Terms  Definitions 

Individuals 
objects described by a set of data

Variables 
any characteristic of an individual

Categorical 
places an individual into one of several groups or categories

Quantitative 
takes numerical values for which arithmetic operations such as adding and averaging make sense

Symmetric 
a symmetric distribution can be divided at the center so that each half is a mirror image of the other.

Skewed Right 
distributions with most of their observations on the left (toward lower values)

Skewed Left 
distributions with most of their observations on the right (toward higher values) are said to be skewed left

Mean (x bar) 
sum of individual scores divided by the number of individuals

Standard Deviation (S) 
a numerical value used to indicate how widely individuals in a group vary

Five Number Summary 
(Min, Q1, Median, Q3, Max)

Interquartile Range 
a measure of variability, based on dividing a data set into quartiles
Q3  Q1 
Resistant Measures 
affected by outliers

Bar graph 
heights of the bars demonstrate the counts of each category

Pie graph 
must include all the categories that make up a whole

Dotplot 
used to compare frequency counts within categories or groups

Stemplot 
used to display quantitative data, generally from small data sets (50 or fewer observations)

Histogram 
made up of columns plotted on a graph

Ogive 
illustrates the cumulative frequency for a value x (the total number of scores that are less than or equal to x)

Time Plot 
a graph that shows each observation against the time it was measured.

Boxplot 
a type of graph used to display patterns of quantitative data

SOCS 
Shape
Outliers Center Spread 
Why are some measures more resistant than others? 
these measures (mean, standard deviation) are affected by outliers

What happens to S as spread increases? 


What happens to S as spread decreases? 


What does S = 0 show? 


How does a change in units change mean/ S? 


How does a change in units change median/ IQR? 


When should you use mean/ S? 


When should you use median/ IQR? 


Density Curve 


How do you determine the area underneath a density curve? 


How do you approximate the location of X bar and M on a density curve? 


Normal Curve 


689599.7 Rule 


Zscore (Standardized Value) 


Standard Normal 
N(0,1)

What is the distinction between X bar and μ? 


What is the distinction between S and σ ? 


How does the skewness of a density curve affect the location of mean and median? 


How do you estimate mean and median of a normal curve? 


How do you find percent of observations above, below, or between given points given the 689599.7 rule? 


How do you find percent of observations above, below, or between given points given a ztable? 


How do you calculate a point with a a given proportion above or below it? 


How do you construct a normal probability plot? 


Explanatory Variable 


Response Variable 


Correlation (r) 


Least Squares Regression Line (LSRL) 


r^2 (Coefficient of Determination) 


Influential Observation 


Residual 


Residual Plot 


FODS 
Form
Otliers Direction Strength 
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