ASQ CMQ/OE Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Scientific management/approach
A term referring to the intent to find and use the best way to perform tasks to improve quality, productivity, and efficiency.
Process map
A type of flowchart depicting the steps in a process, with identification of responsibility for each step and the key measures.
Non-value-added
A term that describes a process step or function that is not required for the direct achievement of process output. This step or function is identified and examined for potential elimination.
Total quality management (TQM)
A management approach to long-term success through customer satisfaction. It is based on the participation of all members of an organization in improving processes, products, services, and the culture in which they work.
Appraisal cost
The cost involved in ensuring that an organization is continually striving to conform to customers' quality requirements.
Central tendency
e tendency of data gathered from a process to cluster toward a middle value somewhere between the high and low values of measurement.
Accreditation
Certification by a duly recognized body of the facilities, capability, objectivity, competence, and integrity of an agency, service, or operational group or individual to provide the specific service or operation needed.
Failure
The inability of an item, product, or service to perform required functions on demand due to one or more defects.
Efficiency
The ratio of the output to the total input in a process.
Body of knowledge (BoK)
The prescribed aggregation of knowledge in a particular area an individual is expected to have mastered to be considered or certified as a practitioner.
Process capability
A statistical measure of the inherent process variability for a given characteristic.
Life-cycle stages
Stages that a product moves through as it develops over time: design, manufacturing, assembly, installation, operation, and shutdown.
Acceptance number
The maximum number of defects or defectives allowable in a sampling lot for the lot to be acceptable.
Customer delight
The result of delivering a product or service that exceeds customer expectations.
Sample
One or more units of product (or a quantity of material) drawn from a lot for purposes of inspection to reach a decision regarding acceptance of the lot.
Structural variation
riation caused by regular, systematic changes in output, such as seasonal patterns and long-term trends.
Attribute data
Information that is counted and plotted as discrete events, such as shipping errors, number of days absent, or percentage of waste.
Average chart
A control chart in which the subgroup average, X-bar, is used to evaluate the stability of the process level.
Reliability
The probability of a product's performing its intended function under stated conditions without failure for a given period of time.
Seven basic quality tools
Tools that help organizations understand their processes to improve them. The tools are the cause-and-effect diagram, the check sheet, the control chart, the flowchart, the histogram, the Pareto chart, and the scatter diagram.
Histogram
A graphic summary of variation in a set of data. Its pictorial nature lets people see patterns that are difficult to detect in a simple table of numbers.
Control plan (CP)
A document that describes the required characteristics for the quality of a product or service, including measures and control methods.
Statistics
A field that involves the tabulating, depicting, and describing of data sets; a formalized body of techniques characteristically involving attempts to infer the properties of a large collection of data from inspection of a sample of the collection.
Partnership/alliance
Both a strategy and a formal relationship between a supplier and a customer that engenders cooperation for the benefit of both parties.
Regression analysis
A statistical technique for determining the best mathematical expression describing the functional relationship between one response and one or more independent variables
Range (statistical)
The measure of dispersion in a data set (the difference between the highest and lowest values).
Brainstorming
A technique teams use to generate ideas on a particular subject. Each person in the team is asked to think creatively and write down as many ideas as possible. The ideas are not discussed or reviewed until after the brainstorming session.
Mode
The value occurring most frequently in a data set.
Quality management system (QMS)
A formalized system that documents the structure, responsibilities, and procedures required to achieve effective quality management.
Robustness
The condition of a product or process design that remains relatively stable, with a minimum of variation, even though factors that influence operations or usage, such as environment and wear, are constantly changing.
Goal
A broad statement describing a desired future condition or achievement without being specific about how much and when.
Supplier quality assurance
Confidence a supplier's product or service will fulfill its customers' needs. This confidence is achieved by creating a relationship between the customer and supplier that ensures that the product will be fit for use with minimal corrective action and inspection.
Autocratic management
Management style in which managers are more concerned with developing an efficient workplace and often have less concern for people. They make most decisions independently and rely on the power created by their management role. This style is often referred to as a "command and control" approach.
Alignment
The actions taken to ensure that a process or activity supports the organization's strategy, goals, and objectives.
Poka-yoke
Japanese term that means mistake-proofing.
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
A basic statistical technique for analyzing experimental data. It subdivides the total variation of a data set into meaningful component parts associated with specific sources of variation in order to test a hypothesis on the parameters of the model or to estimate variance components. There are three models: fixed, random, and mixed.
Internal customer
e recipient (person or department) within an organization of another person's or department's output (product, service, or information).
Deployment
Dispersion, dissemination, broadcasting, or spreading of a communication throughout an organization, downward and laterally.
Lean manufacturing
Initiative focused on eliminating all waste in manufacturing processes. Principles include zero waiting time, zero inventory, scheduling (internal customer pull instead of push system), batch to flow (cut batch sizes), line balancing, and cutting actual process times
Assignable cause
A name for the source of variation in a process that is not due to chance and therefore can be identified and eliminated.
Hoshin planning
Breakthrough planning; a Japanese strategic planning process in which a company develops up to four vision statements that indicate where the company should be in the next five years. Company goals and work plans are developed based on the vision statements. Periodic audits are then conducted to monitor progress.
Waste
y activity that consumes resources and produces no added value to the product or service a customer receives.
Culture, organizational
A common set of values, beliefs, attitudes, perceptions, and accepted behaviors shared by individuals within an organization.
Quality audit
A systematic, independent examination and review to determine whether quality activities and related results comply with planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are implemented effectively and are suitable to achieve the objectives.
Standard
The metric, specification, gage, statement, category, segment, grouping, behavior, event, or physical product sample against which the outputs of a process are compared and declared acceptable or unacceptable
Requirements
The ability of an item to perform a required function under stated conditions for a stated period of time.
Strategic planning
The process by which an organization envisions its future and develops strategies, goals, objectives, and action plans to achieve that future.
Six sigma quality
A term generally used to indicate that a process is well controlled (± 6 sigma from the center line in a control chart).
Certification
The result of meeting the established criteria set by an accrediting or certificate-granting organization.
Type I error
An incorrect decision to reject something (such as a statistical hypothesis or a lot of products) when it is acceptable.
Work team
A team comprising members from one work unit. Also called a natural team.
Cause-and-effect diagram
A tool for analyzing process dispersion. It is also referred to as an Ishikawa or fishbone diagram. It illustrates the main causes and subcauses leading to an effect (symptom).
Just-in-time training
The provision of training only when it is needed to all but eliminate the loss of knowledge and skill caused by a lag between training and use.
Defect
A product's or service's nonfulfillment of an intended requirement or reasonable expectation for use, including safety considerations.
Tolerance
The maximum and minimum limit values a product may have and still meet customer requirements.
Just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing
An optimal material requirement planning system for a manufacturing process in which there is little or no manufacturing material inventory on hand at the manufacturing site and little or no incoming inspection.
Feedback
Communication from customers about how delivered products or services compare with customer expectations.
Range chart (R chart)
A control chart in which the subgroup range, R, is used to evaluate the stability of the variability within a process.
Availability
The ability of a product to be in a state to perform its designated function under stated conditions at a given time.
Green Belt (GB)
A business team leader responsible for managing projects and implementing improvement in his or her organization. An employee of an organization who has been trained on the improvement methodology of six sigma and will lead a process improvement or quality improvement team as part of his or her full-time job.
X-bar chart
Average chart
Gap analysis
The comparison of a current condition to the desired state.
Self-directed work team (SDWT)
type of team structure in which much of the decision making regarding how to handle the team's activities is controlled by the team members themselves.
Key performance indicator (KPI)
A statistical measure of how well an organization is doing.
Hawthorne effect
The concept that every change results (initially, at least) in increased productivity.
Plan-do-check-act (PDCA) cycle
A four-step process for quality improvement.
Zero defects
A performance standard and methodology developed by Philip B. Crosby that states that if people commit themselves to watching details and avoiding errors, they can move closer to the goal of no defects.
Pareto chart
A graphical tool for ranking causes from most significant to least significant that suggests that most effects come from relatively few causes; that is, 80% of effects come from 20% of possible causes.
Accuracy
The characteristic of a measurement that tells how close an observed value is to a true value.
Vital few, useful many
A term used by Joseph M. Juran to describe his use of the Pareto principle. The principle suggests most effects come from relatively few causes; that is, 80% of effects come from 20% of possible causes.
Ethics
The practice of applying a code of conduct based on moral principles to day-to-day actions to balance what is fair to individuals or organizations and what is right for society.
Corrective action
The implementation of solutions resulting in the reduction or elimination of an identified problem.
Check sheet
A simple data recording device designed by the user, which allows him or her to readily interpret the results. Often confused with checklist.
Change agent
An individual from within or outside an organization who facilitates change within the organization. May or may not be the initiator of the change effort.
Focus group
A group, usually of eight to ten persons, that is invited to discuss an existing or planned product, service, or process.
Policy
An overarching plan (direction) for achieving an organization's goals.
Team
A group of individuals organized to work together to accomplish a specific objective.
Frequency distribution (statistical)
A table that graphically presents a large volume of data so the central tendency (such as the average or mean) and distribution are clearly displayed.
Customer satisfaction (CS)
The result of delivering a product or service that meets customer requirements.
Process improvement team
A structured environment often made up of cross-functional members who work together to improve a process or processes.
Validation
The act of confirming that a product or service meets the requirements for which it was intended.
Activity
A term used with CPM; it refers to the work required to proceed from one event or point in time to another.
Alliance
An arrangement where two parties work together for a common purpose.
Inputs
e products, services, material, etc., obtained from suppliers and used to produce the outputs delivered to customers.
Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA)
A procedure in which each potential failure mode in every subitem of an item is analyzed to determine its effect on other subitems and on the required function of the item.
Data
A set of collected facts. There are two basic kinds: measured or variable (such as 16 ounces, 4 miles, or 0.75 inches) and counted or attribute (such as 162 defects).
Acceptance sampling
The maximum number of defects or defectives allowable in a sampling lot for the lot to be acceptable.
Cpk index
Equals the lesser of the USL minus the mean divided by three sigma (or the mean) minus the LSL divided by three sigma. The greater the Cpk value, the better.
Arrow diagram
A planning tool to diagram a sequence of events or activities (nodes) and the interconnectivity of such nodes. It is used for scheduling, especially for determining the critical path through nodes. Also known as an activity network diagram (AND).
Chart
A tool for organizing, summarizing, and depicting data in graphic form.
Out-of-control process
A process in which the statistical measure being evaluated is not in a state of statistical control. In other words, the variations among the observed sampling results can be attributed to special circumstances that have affected the process in an unusual manner
Groupthink
A situation in which critical information is withheld from the team because individual members censor or restrain themselves, either because they believe their concerns are not worth discussing or because they are afraid of confrontation.
Reengineering
A breakthrough approach involving the restructuring of an entire organization and its processes.
Quality policy
An organization's general statement of its beliefs about quality, how quality will come about, and what is expected to result.
Concurrent engineering (CE)
A way to reduce cost, improve quality, and shrink cycle time by simplifying a product's system of life-cycle tasks during the early concept stages.
Cp
The ratio of tolerance to six sigma, or the USL (upper specification limit) minus the LSL (lower specification limit) divided by six sigma. It is sometimes referred to as the engineering tolerance divided by the natural tolerance and is only a measure of dispersion.
Compliance
The state of an organization that meets prescribed specifications, contract terms, regulations, or standards.
Acceptable quality level (AQL)
A quality level that, for the purpose of sampling inspection, is the limit of satisfactory process average.
External customer
A person or organization that receives a product, service, or information but is not part of the organization supplying it.
Survey
The act of examining a process or of questioning a selected sample of individuals to obtain data about a process, product, or service.
Flowchart
A graphical representation of the steps in a process drawn to better understand the process.
Type II error
An incorrect decision to accept something when it is unacceptable.
Task
A specific, definable activity to perform an assigned piece of work, often finished within a certain time.
Cause
An identified reason for the presence of a defect or problem.
Activity network diagram (AND)
A planning tool to diagram a sequence of events or activities (nodes) and the interconnectivity of such nodes. It is used for scheduling, especially for determining the critical path through nodes. Also known as an arrow diagram.
Checklist
A tool used to ensure that all important steps or actions in an operation have been taken. It contains items important or relevant to an issue or situation. Often confused with check sheet.
Cost of poor quality (COPQ)
The costs associated with providing poor-quality products or services.
Quality management (QM)
The application of a quality management system in managing a process to achieve maximum customer satisfaction at the lowest overall cost to the organization while continuing to improve the process
Lost customer analysis
Analysis conducted to determine why a customer or a class of customers was lost.
Big Q, Little Q
A term used to contrast the difference between managing for quality in all business processes and products and managing for quality in a limited capacity—traditionally only in factory products and processes.
Expectations
Customer perceptions about how an organization's products and services will meet their specific needs and requirements.
Registration
The act of including an organization, product, service, or process in a compilation of those having the same or similar attributes.
Normal distribution (statistical)
The charting of a data set in which most of the data points are concentrated around the average (mean), thus forming a bell-shaped curve.
Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA)
An award established by the U.S. Congress in 1987 to raise awareness of quality management and recognize U.S. companies that have implemented successful quality management systems. The U.S. Commerce Department's National Institute of Standards and Technology manages the award, and ASQ administers it.
Cycle time
The elapsed time between the start and completion of a task or an entire process; for example, in order processing it can be the time between receipt and delivery of an order.
Process owner
The person who coordinates the various functions and work activities at all levels of a process, has the authority or ability to make changes in the process as required, and manages the entire process cycle to ensure performance effectiveness.
Process management
The pertinent techniques and tools applied to a process to implement and improve process effectiveness, hold the gains, and ensure process integrity in fulfilling customer requirements.
Total quality
A strategic integrated system for achieving customer satisfaction that involves all managers and employees and uses quantitative methods to continuously improve an organization's processes.
Five why's
A technique for discovering the root causes of a problem and showing the relationship of causes by repeatedly asking the question "Why?"
Mean
A measure of central tendency; the arithmetic average of all measurements in a data set.
Fishbone diagram
A tool for analyzing process dispersion. It is also referred to as an Ishikawa or cause-and-effect diagram. It illustrates the main causes and subcauses leading to an effect (symptom).
Myers-Briggs type indicator (MBTI)
A methodology and an instrument for identifying an individual's personality type based on personality preferences.
Quality function deployment (QFD)
A structured method/process in which customer requirements are translated into appropriate technical requirements for each stage of product development and production. The process is often referred to as listening to the voice of the customer.
Root cause
A factor that caused a nonconformance and should be permanently eliminated through process improvement.
Quality
A subjective term for which each person has his or her own definition. In technical usage, it can have two meanings: (1) the characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs and (2) a product or service free of deficiencies.
Six sigma
A methodology that provides businesses with the tools to improve the capability of their business processes. This increase in performance and decrease in process variation lead to defect reduction and improvement in profits, employee morale, and quality of product.
Facilitator
A specifically trained person who functions as a teacher, coach, and moderator for a group, team, or organization.
Project management
The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to a broad range of activities to meet the requirements of the particular project.
Special causes
Causes of variation that arise because of special circumstances. They are not an inherent part of a process. Also referred to as assignable causes or common causes.
Action plan
A specific method or process to achieve the results called for by one or more objectives.
Group dynamic
The interaction (behavior) of individuals within a team meeting.
Project team
A group that manages the work of a project.
Theory of constraints (TOC)
A set of tools that examines an entire system for continuous improvement.
Preventive action
Action taken to remove or improve a process to prevent potential future occurrences of a nonconformance.
Verification
The act of determining whether products and services conform to specific requirements.
Lower control limit (LCL)
Control limit for points below the central line in a control chart.
Quality plan
A document or set of documents that describe the standards, quality practices, resources, and processes pertinent to a specific product, service, or project.
Specification
A document that states the requirements to which a given product or service must conform.
Virtual team
Remotely situated individuals affiliated with a common organization, purpose, or project who conduct their joint effort via electronic communication.
Empowerment
A condition whereby employees have the authority to make decisions and take action in their work areas without prior approval. For example, an operator can stop a production process if he or she detects a problem, or a customer service representative can send out a replacement product if a customer calls with a problem.
DMAIC
A data-driven quality strategy for improving processes and an integral part of a six sigma quality initiative. It is an acronym for define, measure, analyze, improve, and control
Customer relationship management (CRM)
A strategy used to learn more about customers' needs and behaviors to develop stronger relationships with them. It brings together information about customers, sales, marketing effectiveness, responsiveness, and market trends.
Run chart
A chart showing a line connecting numerous data points collected from a process running over a period of time.
Vision
An overarching statement of the way an organization wants to be; an ideal state of being at a future point.
Juran trilogy
Three managerial processes identified by J. M. Juran for use in managing for quality: quality planning, quality control, and quality improvement.
Control limits
The natural boundaries of a process within specified confidence levels, expressed as the upper control limit (UCL) and the lower control limit (LCL).
Benefit-cost analysis
An examination of the relationship between the monetary cost of implementing an improvement and the monetary value of the benefits achieved by the improvement, both within the same time period.
World-class quality
term used to indicate a standard of excellence; the best of the best.
Random cause
A cause of variation due to chance and not assignable to any factor.
Employee involvement (EI)
A practice within an organization whereby employees regularly participate in making decisions on how their work areas operate, including making suggestions for improvement, planning, goal setting, and monitoring performance.
Trend
The graphical representation of a variable's tendency, over time, to increase, decrease, or remain unchanged.
Kaizen
A Japanese term that means gradual unending improvement by doing little things better and setting and achieving increasingly higher standards.
Kanban
A Japanese term for one of the primary tools of a just-in-time system. It maintains an orderly and efficient flow of materials throughout the entire manufacturing process. It is usually a printed card that contains specific information such as part name, description, and quantity.
Correlation (statistical)
A measure of the relationship between two data sets of variables.
Control chart
A chart with upper and lower control limits on which values of some statistical measure for a series of samples or subgroups are plotted. The chart frequently shows a central line to help detect a trend of plotted values toward either control limit.
System
A group of interdependent processes and people that together perform a common mission.
Random sampling
A commonly used sampling technique in which sample units are selected so that all combinations of n units under consideration have an equal chance of being selected as the sample.
Voice of the customer (VOC)
The expressed requirements and expectations of customers relative to products or services, as documented and disseminated to the members of the providing organization.
Outputs
Products, materials, services, or information provided to customers (internal or external) from a process.
Objective
A specific statement of a desired short-term condition or achievement; includes measurable end results to be accomplished by specific teams or individuals within time limits.
DMADV
A data-driven quality strategy for designing products and processes, it is an integral part of a six sigma quality initiative. It is an acronym for define, measure, analyze, design, and verify.
Total quality control (TQC)
A system that integrates quality development, maintenance, and improvement of the parts of an organization. It helps a company economically manufacture its product and deliver its services.
Median
The middle number or center value of a set of data in which all the data is arranged in sequence.
Cost of quality (COQ)
A term coined by Philip Crosby referring to the cost of poor quality.
Stages of team growth
Four stages that teams move through as they develop over time: forming, storming, norming, and performing.
Incremental improvement
Improvements that are implemented on a continual basis.
Audit
The inspection and examination of a process or quality system to ensure compliance to requirements. The inspection can apply to an entire organization or may be specific to a function, process, or production step.
Intermediate customers
Organizations or individuals who operate as distributors, brokers, or dealers between the supplier and the consumer/end user.
Design of experiments (DOE)
A branch of applied statistics dealing with planning, conducting, analyzing, and interpreting controlled tests to evaluate the factors that control the value of a parameter or group of parameters.
Muda
Japanese for waste. Any activity that consumes resources but creates no value for the customer.
Internal failure
A product failure that occurs before the product is delivered to external customers.
Black Belt (BB)
ull-time team leader responsible for implementing process improvement projects—define, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC) or define, measure, analyze, design, and verify (DMADV)—within the business to drive up customer satisfaction levels and business productivity.
Corrective action recommendation (CAR)
The full-cycle corrective action tool that offers ease and simplicity for employee involvement in the corrective action/process improvement cycle.
Efficient
A term describing a process that operates effectively while consuming the minimum amount of resources (such as labor and time).
Profound knowledge, system of
Defined by W. Edwards Deming, a system that consists of an appreciation for systems, knowledge of variation, theory of knowledge, and understanding of psychology.
Satisfier
A term used to describe the quality level received by a customer when a product or service meets expectations.
Ishikawa diagram
A tool for analyzing process dispersion. It is also referred to as a cause-and-effect or fishbone diagram. It illustrates the main causes and subcauses leading to an effect (symptom).
Effectiveness
The state of having produced a decided upon or desired effect.
Validity
The ability of a feedback instrument to measure what it was intended to measure; also, the degree to which inferences derived from measurements are meaningful.
Fitness for use
A term used to indicate that a product or service fits the customer's defined purpose for that product or service.
Norm (behavioral)
Expectations of how a person or persons will behave in a given situation based on established protocols, rules of conduct, or accepted social practices.
Stakeholder
Any individual, group, or organization that will have a significant impact on or will be significantly impacted by the quality of the product or service an organization provides.
Effect
What results after an action has been taken; the expected or predicted impact when an action is to be taken or is proposed.
Scatter diagram
A graphical technique to analyze the relationship between two variables. Two sets of data are plotted on a graph, with the y-axis being used for the variable to be predicted and the x-axis being used for the variable to make the prediction. The graph will show possible relationships. (Although two variables might appear to be related, they might not be. Those who know most about the variables must make that evaluation.)
Stretch goals
A set of goals designed to position the organization to meet future requirements.
Benchmarking
An improvement process in which a company measures its performance against that of best-in-class companies, determines how those companies achieved their performance levels, and uses the information to improve its own performance.
Process
A set of interrelated work activities characterized by a set of specific inputs and value-added tasks that make up a procedure for a set of specific outputs.
Values
The fundamental beliefs that drive organizational behavior and decision making.
Electric data interchange (EDI)
The electronic exchange of data between customers and suppliers and vice versa.
Inspection
Measuring, examining, testing, and gauging one or more characteristics of a product or service and comparing the results with specified requirements to determine whether conformity is achieved for each characteristic.
Matrix
A planning tool for displaying the relationships among various data sets.
Dissatisfiers
The features or functions a customer expects that either are not present or are present but not adequate; also pertains to employees' expectations
Gatekeeper
A timekeeper; in team meetings, a designated individual who helps in monitoring the team's use of allocated time.
Value-added
he parts of the process that add worth from the perspective of the external customer.
Appraisal
Evaluating already completed output and then auditing the process to measure conformance to established criteria and procedures.
Listening post
An individual who, by virtue of his or her potential for having contact with customers, is designated to collect, document, and transmit pertinent feedback to a central collection authority within the organization.
Variation
A change in data, characteristic, or function caused by one of four factors: special causes, common causes, tampering, or structural variation.
Mission
An organization's purpose.
Process improvement
The application of the plan-do-check-act (PDCA) philosophy to processes to produce positive improvement and better meet the needs and expectations of customers.
Continuous improvement (CI)
The ongoing improvement of products, services, or processes through incremental and breakthrough improvements.
80-20
A term referring to the Pareto principle, which was first defined by J. M. Juran in 1950. The principle suggests that most effects come from relatively few causes; that is, 80% of effects come from 20% of possible causes.
Process capability
A statistical measure of the inherent process variability for a given characteristic.
Satisfier
A term used to describe the quality level received by a customer when a product or service meets expectations.
Facilitator
A specifically trained person who functions as a teacher, coach, and moderator for a group, team, or organization.
Process owner
The person who coordinates the various functions and work activities at all levels of a process, has the authority or ability to make changes in the process as required, and manages the entire process cycle to ensure performance effectiveness.
Gatekeeper
A timekeeper; in team meetings, a designated individual who helps in monitoring the team's use of allocated time.
Special causes
Causes of variation that arise because of special circumstances. They are not an inherent part of a process. Also referred to as assignable causes or common causes.
Virtual team
Remotely situated individuals affiliated with a common organization, purpose, or project who conduct their joint effort via electronic communication.
Brainstorming
A technique teams use to generate ideas on a particular subject. Each person in the team is asked to think creatively and write down as many ideas as possible. The ideas are not discussed or reviewed until after the brainstorming session.
Availability
The ability of a product to be in a state to perform its designated function under stated conditions at a given time.
Norm (behavioral)
Expectations of how a person or persons will behave in a given situation based on established protocols, rules of conduct, or accepted social practices.
Strategic planning
The process by which an organization envisions its future and develops strategies, goals, objectives, and action plans to achieve that future.
Lost customer analysis
Analysis conducted to determine why a customer or a class of customers was lost.
Validation
The act of confirming that a product or service meets the requirements for which it was intended.
Myers-Briggs type indicator (MBTI)
A methodology and an instrument for identifying an individual's personality type based on personality preferences.
Project management
The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to a broad range of activities to meet the requirements of the particular project.
Sample
One or more units of product (or a quantity of material) drawn from a lot for purposes of inspection to reach a decision regarding acceptance of the lot.
Policy
An overarching plan (direction) for achieving an organization's goals.
Non-value-added
A term that describes a process step or function that is not required for the direct achievement of process output. This step or function is identified and examined for potential elimination.
Original equipment manufacturer (OEM)
A company that uses product components from one or more other companies to build a product that it sells under its own company name and brand.
Breakthrough improvement
A dynamic, decisive movement to a new, higher level of performance.
Culture change
A major shift in the attitudes, norms, sentiments, beliefs, values, operating principles, and behavior of an organization.
Supplier
A source of materials, service, or information input provided to a process.
Symptom
An observable phenomenon arising from and accompanying a defect.
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