Art 1440 Test 2 notecards. Flashcards

Art
Terms Definitions
1100-800 BCE
Early Iron Age
800-700
Geometric Period
700-600
Orientalizing period
600-480
Archaic period
480-320
Classical period
320-31 BCE
Hellenistic period
Greeks did not know how to write until about 750 or so. This building seems to be a transiton.
Lefkandi
What does heroon mean?
hero
______ are used for male burials, while female burials are used with _______
crators. vessels
- shows a man touching an animal. It shows a struggle between civilization and chaos. This is actually NOT a GREEK person showing chaos. Made of ____, small, and about 6 to 8 inches high. Found in the sanctuary of ______. Dedicated to ___. Has to do with
Man and Centaur/ Bronze/Olympia
-It is not tall, but it is wide. Never intended to be used for cooking. It was a prize that was given after an Olympic contest. Distinguished by it’s size. There are large rings used for decorations. Would have been dedicated to Olympia.
Bronze Tripod
Olympia
8th Century BCE
-Not far from Athens. His left hand is extended out. His right is in a fist. There is writing on the legs. From mantiklos to the far shooter. May well be a depiction of the god. Mantiklos is advertising himself on this structure. The hair and face form op
Mantiklos Apollo
Thebes
700-675 BCE
-These jugs were sent out to independent cities. Greek goods are being exported to other cities. They are also bringing stuff back. This jug is only a couple inches high. Used for holding perfumed oil. Greeks kept themselves smelling good with this. After
Aryballos
Corinth
Ca 690-675 BCE
-Used for drinking wine. Greeks did this often. The decoration on this jug shows a symposium. You are supposed to look at it and see a message. This jug is about 8 inches tall. Goes above and beyond the black figure. There are yellow and red pieces in thi
Chigiolpe
Veii
Ca 675-650 BCE
-used for religious purposes. We do not know what god was worshipped here. There are also sculptures for this area. One has a block with seated women. Across the front has cats walking separated by a rectangle. There are women at the bottom. There is anot
Temple A
Prinias,
Ca 650-625 BCE
There are also orders (columns), called the ___, and the ____
Doric/Ionic
recognized by the capital, in the early periods it looks soft and curves. They stand directly on the stylebate( they do not have a base). They have an architrave and a freeze. They are separated by triglyphs and metopes. There is only a scene that can fit
Doric Style
has scroll decoration. A nicely molded base. The architrave has three bands instead of one. The freeze is continuous. The scenes can stretch out across the building. Much skinnier than the Doric. Nine or ten times its base diameter than its height. (style
Ionic Style
-pedimental structure- triangular area, roof= pitched
gorgan (medusa)
theory that perseus killed medusa. Given a mirrored shield by Athena. He chopped her head off. Her head was so terrifying, it was thought to kill off evil spirits. Apotropaic- means w
Temple of Artemis, Corfu
Ca 600 BCE
-this temple has an unusual set of proportions. Early temples are long and narrow, and later temples are wider. Columns are extremely flat and soft looking.
Temple of Hera I, Paestum
Ca 550 BCE
-noone knows how it got there. It appears to be genuine. Not life size, only about 3 feet tall flat topped head. She has an unusual smile on her face. It is called the arcaic smile. Transitions head to mouth. Vitality, but not happiness. You can see her f
DamedAuxerre, Crete?
Ca 630 BCE
-this does not look exactly like a person looks like. This clearly does show a healthy and strong man. In the greek world, the highest ideal of beauty was a young man in his teenage years. Right before he got facial hair. We see these sculptures a lot, wh
New York kouros
Athens
Ca 600 BCE
-face tells that’s kroissos was killed in battle. We know this was meant for him. We can see his muscles. He is older than new yorkkouros. Unusual arcaic smile
Kroissos
(Anavysoskouros)
Athens
Ca 540-525 BCE
-plural is kori, found on the acropolis. An offering to Athena. All offerings were dumped into pits after the war. She is wearing a particular dress worn by young women. It is generally a sheet that is tied with a belt. Kori stand with one foot slightly f
Peploskore (meaning girl before marriage)
Athens
530
-garment showing wavy marks. It goes over her right shoulder and under her left arm. Strange smile.
Kore675
Athens
(made on Chios)
ca 520 BCE
-one of the first structures constructed entirely out of marble. West pediment had a sculpure of the ajax. Fighting in the Trojan war. They are showing a great battle in the Trojan war. Telamoun was the father. It mainly shows two Trojan wars on this buil
Temple of Aphaia, Aegina
Ca 500 BCE
- all figures are heading out with Athena in the middle. Figures for most part are facing in. Athena is in the center of both of them. Figures are same scale as each other, they have to go in kneeling position and then go out.
Pediments, temple of Aphaia, Aegina
Ca 500- 490
- we know it is him because of his iconography. The lion skin on his head is what he always wears. He usually carries a bow and arrow or a club. No smile on his face. There is drapery in this sculpture. Not much muscle in the other sculpture.
Herakles
E pediment
Temple of Aphaia
Aegina ca 490
- The other E pediment shows a man twisted laying down. His pose is much more natural, not smiling, but his mouth is open (must be screaming in pain).
Wounded warriors
Temple of Aphaia
Ca 500-490
-this sculpture was destroyed by the Persians. It was an offering. It was found in debris, and found by the Persians. If we place it next to the other sculptures, this is the latest by style. Head is turned to one side. No longer strictly frontal. Can be
Kritos boy
Acropolis, Athens
480
- dedicated at the sanctuary of Delphi. Apollo. The name of the dedicator was Sicilian greek. The leader named Polyzalus from the city of Gela was the dedicator of this group. This sculpture was covered by a rock fall, that is why we still have it today.
Charioteer
Delphi
Ca 478-474
-for a while this sculpture was thought of a Persius, and not Zeus. Found on the cape. Both gods had something in their hands, which you cannot depict in this sculpture. That is why people were confused on who it was. It is a great pose, with the lifting
Artemision Zeus
Cape Artemision
Euboia
Ca 460
-Greek for spear mirror. He is carrying a spear in his left hand ( no longer there). The proportion of the head is 1/5 of the body. The head is actually large from our view. The weight is on the right leg and turns to the right. Gives us a sense of weight
Dorphoros
Polykleitos
Ca 450
-his mouth is open, he is speaking. He has silver teeth and golden lips.
Riace Warrior A
Soith Italy
(Olympia?)
ca 460-450
- Uterly neutral expression means he doesn’t need to strain.
Discobolos
- Persians have been defeatd in Greece but they were still out there. They called this the Delian League. This is sacred because it was the birthplace of the gods. Athenians took on the main work. Other cities just chipped in money. Athens was in control
The Athenian Acropolis
-architects were Iketnos and Ekllikrats. And the sculpterincharge of it was Pateos. It is more like a bank in the shape of a temple. It is designed to look like a temple and it has columns. All of the columns tip in slightly. All of the horizontal lines a
Temple of Athena Parthenos
447- 432 BCE
-struggle between order of chaos, man and animal
-centros got drunk, carried women out to their own, men got angry.
-struggle between greeks and persians
-centors- uncivilized
^^(part of east ped)Lapith and Centaur (south metope)
Temple of Athena Parthenos
447-432 BCE
-Athena was born from the skull of Zeus. The God Phistus had to cut open the skull of Zeus to get her out. This sculpture shows this happening. Man on the left does not know what is going on. Female figures have twisted their bodies because they have just
East pediment
Temple of Athena Parthenos
447-432 BCE
-describes ceremonies of Athena and her birthdays. May be most important building that he talks about.
Doric and Ionc friezes
Temple of Athena Parthenos
447-432 BCE
-there is overlapping of one horse, but a neutral expression. 4 levels of statue readings. Athenas arm on right.
Cavalry procession, ionic freeze
Temple of Athena Parthenos
447-432 BCE
We don’t quite know what the scene was here. They have women forms that are columns. **most important building in the Acropolis.
Erechtheion
421-405 BCE
-Every aspect of this is designed to make you think that Athens is great and successful. This building has battles depicted in the freeze around it. The sculptures on the south side depicted not a mythical battle, but instead depicted a real battle that h
Temple of Athena Nike
421-405 BCE
-We can tell she is not an ordinary woman- because she has wings. It shows a woman under a sheet. The heavy drapery is clinging to her body- called the Wet Drapery Effect. It goes into chain-like folds across her legs. She is reaching down to her foot to
Nike unbinding her sandal
Parapet
Temple of Athena Nike
431-405 BCE
-Still in the classical century. There is now an interest in advertising family prominence. Stele- meaning upright stone. The stele starting showing around the middle of the 5th century. It shows a kind of memorial. Like a grave. The inscription says Hego
Hegesostele
Athens
410-400 BCE
pottery which is black, not very shiny, but still extremely elegant. Used to hold wine or water or oil. Decorated with a large scene as an ice breaker. The title of the image is Archilles and Ajax. They are both in the image. It looks like they are playin
Achilles and Ajax gaming
Exekias
Ca 535
-Also pottery, showing a painting on wet clay, with the painting the same color as the background. We see the Red Figure Technique (the figures are red). This vase has been the subject of controversy for a long time because it was looted. It is a Crater,
Death of Sarpedon
Euphronios, ca 520-510
-shows men that are drunk, partying. Dancing to music being played. They drew the bodies in various poses. This is an experimentation of new figure drawings. It is starting to make a case for the oblique angle bodies.
Three revellers
Munich 2307
Euthymides
Ca 510
-Theaters were exteremly important to the Greeks, then later to the Romans. The word for a dancing floor like this is called an Orchestra. The Orchestra is the circular area at the bottom of the theater. This theater rests directly on a slope, can fit abo
Theater
Epidauros
3rd and 2nd century BCE
It has leaves, unlike the other orders. Inspired from a plant.
Corinthian order (column)
Hippodamos of Miletos, was said to have developed this town. This urban planning has houses, streets, etc. Each person gets their own area of land.
Priene, ca 350 BCE (Town)
-This period is often described as Baroque (over the top, intense). In this sculpture, Hermes is holding the infant. He is set to take care of him in the ancient greek stories.
Hermes and infant Dionysos
Praxiteles
320-310 BCE
-They all go into battle nude. He is wounded in his side, and he is dying. This is ment to be seen at all sides.
Dying Gaul
By Epigonos of Pergamon
Ca 230-220 BCE
-The alter itself is located at the top of the steps. The entire thing is transformed into a structure. It depicts a battle between the gods and the giants. Also between good and evil, civilization and chaos, etc. There is an area showing Athena and Alkyo
Great Altar of Zeus at Pergamon
Ca 166-256 BCE
-we are interested in the area between Rome and Florence. Northern and central Italy had a unified culture. There is primarily burial evidence. Not much other evidence.
***Villanovan Culture
(The Iron Age)
ca 1000-700 BCE
-is a small structure of a hut. Tells us about burial practices and how they lived. There are snake-like figures on the top.
Impasto capanna (hut) urn
No provenance
9th-8th century
acropolis mean “city of the dead”. The interior is domestic. The site consists of multiple mounds, called Tumulus. It is an artificial hill that is built up with soil that is around a volcanic stone. The volcanic stone is called a Tufa. Inside each mo
Banditaccia necropolis
Cacre/Cerveteri
Ca 700-250 BCE
-most famous of all the tombs. You enter and see a pitched ceiling with moldings that mimic beams in the roof. Meant to give you are feeling of being in a built space. Furnished with fake cushions or pillows. You can see bright paint. Beyond the furniture
Tomb of the Reliefs
Banditaccia necropolis
Caere/ Cerveteri
Early 3rd Century
-These people were known for their metal working skills. A fibula is just a safety pin. Metal was valuable back then. This probably weighs about a pound or so. Much bigger than an actual safety pin. The design shows cats walking in a line. Reprussee was h
Gold fibula
Regolini- Galassi Tomb
Caere/ Cerveteri
670- 650
-applied plaster in a fresco technique. This tomb is known because of the leopards at the top of the tomb. Below is a brightly painted scene showing a party. Very similar to the Greeks. People were reclining on couches and they are being brought wine to,
Tomb of Leopards
Tarquinia
Ca 470 BCE
-all made of clay. Shows a couple in a tender moment. He is barechested, while she is fully clothed. There is a real difference between this and greek art. They are really alive and gestering.
Couple sarcophagus
Cerveteri
Ca 520 BCE
- not as rectangular as square. There is only one way to get into this temple. These columns do not go all the way around- they are only on the front and the sides. Made of wood and mud-brick and terecod. They had statuary on the top. The worship did not
Etruscan temple model
-Apollo is marching forward drawing his bow and arrow. He is ready to fight. He has darker colored skin, a close fitting tunic, and it has multiple folds. Vulca- god.
Temple of Apollo at Veil
Ca 510 BCE
-wolf with babies. Babies were small humans. Story of the wolf who found the two children.
She-wolf
Rome
Ca 500 BCE
-localgov. named AlusMetellus. On the hem of his toga it says who he is. We are towards the end of the roman republic. Atruscan is still being spoken as a local language.
AuleMeteli
Early 1st c. BCE
ROMAN HISTORY
Ca 1000-509 BCE- Regal period
509-44 bCE- Republic
44 BCE- ca 330 CE- Empire
ROMAN HISTORY
Ca 1000-509 BCE- Regal period
509-44 bCE- Republic
44 BCE- ca 330 CE- Empire
held office for a year in the republic
consul
they created a system in which roman soldiers could expand a power across the empire.
Julius Caesar
_____ has to fight against the civil war
Octavian
-3 cult chambers in the back. Jupiter, wife Juneau and Minerva are worshipped together in this temple. When the Romans found colonies, every town gets a copy of this buiding. Decorations of the roof, curling looking attachments. The 4 horse chariot with J
Temple of Jupiter OptimusMaximus
Capitoline Hill, Rome
Ca 509 BCE
-this is a small temple located right on the banks of the Tigre. This building in much longer and narrower in the greek style. No broad and overhanging roof. Entirely built out of stone. Built all in Tufa (stone) and a white limestone called trabertine. W
Temple of Portunus, Rome
Ca 80-70 BCE
1. opusincertum-
2. opusreticulatum-
3. opustestaceum
1. stones
2.the net pattern (earliest style, built around 55 BCE)
3.meaning brick
-no curved lines in greek architecture._____ started doing this.
Romans
Sula donated his temple to … The modern town preserves much of this complex that was built by Sula. There are long horizontal straight lines but there is also the use of arches all over that the greeks did not have. Designed to be a gathering place (the
Temple of Fortuna Primigeneia
Praeneste, ca 80-70 BCE
-dozens of arches for entrance. Thousands of people can go in. It is different from Greek theater buildings. Not built into a hill. Completely artificial standing structure. Temple is dedicated to Venus (of victory).
Theater of Pompey
Rome, ca BCE
-shows two scenes- at the top which is the left end we see a man writing in a book and people lined up to come talk to him. This is the senator who checks of every roman to see what political class they belong to. The rest of the scene (two bottom parts)
Paris-Munich reliefs (“Altar of DomitiusAhenobarbus”)
Rome, late 2nd or early 1st century BCE
-one of the most skilled military workers. Face of him. He has unusual features. Heavier cheeks, even a second chin. His hair is unusual. His hair is standing up.
Pompey The Great
-ca 50 BCE
-He is holding portraits of his family members. When the romans died you would have a wax mask made of your face. Members of your family would wear your masks. The man is bald.
Patrician male with funerary busts
Rome
Late 1st c BCE
-from town north of rome. Not the greatest quality. Displays a family together. The father is wearing a breast plate and the son is wearing a toga. The mother is wearing clothes. Shows the increasing status of the family.
Gessius family tomb
Ca 50 BCE
-Augustus didn’t accept the suggestions of the senate. He had as a result a very long reign. He was in the 70’s when he died. We are looking at a statue of him after his death. He was found at the country of state after his death by Libia (his wife).
Prima Porta Augustus
Ca 20 CE
-after the great fire in CE, he took over. The Golden House. He was hounded out of Rome In 68 and killed. He was succedded by men. There were 4 generals in 69 who became Emperor. This man is named The Station. He was one of the emperors. He crushed the re
Vespasian
Rome
Ca 75 CE
first of 5 Emperors. It started in 96 until about 180. Emperors had learned their lessons about their sons succedding them. Each of the emperors then adopted a successor. Hadrian was one of the adopted. He was well known as a lover of greek culture. He wa
Hadrian
Rome
After 117 CE
-her hair shows her wealth. There was also a drill used to sculpt the hair. She had a stern angry look on her face.
DomitiaLongina
Late 1st c. CE
-bronze sculpture well over life size. This was placed on the capital hill. It shows his traveling. He is probably granting mercy to the barbarian who is under his horse. Moved from the capital hill to be replaced by Constantine. Constantine was the emper
Marcus Aurelius
Rome
161-180 CE
-She is one of the wives of the Emperors. Her eyes have Iris to give a sense of life to her face.
Faustina the Younger
Ca 147-148 CE
-Res gestie. Located in the campus marshes, by the city of the North. When he returned to the city he came in on this road. He had this altar constructed when he got back. There is a wall around the altar. Decorated with a number of freezes. West side is
Arapacis (altar of Augustan Peace)
13-9 BCE
-made primarily of concrete. It is a bridge over a river. People can travel under it.
Pont du Gard
Nimes, France
1st century Ce (empire
-one of the best preserved temples anywhere. It is an all marble temple. Carrara. It was possible to build buildings of all marble (this was the first). This used to be surrounded by columns on each side.
MasionCarree
Nimes, France
1st century CE (empire)
-over the arch are two winged victories, very close to the Collusiums.
Arch of Titus
Rome
Ca 81 CE
statue is called the Collosus. They landscaped this whole area and it even had an artificial lake that was created. Nero made this- then he dies in 68 and he Flavians come in and figure out what to do with this. They decided to drain the artificial lake a
DomusAurea (Golden House)
64-68 CE (empire)
-This was used for gladiator wars. These people were very brutal. It is still standing to a height of 5 stories now. You can get 50,000 people in and out of the building. The Romans did some pretty evil things in here. They had re-enactments of events of
Flavian Amphitheater (Colosseum)
Rome
70-80 CE (empire)
Pacilica- a recatangular building with colonades on the inside to support the roof. Trajan Forum. The colonades create aisles. There are two side aisles and a central space. Nave- the central side. This is the largest ever built in the area. There are lib
Forum of Trajan
106-112 CE
-used for Trajan’s burial place. He was buried here, along with his wife. The base of the column is a pile of loot sculpted into the square base. This is an image of the stuff that was taken. There is a scroll inscribed into the column telling you stori
Trajan’s Column
Apollodoras of Damascus
112 CE
-There was an eruption from Mount Vesvinous in Pompei. Pyroclastic- super heated mud. The thick mud covered the site (over 2 to 3 miles). Several hundred people died, and bodies were found. Pompei gives us extraordinary evidence for life back in this time
Bay of Naples
-house in Pompei which was preserved by mud. It had a pool in the back. Each family had their own god. There is also a staircase. Painting all over the walls. This house gives us a sense of changing decoration and use of space over time.
House of the Menander
-it looks like brightly colored marble, but it is not. The entire house is built of concrete, with brick facing, covered over with plaster to look nice. This style of painting is
House of Sallust
Teblinum, Pompei
Early 2nd c BCE
1st style painting
-we see elements of the first style, they use bright colors. They painted fake columns and a door, creating the illusion of grand architecture. There are painted theater masks. 1st style is 3 dimensional and meant to mimic fine cut stone. 2nd style is use
Villa at Boscoreale (town outside of Pompei)
Ca 50 BCE
2nd style painting
in this villa we find a dining room meant for underground. It is painted with a scene from nature. Great example of 2nd style painting. You see all the flowers and fruit.
Garden Room
Prima Porta
38-30 BCE
-another great example of 2nd style painting. This is called villa of the mysteries beucase the painting shows a woman going into a mystery cult with Dyansus. You see various scenes of people preparing for the initiation ceremony.
Villa of the Mysteries
Pompeii, ca 50 BCE
-3rd style depicted as impossibly fantastical ( these structures that are painted are impossible to actually make). It shows very thin columns holding up a roof (which is impossible). The scenes are reduced to almost nothing.
Villa at Boscotrecase
10 BCE
3rd style painting
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