AP World - (29) The World Between the Wars: Revolutions, Depression, and Authoritarian Response Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Emmeline Pankhurst
Leader of the women's suffrage movement in England prior to and during World War I.
Benito Mussolini
Italian fascist leader after World War I. He created the world's first fascist government based upon an aggressive foreign policy and new nationalist glories.
Jozef Pilsudski
Dictator of Poland, he was indicative of the type of authoritarian rulers that many of the 'Versailles States' saw during the 1920s and 1930s.
Porfirio Diaz
One of Jaurez's key generals who assumed power as president in 1876. He went on to dominate Mexican politics for the next 35 years. During his time in power Mexico was characterized by a strong central government.
Francisco Madero
One of Jaurez's key generals who assumed power as president in 1876. He went on to dominate Mexican politics for the next 35 years. During his time in power Mexico was characterized by a strong central government.
Francisco "Pancho" Villa
A Mexican revolutionary and military commander in northern Mexico during the Mexican Revolution. He, along with Emiliano Zapata succeeded in removing Porfirio Diaz from power. He also participated in the campaigns to remove Madero and Huerta.
Emiliano Zapata
Mexican revolutionary leader a military commander of peasant guerilla movement after 1910 centered in the south. He, along with Pancho Villa, succeeded in bringing down the Diaz government. He also participated in the campaigns against Madero and Huerta.
Victoriano Huerta
Following the removal of Francisco Madero in 1913 he attempted to reestablish a centralized dictatorship in Mexico. In 1914 he was forced from power by both Villa and Zapata.
Alvaro Obregon
Mexican leader that emerged in 1915. he was elected president in 1920 in the early days of the new Mexican Constitution.
Diego Rivera
Mexican artists in the period following the Revolution. He is known for his murals painted on the walls of public buildings. Like Orozco, he mixed romantic images of the Indian past with Christian symbols and Marxist ideology.
Jose Clemente Orozco
Mexican artist known for his murals of Mexico after the revolution. Like Diego Rivera, his work featured romantic images of the Indian past mixed with Christian symbols and Marxist ideology.
Alexander Kerensky
Liberal revolutionary leader during the early stages of the Russian Revolution in 1917. he sought the development of parliamentary rule and the expansion of religious freedom.
Vladimir Lenin
Communist leader during the revolution in Russia.
Leon Trotsky
Chief ally of Lenin during the Russian Revolution. He was the first leader of the Red Army.
Joseph Stalin
Successor to Lenin as head of the USSR. He held a strongly nationalist view of communism that fell in line with traditional anti-Western Russian values. He crushed all opposition to his rule. He transformed the Soviet economy through a series of 5-Year Plans meant to replace Lenin's policies.
Yuan Shikai
Warlord in northern China after the fall of the Qing Dynasty. He hoped to seize the imperial throne, but became president of China after 1912. he resigned in the face of Japanese invasion in 1916.
Li Dazhao
Chinese intellectual that gave serious attention to Marxist ideas. He headed a Communist study circle at the University of Beijing. His primary addition to Marxist philosophy was the belief that peasants could serve as the vanguard of revolutionary Communist in China due to the lack of a true working class.
Mao Zedong
Communist leader in revolutionary China. He advocated rural land reforms and agreed with Li Dazhao's belief that the peasantry would serve a major role in the revolution. He led Communist forces against the Nationalists during the 1920s and 1930s. he was the highest ranking survivor of the Long March in 1934. In 1949 his forces succeeded in taking control of China.
Chiang Kai-shek
A military leader who succeeded Sun Yat-sen as the leader of the Chinese Nationalist Party in the mid 1920s. He became the most powerful leader in China during the 1930s, but ultimately his Nationalist forces would lose the Chinese Civil War to the Communists after World War II.
Lazaro Cardenas
President of Mexico from 1934 to 1940. he was responsible for massive redistribution of land, primarily to create ejidos, or communal farms. He also began a program of massive education.
Getulio Vargas
Elected president of Brazil in 1929. He launched a centralized political program by imposing federal administrators over state governments. He held of coup attempts by both communist forces and fascists during the 1930s. He imposed a new constitution based on that of Benito Mussolini, but later began leaning toward the communists in the 1940s.
Juan D. Peron
Military leader in Argentina who became dominant as a political figure after a military coup in 1943. He used his position as Minister of Labor to appeal to working groups and the poor. He became president in 1946, was forced into exile in 1955, but returned and won the presidency back in 1973.
Francisco Franco
Fascist leader who lead forces during the Spanish Civil War. Ultimately, with German and Italian support, he was successful in with that conflict.
Adolf Hitler
Leader of the Nazi Party in Germany. He assumed power in the early 1930s.
Cubist Movement
20th Century art style that is best represented by the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso. In this style common objects are rendered as geometrical objects.
Fascism
Political philosophy that became predominant in Italy and then Germany during the 1920s and 1930s. It attacked the weakness of democracy, corruption of capitalism. It also promised vigorous foreign and military programs. To reduce social friction the state took a leading role in the economy through direction, however not direct control.
Syndicalism
Economic and political system based on the organization of labor.
Mexican Revolution
Revolution fought of a period of almost a decade starting in 1910. It resulted in the ousted of Porfirio Diaz from power. It was lead by both Pancho Villa in the north and Emiliano Zapata in the south.
Mexican Constitution of 1917
Document that promised land reform, limitations on
the foreign ownership of key resources. It also guaranteed the rights of workers and placed major restrictions on clerical education.
Cristeros
Conservative peasant movement that was most active in central Mexico during the 1920s. It was created as an attempt to prevent the growth of secularism in Mexican society. Ultimately it resulted in a great deal of armed violence.
Kellogg-Briand Pact
A treaty co-authored by American and French leaders in 1928. Its primary goal was the 'outlaw' the use of violence in solving national problems. It was ratified by several nations.
Suffrage
The right to vote.
"Peace, Land and Bread"
Promises made by Lenin during the Russian Revolution.
Soviet
Councils established by revolutionary forces during the Russian Revolution.
Red Army
Military organization constructed by Leon Trotsky during the Russian Civil War.
Whites
Anti-Communist forces during the Russian Civil War.
Nationalization
Policy of assuming governmental ownership of economic institutions.
New Economic Policy
Plan initiated by Lenin in 1921. In this system the state continued to set basic economic values, but efforts were combined with limited individual initiative. This policy allowed food production to recover.
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Federal system of Communist republics established in 1923 in various ethnic regions of the former Russian Empire. This nation was firmly controlled by the Communist Party. It would stand united until 1991. Often called the USSR or Soviet Union.
Politburo
The executive committee of the Soviet Communist Party.
Supreme Soviet
The legislative branch of the Soviet government.
Collectivization
The creation of large state-run farms rather than small individual holdings. This system allowed the Communist government of the Soviet Union to more efficiently control the peasantry. Despite lowering food production, it remained a central part of Stalin's economic planning. Its basic goals were adopted by a number of other Communist regimes.
May Fourth Movement
Resistance movement to Japanese land encroachments in China on that date in 1919. This event spawned a movement by intellectuals aimed at transforming China into a liberal democracy that rejected Confucianism.
Kuomintang
Chinese Nationalist Party founded by Sun Yat-sen. Much of its early support came from Chinese warlords and the criminal underworld. Later the forged an alliance with the Chinese Communists in 1924. That relationship deteriorated and began a civil war. After 1925 Chiang Kai-shek became its leader. Guomindang.
Whampoa Military Academy
Founded in 1924, this was the military wing of the Chinese Nationalist Party. The first head of this academy was Chiang Kai-shek.
Long March
Communist escape from Hunan province during the Civil War against the Nationalists in 1934. During this event the main power of the Communist Party movement to the north. This event firmly established Mao Zedong as the head of the Communist Party in China.
Rape of Nanking
1930s event which saw Japanese brutality unleashed on the city of Nanjing/Nanking during the Japanese invasion of China.
Great Depression
International economic crisis following World War I that began with the collapse of the American stock market in 1929.
Popular Front
A combination of socialist and communist political parties in France which won elections in 1936. This government was unable to take strong measures became of the continued strength of the French conservatives. Fell from power in 1938.
New Deal
President Franklin D. Roosevelt's precursor to the modern welfare state. This program was established in the United States to combat the hardships of the Great Depression.
Gestapo
Secret police in Nazi Germany. They were especially known for their brutal tactics.
Spanish Civil War
Conflict between authoritarian and military leaders in Spain and republicans and leftists between 1936 and 1939.
Five-Year Plans
Economic plans established by Stalin in the Soviet Union. They largely succeeded in industrializing the USSR rapidly.
Great Purge
1930s events in the Soviet Union which saw more than 2 million political dissidents killed or jailed by Stalin due to the opposition to his rule.
Gulag
System of prison camps established by Soviet authorities across the vastness of the nation.
Nazi Party
Fascist political party established in southern Germany in the early 1920s. After disastrous attempts at armed insurrection, they modified their goals to use the already established legal system. With the appointment of their leader Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of Germany in the early 1930s, they began to infiltrate and assume control of Germany.
Beer Hall Putsch
1920s attempt by the Nazi Party to launch a coup against the democratically elected government of Germany.
Mein Kampf
Book written by Nazi leader Adolf Hitler while serving his sentence in prison for his connection to and participation in an attempted coup against the German government. In this book he laid out the basic principles of his ideology and his goals for the nation.
Enabling Act
Law passed by the German legislature which granted emergency powers to Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of Germany.
Nuremburg Laws
Series of laws passed by the German legislature which took increasing rights away from Jews and other minority groups in Germany society.
Anschluss
Hitler's union of Germany with the German-speaking nation of Austria in 1938.
Appeasement
Policy used by prime Minister Neville Chamberlain of Great Britain. He hoped to preserve peace in the face of German aggression. This policy was applied at the Munich Conference, and sought to 'give in' to limited demands in an effort to avoid war.
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