, wikis
Wireless Internet Access Point
allow people to connect wirelessly to the Internet from home, work, school, and in many public locations
is an internal network uses Internet technologies
is the portion of a company’s network allows customers or suppliers of a company to access parts of an enterprise’s intranet
Wireless Access Point
a central communications device allows computers and devices to transfer data wirelessly among themselves or to a wired network
connects multiple computers or other routers together and transmits data to its correct destination on a network
The amount of data which travels over a communications channel
Transmission Media
The amount of data which travels over a communications channel
media transmit multiple signals simultaneously
Physical Transmission Media
twisted pair cable, coaxial cable, fiber optic cable
Common Types of Data
text, numeric, autonumber, currency, data, memo, yes/no, hyperlink, object, attachment
compares data with a set of rules or values to find out if the data is correct
Types of Validation
Alphabetic/Numeric check, Range Check, Consistency Check, Completeness Check, Check Digit
File Processing System
each department has it's own set of files, used for many years, have data redundancy, maintain task consume additional time, isolate data
Database Approach
programs and users share data, reduce data redundancy, improve data integrity, share data, allow easier access, reduces development time , can be more vulnerable
Data Model
consists of rules and standards define how the database organizes data
Relational Database
store data in tables consisting of rows and columns
Row (DB)
have a primary key
Column (DB)
have unique names
Relationship (DB)
a link within the data
Multidimensional Database
can store data in more than two dimensions of data and Can consolidate data much faster than a relational database
Data Warehouse
is a huge database stores and manages the data required to analyze historical and current transactions
Online or Internet—based illegal acts
Script Kiddie
Same intent as a cracker but does not have the technical skills and knowledge
Transmitted Information
Information transmitted over networks has a higher degree of security risk than information kept on an organization’s premises
Program hides in a computer and allows someone from a remote location to take full control
a technique intruders use to make their network or Internet transmission appear legitimate
Proxy Server
a server outside a company’s network which controls the communications into the company’s network
is hardware and/or software protects a network’s resources from intrusion
Computer Ethics
are the moral guidelines govern the use of computers and information systems
Social Engineering
is defined as gaining unauthorized access or obtaining confidential information by taking advantage of trust and naivety
System Proposal
assesses the feasibility of each alternative solution
Steering Committee
discusses the system proposal and decides which alternative to pursue eg. Packaged software, custom software, outsourcing
Computer Security Plan
should Identify all information assets of an organization, Identify all security risks may cause an information asset loss, For each risk, identify the safeguards exist to detect, prevent, and recover from a loss
Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) Language
allows programmers the ability to reuse and modify existing objects, Objects can be reused, Programmers create applications faster, Work well in a RAD environment, Most program development tools are IDEs
programmer uses a program, To convert an assembly language source program into machine language
is an object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems
Just-in-time (JIT)
compiler to convert the byte code into machine-dependent code
Programmers write scripts, applets, servlets, or ActiveX controls using a variety of languages
JavaScript, Perl, PHP, Rexx, Tcl, VBScript
Enterprise Computing
the use of computers in networks, such as LANs and WANs, or a series of interconnected networks that encompass a variety of differnet operating systems, protocols, and network architectures
Types of Enterprises
retail, manufacturing, service, wholesale, government, educational, transportation
Distribution Systems
perform the following functions, provide forecasting for inventory control, manage and track shipping of products, Ppovide information and analysis on inventory in a warehouse
5 Categories of Information Systems
office information system, transaction processing system, management information system, decision support system, expert system
Technologies Used in Enterprises
portals, electronic data interchange, data warehouse, extranet, web services, workflow, virtual private network
is a collection of links, content, and services presented on a Web page are interesting for a particular job function
is a set of standards controls the transfer of business data and information among computers within and among enterprises
Enterprise Hardware
allows large organizations to manage and store information and data using devices geared for: heavy use, max availability, max efficiency
is a measure of how well computer hardware, software, or an information system can grow to meet increasing performance demands
is the ability for an information system to share information with other information systems within an enterprise
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