All the information directly from the notes for Mark Delgrosso's Biology Final! Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Testes
Where sperm are created
Scrotum
a bag of skin containing the testes, keeping them out of the body
Epididymus
area where sperm are sent to mature and await ejaculation
Vas Deferens
long tube connecting all parts of the system
Seminal Vesicle
creates a thick sugary fluid to provide energy for swimming sperm
Prostate Gland
creates a thinner fluid for sperm to actually swim
Semen
mixture of seminal and prostate fluids and sperm
Urethra
last passageway sperm travel to get outside
Penis
sperm-injecting structure
Ovaries
create ova
oviducts (fallopian tubes)
tubes connect ovaries to the system
Oviducts...
release ova directly into the F.T.s; ovum waits here for fertilization; fertilization occurs in F.T.
Uterus
large space surrounded by flexible sides
vagina
portal through which sperm enter the body
Puberty in Males
Starts at the Pituitary gland +Lutenzing Hormone (LH) --> Hormone arrives at TESTES (then LH stimulates the production of) TESTOSTERONE (stimulates) SPERM PRODUCTION and SEX CHARACTERISTICS
Puberty in females
Pituitary gland (creates) FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE (when FSH arrives at) OVARIES (it stimulates production of) ESTROGEN (which stimulates production of) EGG CELLS and SEX FEATURES
Menstruation
production of eggs
Ovulation
egg cells burst out of ovary
Egg cells
remain in the oviduct waiting to be fertilized
Uterus
preparing for possibility of a baby
Uterus...
walls become flexible... increased blood supply... creates a nutrient rich fluid
if NO FERTILIZATION
egg, along with all uterine material, gets flushed out through vagina... another egg is ovulated, cycle begins again
Fertilization 1 sperm leave
millions of sperm leave the male during ejaculation and enter through vagina and work their way up through uterus/FT
Fertilization 2 female creates
female creates a highly acidic fluid that kills most sperm on contact (survival of the fittest, sucka'z)
Fertilization 3 sperm's nucleus
One sperm's nucleus unites with the egg nucleus (winner)
Fertilization 4 Zygote Formation and Implantation
A zygote forms and is transported to the uterus AND it embeds itself in the uterine walls
Viviparity
Zygote/embryo/fetus develops entirely within the female and is fully developed when born [most mammals and some reptiles]
Oviparity
Zygote/embryo/fetus develops outside body of the female but within a protective egg [all birds, amphibians, fish, some reptiles]
Ovoviparity
Zygote/embryo/fetus development takes place within female by ALSO in a protective egg. When egg is laid it contains a fully developed baby in it [sharks, rays, crocodilians]
Zygote-->Embryo
Zygote --> Morula --> Blastula --> Gastrula
Morula
little ball of cells that contain some volume of zygote (3 days after fertilization)
Blastula
Cells are stem cells (undifferentiated 'plain' cells) they have not become anything but CAN become any type of cell
Gastrula
forms when an indentation occurs on one side (Gastrulation) and establishes an inside and outside cells
Further Mitosis to Gastrula
Further mitosis creates ECTO MESO and ENDO germ layers
Ecto
form nerves, brain, and skin
Meso
form bone, blood, blood vessels, heart, kidney, reproductive system
Endo
forms digestive system and respiratory system
Embryo forms when
embryo is created when rudimentary organ systems form
In viviparous creatures, AMNION
is the membrane that forms around embryo. It fills with fluid
Placenta
grows out of uterine walls and umbilical cord connects it to embryo
Placenta also
directs nutrients and Oxygen from females body into embryo and pumps waste products out of embryo
Trait
a characteristic of any organism
Genetic Trait
a trait determined by genes and that is passable to offspring
Gene
a 'recipe' for a protein/enzyme [it's a sequence of N-bases that code for a certain protein or enzyme]
Heredity
the passing of traits from generation to generation
Genetics
the study of heredity and how genes get passed
Allele
any number of forms that a gene can take
Chromosome
'packets' of double stranded DNA (in which is found all the genes)
Mendel chose peas because...
short generations, easily observed traits, and he could control the mating
Theory of Factors
'something' is passed from parents to offspring that controls the appearance of traits
Theory of Paired Factors
for each trait, an individual possesses a pair of factors (alleles) one from each parent
Theory of Dominance/Recessive
some alleles are dominant and some alleles are recessive.
Homozygous
both alleles are the same (D/D or r/r)
Heterozygous
one allele of a pair is dominant and the other is recessive
Theory of Segregation
alleles for each trait come in pairs, which are then split up (segregated) during meiosis. One allele goes into 2 sperms/eggs the other goes into another 2 sperms/eggs. Allele pairs are reestablished at fertilization when gametes unite
Law of Independent Assortment
says that traits are passed on/inherited independently of each other. This is because during meiosis (gamete formation) there is a random mixing up of homologues into the daughter cells, this explains diversity in offspring of same parent
Polygene/polygenic traits
many traits require multiple proteins/enzymes, multiple proteins require multiple genes
Incomplete Dominance
is when 2 or more different alleles show up at the same time in a phenotype, causing a BLEND, i.e. black bunny + white bunny = grey bunny
Codominance
is when 2 alleles both show up in the same phenotype fully, not mixed, and independently of one another. black-and-white spotted bunny
Sex Determination and Sex Chromosomes
XX is female; XY is male
Autosome
non sex chromosomes
Sex Linked Trait
Some of the genes on Sex Chromosomes have nothing to do with gender; they include color vision and blood clotting protein. Mutations of these will affect more males than females
Mutation
a 'screw-up' in a gene, a chromosome, or in the number of c-somes
Genetic Mutations
occur during the gene/r-some copying process (replication)
Point Mutation
mismatching of bases
Frame Shift Mutations
addition or deletion of nucleotides that shift codon sequences
Genetic Mutations result in:
mistaken amino acids being put on final protein, which could alter the shape
Mutations show up...
when all cells possess the mutations... The zygote has to possess the mutation for it to show up in the phenotype
Chromosomal Mutations
Nondisjunction, Insertion, Inversion, Deletion, and Translocation
Nondisjunction
screw up in c-some number
Insertion
c-somes can get into such close contact that they 'rob' n-tides and pull off a bunch from a neighbor
Inversion
During copying of a c-some, large sections get copied upside down in relation to the original order
Deletion
during copying, large sections of a c-some don't get copied at all
Translocation
Sections of 1 c-some get copied onto an entirely different one
Autosomal Disorders
Down's Syndrome, Cystic Fibrosis, and Sickle-Cell Anemia
Down's Syndrome
Trisomy 21: NONDISJUNCTION DISORDER
Cystic Fibrosis
GENETIC MUTATION affecting the gene for mucus production
Sickle-Cell Anemia
GENETIC MUTATION that screws up the formation of red-blood cells
Sex/Sex-Linked Mutations/Disorders
involves mutations of either genes on the SCs of the number of SCs
Genetic Sex Linked Mutations
Color-blindness, hemophilia, muscular dystrophy. Almost all sufferers are male
Nondisjunction Disorders
Kline-Felters Syndrome, Turner Syndrome, XXX Super Female
Kline Felters
Develops an extra X ---> XXY which produces more feminine features
Turner Syndrome
a female missing an X --> (X) doesn't fully develop and androgynous
Super Female
(XXX): Amazonian Features
Detecting Mutations
Amniocentesis: removal of amniotic fluid during embryonic development (Karyotype is made). Genetic mutations are difficult/impossible to detect early
Clone
an individual with 100% the same genotypes as another individual, i.e. identical twins
Evolution
Change over time
Organic Evolution
change in organisms over HUGE amounts of time; change of one species into another
Species
a group of organisms so closely related that they can reproduce with each other. The resultant offspring are able to reproduce as well
Fossils
remains of long extinct organisms
Vestigial Structures
features/organs/parts of living organisms that are reduced/useless (vestiges) but that actually served a function in extinct, ancestral organisms (Hips on whales, appendix in humans)
Homologous Structure
parts/organs/structures that serve more or less the same purpose (sometimes different) and are composed/arranged/derived similarly on different organisms (suggesting a common ancestor)
Amologous Structure
on different organisms are parts that have same function but are entirely different in their composition (bird wing/insect wing)
Lamarck's Theory
Organisms change due to use and disuse and inheritance of acquired characteristics
Outline of Darwinian/Wallace Theory
Overproduction, competition, variations, adaptations, survival of the fittest, and natural selection
Overproduction
each organism (can) produce more offspring than can possibly survive (leads to competition)
Competition
because there are so many offspring, they will have to compete for food, habitat, mates, etc. The losers die out, the winners get all the goods
Variations
not all members of the same species are exactly alike, i.e. there are slight differences
Causes for variations
sexual reproduction (independent assortment), mutations, crossing over (during meiosis, when h-logs come together, sometimes large sequences 'cross over' and 'trade' parts) and Random Fertilization (any old sperm fertilizes any old egg)
Adaptations
allow an organism to win in the 'struggle for existence'. Darwin theorized that these traits gets passed down. Appearance of them is random: pure chance
Survival of the Fittest
those that 'fit' the best have the greater chance, this they reproduce more and their 'fit'ness is passed on (theoretical, not totally true)
Natural Selection
Nature decides what the best fit is. But MUTATIONS (in the end) create adaptations
Sexual Selection
when certain genders 'select' mates based on variations they may possess. These are then passed on to the offspring, thus the sexes take place of 'nature/environment' in 'selecting' what variations are 'good' and worth mating with
Allopatric Speciation
Geographical Isolation created by a physical boundary (mountain) thus providing different conditions, thus going their 'separate' ways, thus forming their own species
Sympatric Speciation
Reproductive Isolation, i.e. there's no physical separation, but certain members of the group isolate themselves based on mutually appealing variations
Adaptive Radiation
Combo of allopatric/sympatric speciation. A single species goes into multiple species within the same locale. Certain variations allow a sub-group to separate from the rest. These allow group to exploit resources the rest can't. Relieves competition.
Rates of Evolution
Gradualism vs Punctuated Equilibrium
Gradualism
a steady change over a long period of time (on a graph it slopes upward)
Punctuated Equilibrium
BIG Change very quickly, then no changes for a while, then BIG change again, then... etc. (looks like stairs on a graph)
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