Intro to Computer Hardware Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Data and instructions are stored on special ROM (read-only memory) chips on the board and are called the ____.
The ____ card provides a port for a network cable to connect the PC to a network.
In the world of computers, the term ____ refers to the computer's physical components such as the monitor, keyboard, motherboard, and hard drive.
The ____ card, also called the graphics card, provide one or more ports for a monitor.
USB ____ drives are compact, easy to use, and currently hold up to 64Mb of data.
The printer produces output on paper, often called ____ copy.
input, processing, storage, and output
To perform a computing task, software uses hardware for four basic functions: ____.
A serial port transmits data in parallel and is most often used by an older printer.
Most ____ drives consist of a sealed case containing platters or disks that rotate at a high speed.
Motherboard settings are stored in a small amount of RAM located on the firmware chip and are called ____.
For an older motherboard, instead of screws you’ll see ____ that keep the board from resting directly on the bottom of the computer case.
The ____ form factor was designed by Intel in 2003 for flexibility and can be used by everything from large tower systems to those ultrasmall-systems that sit under a monitor.
The electrical requirements for motherboards change over time as new technologies make additional demands for power.
grounded to
The motherboard, like all other components inside the computer case, should be ____ the chassis.
One ____ is the work or energy required to produce one watt of power in one second.
A ____ case sits upright on the floor or a desk and can be as high as two feet and has room for several drives.
MicroATX increases the total cost of a system by increasing the number of expansion slots on the motherboard.
The first ATX power supplies and motherboards used a single power connector called the ____ connector that had 20 pins.
A system might have up to ____ types of ribbon cables.
The power supply and monitor contain enough power to give you a strong shock except when they are unplugged.
The process of upgrading or refreshing the ROM BIOS chip is called ____ BIOS.
The motherboard configuration stored in BIOS setup needs to be changed when a new floppy drive is installed.
Today’s PCs have four or five buses, each with different speeds, access methods, and protocols.
With any installation, remember the importance of using a ground strap (ground bracelet) to ground yourself when working inside a computer case to protect components against ____.
At the beginning of the boot drive (usually drive C) is the OS ____ record.
PCIe is backward compatible
South Bridge
The slower end of the hub in the Intel i800 chipsets, called the ____, contains the I/O controller hub.
A(n) ____ boot involves turning on the power with the on/off switch.
The most reliable way to restore settings is to keep a written record of all the changes you make to ____.
The ____ menu in BIOS setup allows you to configure automatic power-saving features for your system, such as suspend mode or a sleep state.
the Core, the Pentium, the Celeron, and the Atom families
Intel’s current families of processors for the desktop include four major groups: ____.
jumper group
If a power-on password has been forgotten, you can use the BIOS ____ to reset the password.
Electronic devices are more likely to fail than fans.
The peltier’s top surface can be as hot as ____ degrees F.
Most cases have one or more positions on the case to hold a case fan to help draw air out of the case.
The peltier’s top surface can be as cool as ____ degrees F.
An overheated system can cause intermittent problems or cause the system to reboot or refuse to boot.
multiprocessor platform
Installing more than one processor on a motherboard creates a ____.
The temperature inside the case should not exceed ____ degrees C.
Using the ____ technology, the Intel processor, chipset, and wireless network adapter are all interconnected as a unit, which improves laptop performance.
RAM on motherboards today is stored on ____.
A(n) ____ gets its name because it has independent pins on opposite sides of the module.
Random access
____ memory temporarily holds data and instructions as the CPU processes them.
For ____ modules, small clips latch into place on each side of the slot to hold the module in the slot.
Insufficient memory
When Windows does not have adequate memory to perform an operation, it gives a(n) “____” error or it slows down to a painful crawl.
SIMMs are rated by speed, measured in ____.
Systems using RIMMs are still being made.
To upgrade memory means to add more ____ to a computer
General Protection Fault
In Windows, memory errors can cause frequent ____ errors.
RAM is divided into two categories, ____.
A simple problem of replacing a bad memory module can become a complex research project if you don’t have a good grasp of current and past memory technologies.
A Rambus memory module is called a(n) ____.
Mixing unbuffered memory with buffered or registered memory will work but is not recommended.
If the chip’s surface is dull or matted, or you can scratch off the markings with a fingernail or knife, suspect that the chip has been ____.
When installing the RIMM, ____ on the edge of the RIMM module will help you orient it correctly in the socket.
____ is used for a memory cache and is contained within the processor housing.
DIMMs intended to be used in servers must be extremely reliable and use an error-checking technology called ____.
Laptops use a smaller version of a DIMM called a(n) ____.
In the table found in the motherboard manual, a chip on a RIMM module is called a ____.
To use System Information, in the Vista Start Search box or the Windows XP Run box, type ____ and press Enter.
For RIMM modules, install the RIMMs beginning with bank ____.
heat sinks
Higher-quality memory modules have ____ installed to reduce heat and help the module last longer.
Dynamic RAM
____ loses its data rapidly, and the memory controller must refresh it several thousand times a second.
____ is a system BIOS feature that monitors hard drive performance, disk spin up time, temperature, distance between the head and the disk, and other mechanical activities of the drive in order to predict when the drive is likely to fail
During the ____ formatting process, you specify the size of the partition and what file system it will use.
universal bay
If you are mounting a hard drive into a bay that is too large, a ____ kit can help you securely fit the drive into the bay.
Solid state hard drives cost more and are less rugged than magnetic hard drives.
____ transfers data directly from the drive to memory without involving the CPU.
Each side, or surface, of one hard drive platter is called a ____.
Windows Vista technology that supports a hybrid drive is called ____.
The ____-conductor IDE cable has half the number of pins as it has wires.
When using an 80-conductor cable-select cable, the drive nearest the motherboard is the ____.
Almost all hard drives sold today for desktop computers are magnetic hard drives.
A hard disk drive (HDD), most often called a hard drive, comes in two sizes for personal computers: the 1.8" size is used for laptop computers and the 2.5" size is used for desktops.
____ on a circuit board inside the drive housing is responsible for writing and reading data to these tracks and sectors and for keeping track of where everything is stored on the drive.
magnetic hard
A ____ drive has one, two, or more platters, or disks, that stack together and spin in unison inside a sealed metal housing that contains firmware to control reading and writing data to the drive and to communicate with the motherboard.
The total number of ____ on the drive determines the drive capacity.
read/write head
The top and bottom of each disk of a magnetic hard drive have a(n) ____ that moves across the disk surface as all the disks rotate on a spindle.
With ____, two hard drives are configured as a single volume.
DLT Tape
Which storage medium is typically used for large data backups of data?
CD drive with IDE interface
Which media type is NOT hot-swappable?
What interfaces are primarily for internal hard drives?
Hard disk
You need a storage device that has a very large capacity, is fast, and is relatively cheap. Which type of device will best suit your needs?
re-programmable memory
What method does an MMC card use for storing data?
hard disk and floppy disk
What storage devices use magnetic film, disks, and platters for storing data?
What is the most common CD-ROM interface on home and office computers?
hard disk, floppy disk, tape drive
Name three magnetic storage devices:
Lower power requirements and no moving parts
Name two advantages of solid-state storage compared to hard drive:
faster data transfer speeds
Name an advantage of SATA over PATA:
What hard disk interface is typically used in high-performance desktops and servers?
A(n) ____ monitor (also called a progressive monitor) draws the entire screen in one pass.
____ can use cables up to 100 meters (328 feet), and uses a 9-pin rectangular connector.
The ____ assignments refer to the system resources a parallel port will use to manage a print job.
SuperSpeed USB is about ten times faster than Hi-Speed USB and roughly five times faster than FireWire 800.
device drivers
Problems with a device can sometimes be solved by updating the ____ or firmware.
BIOS manages ____ lines that are used by a device to hail the CPU asking for data to be processed, and you do not need to change this value.
chip creep
Chips sometimes loosen because of temperature changes; this condition is called ____.
For laptops, you can adjust the brightness of the display using ____ keys.
Because USB devices are hot-swappable, it’s never a problem to plug or unplug a device while it is turned on.
Device Manager
Devices and their device drivers are managed using ____.
I/O controller
A serial port is provided by the motherboard or might be provided by an adapter card called a(n) ____ card.
A ____ plug is a tool used to test a serial, parallel, USB, network, or other port.
USB is much easier to configure and faster than regular serial or parallel ports and uses higher-quality cabling.
Energy Star
____ systems and peripherals have the U.S. Green Star, indicating that they satisfy certain energy-conserving standards of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
If you have an available eSATA external port, you can use a protective hard drive ____ that will house and protect a hard drive outside the computer case.
touch screen
A ____ is an input device that uses a monitor or LCD panel as the backdrop for input options.
IEEE 1394 uses ____ data transfer, meaning that data is transferred continuously without breaks.
Ports on the motherboard can be disabled or enabled in ____ setup.
IEEE 1394a
____ supports speeds up to 400 Mbps and is sometimes called FireWire 400.
____ CRT monitors draw a screen by making two passes.
An I/O device can be only be internal.
Parallel ports have higher data transfer rates
Name an advantage of parallel ports over serial ports:
What type of printer connection would you connect to LPT:1?
Before USB what interface was used for the keyboard and mouse?
SCSI and Parallel printer
Name two devices that use Centronics-type connectors:
Serial ports can send data over longer distances
Name an advantage of serial ports over parallel ports:
USB 2.0
Name the standard that provides for data transfer rates up to 480 Mbps with a maximum cable length of 5 meters.
Name the most common interface for peripheral devices:
480 Mbps
What is the maximum data transfer speed for USB 2.0 devices?
USB-compatible hub
Name a device with both Type A and Type B USB ports:
4.5 meters
What is the max cable length of an IEEE 1394 device that uses 28-gauge wires?
How many devices does a single IEEE 1394 bus support?
400 Mbps
What is the max data transfer rate of an IEEE 1394 device?
IEEE 1394
Which standard provides for data transfer rates up to 400 Mbps with a max cable length of 4.5 meters?
What would you use to allow you to have one mouse and keyboard for two separate computers?
Bar code reader
What device would allow you to take inventory at a retail store by reading the UPC symbols on products?
touch screen and track ball
Name two input devices from the following list: 1. touch screen 2. hard disk 3. RAM 4. monitor 5. track ball
When installing an optical drive, for a PATA interface set the jumper on the ____ of the drive.
____ is a common compression standard for storing photos.
____ is a set of standards that are used to represent music in digital form.
____ are recessed areas on the surface of an optical disc.
1 GB
When burning a CD, DVD or BD, the hard drive needs some temporary holding space for the write process and should have at least ____ of free space.
After the sound is recorded and digitized, many sound cards convert and compress the digitized sound to ____ format.
A single-sided, single-layer DVD can hold ____ GB.
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