AP Statistics Fall Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Individuals
objects described by a set of data
Variables
any characteristic of an individual
Categorical
places an individual into one of several groups or categories
Quantitative
takes numerical values for which arithmetic operations such as adding and averaging make sense
Symmetric
a symmetric distribution can be divided at the center so that each half is a mirror image of the other.
Skewed Right
distributions with most of their observations on the left (toward lower values)
Skewed Left
distributions with most of their observations on the right (toward higher values) are said to be skewed left
Mean (x bar)
sum of individual scores divided by the number of individuals
Standard Deviation (S)
a numerical value used to indicate how widely individuals in a group vary
Five Number Summary
(Min, Q1, Median, Q3, Max)
Interquartile Range
a measure of variability, based on dividing a data set into quartiles
Q3 - Q1
Resistant Measures
affected by outliers
Bar graph
heights of the bars demonstrate the counts of each category
Pie graph
must include all the categories that make up a whole
Dotplot
used to compare frequency counts within categories or groups
Stemplot
used to display quantitative data, generally from small data sets (50 or fewer observations)
Histogram
made up of columns plotted on a graph
Ogive
illustrates the cumulative frequency for a value x (the total number of scores that are less than or equal to x)
Time Plot
a graph that shows each observation against the time it was measured.
Boxplot
a type of graph used to display patterns of quantitative data
SOCS
Shape
Outliers
Center
Spread
Why are some measures more resistant than others?
these measures (mean, standard deviation) are affected by outliers
What happens to S as spread increases?
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What happens to S as spread decreases?
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What does S = 0 show?
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How does a change in units change mean/ S?
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How does a change in units change median/ IQR?
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When should you use mean/ S?
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When should you use median/ IQR?
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Density Curve
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How do you determine the area underneath a density curve?
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How do you approximate the location of X bar and M on a density curve?
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Normal Curve
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68-95-99.7 Rule
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Z-score (Standardized Value)
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Standard Normal
N(0,1)
What is the distinction between X bar and μ?
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What is the distinction between S and σ ?
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How does the skewness of a density curve affect the location of mean and median?
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How do you estimate mean and median of a normal curve?
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How do you find percent of observations above, below, or between given points given the 68-95-99.7 rule?
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How do you find percent of observations above, below, or between given points given a z-table?
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How do you calculate a point with a a given proportion above or below it?
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How do you construct a normal probability plot?
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Explanatory Variable
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Response Variable
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Correlation (r)
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Least Squares Regression Line (LSRL)
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r^2 (Coefficient of Determination)
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Influential Observation
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Residual
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Residual Plot
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FODS
Form
Otliers
Direction
Strength
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