Certified Meeting Planner Glossary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
1 Diamond
A rating of the American Automobile Association (AAA). “These establishments typically appeal to the budget-minded traveler. They provide essential, no-frills accommodations. They meet the basic requirements pertaining to comfort, cleanliness, and hospitality.”
1 Star
A Mobil Travel Guide Rating. “A Mobil One-Star Lodging Establishment is a limited service Hotel/Motel/Inn that is considered a clean, comfortable and reliable establishment.”
Jan-50
One for Fifty. Facility complimentary room policy: one complimentary room night for every fifty room nights picked up and paid for. While 1/50 was once the standard, the complimentary policies vary per hotel and/or event.
100% Star Billing
Requirement by artist that his/her name appear in a type style and size equal to or greater than other names in advertising and promotional materials and media.
110/60
Common term describing normally available current in North American Continent. The full expression is 110 volt/60 cycle. Many European and South American areas have 220 volt/50 cycle power only.
2 Diamond
A rating of the American Automobile Association (AAA). “These establishments appeal to the traveler seeking more than the basic accommodations. There are modest enhancements to the overall physical attributes, design elements, and amenities of the facility typically at a moderate price.”
2 Star
A Mobil Travel Guide Rating. “A Mobil Two-Star Lodging Establishment is a Hotel/Resort/Inn that is considered a clean, comfortable and reliable establishment, but also has expanded amenities, such as a full-service restaurant on the property.”
20-Footer
A 20' by (usually) 10' exhibit space. Similar terminology (a 30 footer, etc.) may be used.
24-Hour Hold
A term used to describe the type of reservation made on function space within a venue (hotel, convention center, etc.). An event organizer who has 24-hour hold on a space has exclusive use and access to that space for a period of 24-hours, usually 12:01 am – 12:00 pm.
24-Hour Power
When an exhibitor orders power to be left on in a booth/stand for 24 hours during run of the event; often required when there are refrigerators, fish tanks, or computers in booth/stand.
2-by-2 Slide
Piece of 35mm photographic film in a 2-by-2 inch (5-by-5 centimeter) cardboard, glass, or plastic mount. See SLIDE.
2-D Bar Code
A larger-than-average bar code that uses the PDF417 standard (the same used for e-stamps). Stores up to 1,800 characters in bar code on standard paper badge, which can then be used by exhibitors to get contact information from registrants.
3 Diamond
A rating of the American Automobile Association (AAA). “These establishments appeal to the traveler with comprehensive needs. Properties are multifaceted with a distinguished style, including marked upgrades in the quality of physical attributes, amenities, and level of comfort provided.”
3 Star
A Mobil Travel Guide Rating. “A Mobil Three-Star Lodging Establishment is a Hotel/Resort/Inn which is well-appointed, with a full-service restaurant and expanded amenities, such as, but not limited to: fitness center, golf course, tennis courts, 24-hour room service, and optional turndown service.”
3-Dimensional
3-D. A flat image having the effect of three dimensions.
3-Phase
Type of alternating current used in high powered electrical applications.
3-Wire
Term describing electrical cable with one continuous ground wire in addition to positive and negative wires.
4 Diamond
A rating of the American Automobile Association (AAA). “These establishments are upscale in all areas. Accommodations are progressively more refined and stylish. The physical attributes reflect an obvious enhanced level of quality throughout. The fundamental hallmarks at this level include an extensive array of amenities combined with a high degree of hospitality, service, and attention to detail.”
4 Star
A Mobil Travel Guide Rating. “Mobil Four-Star Lodging Establishment is a Hotel/Resort/Inn which provides a luxury experience with expanded amenities in a distinctive environment. Services may include, but are not limited to: automatic turndown service, 24 hour room service, and valet parking.”
4-Color Separation
Process of printing a full color image utilizing four colored screened patterns from which printing plates can be engraved.
4-Hour Call
Minimum work period for which union labor must be paid in special circumstances (generally, a minimum call is one hour.). Not to be confused with minimum charges to exhibitors applied by contractors that service events.
5 Diamond
A rating of the American Automobile Association (AAA). “These establishments reflect the characteristics of the ultimate in luxury and sophistication. Accommodations are first class. The physical attributes are extraordinary in every manner. The fundamental hallmarks at this level are to meticulously serve and exceed all guest expectations while maintaining an impeccable standard of excellence. Many personalized services and amenities enhance an unmatched level of comfort.”
5 Star
A Mobil Travel Guide Rating. “A Mobil Five-Star Lodging Establishment provides consistently superlative service in an exceptionally distinctive luxury environment with expanded services. Attention to detail is evident throughout the Hotel/Resort/Inn from the bed linens to staff uniforms.”
501c
A section of the IRS code that defines, and governs the actions of various types of tax-exempt organizations. For example, 501c(3) organizations are non-profit, educational, charitable and scientific organizations.
6 Box
An electrical outlet that will accommodate 6 plugs. Sometimes called Sex Box. See DOG HOUSE.
6-by-6 Rule
Audiovisual guidelines by which no transparency of slide should contain more than six words per line of text and no more than six lines of text.
a la Broche
Cooked on a skewer. Can be beef, chicken or shrimp. See EN BROCHETTE. See Also SHISH KEBOB.
a la Carte
French term meaning "from the menu." Each item is individually priced. Used in tour literature to indicate a choice of dishes will be available.
a la Grecque
Prepared Greek style with tomatoes, garlic, black olives and parsley.
a la King
Cooked in white cream sauce with vegetables (e.g., Chicken à la King).
a la Meunière
(moonyare) Dredging, a technique that allows flour to form a thin, golden crust on sautéed or fried items, (e.g., Trout Meunière).
a la Mode
1) In the style of. 2) Ice cream on pie. 3) Mashed potatoes on beef.
a la Provencale
Prepared with garlic and olive oil.
a la Vapeur
Steamed.
A List
A catering department's steady, extra employees. They are the first called to work when temporary help is needed.
A/C
Air Conditioning. See HVAC.
A/V Contractor
Supplier of technical staff and audiovisual equipment (e.g. projectors, screens, sound systems, video, and staging).
A/V Request Form
Form given to speakers during the planning stages of an event to allow them to request the audiovisual equipment they will need for their presentations.
A/V Technician
An audiovisual professional who is responsible on-site for lighting, sound, video, staging or other similar elements of an event function.
A1
1) First class condition. 2) A name brand steak sauce.
A440
Designated international pitch to which pianos are tuned.
AA
1) Alcoholics Anonymous. 2) American Airlines.
AAA
American Automobile Association.
AAAE
American Association of Airport Executives.
AAF
American Academy of Florists
AAR
Against All Risks. A term often found in insurance policies and contracts.
AATTA
African-American Travel and Tourism Association
Above the Line Advertising
Traditional commission-paying media: press, TV, radio, cinema, outdoor; media handled by full-service agencies.
Absorption
Ability of a material to absorb sound energy and reduce sound intensity.
Absorption Coefficient
Efficiency of a material to absorb sound at a particular frequency (which relates to sound wave length and material thickness).
Abstract
1) Written summaries of speeches or papers, generally between 200-500 words. See CALL FOR PAPERS. See Also CONFERENCE PAPERS. 2) Laser presentations, graphic designs or patterns that are not representational of concrete objects. 3) A brief statement of content.
Abstract Board
Usually rolling corkboards used for attaching copies of research papers for authors to discuss with participants. See POSTER SESSION.
AC Cable
Any wire conductor, regardless of size or connection, that carries an alternating current.
AC Hum
Humming sound heard in an audio system, usually the result of a Ground Loop which is being amplified by the system.
Academic Conference/Seminar
See COLLOQUIUM.
Acceleration Clause
A provision sometimes used in contracts to accelerate deposit payment schedule or to demand full prepayment of master account in the event of a default or lack of credit by the organization. May also apply in other situations, such as assignments. Sometimes used in a hotel to accelerate deposit payment schedule or to demand full prepayment of master account in the event of a default by organization.
Accent Lighting
Directional lighting used to highlight a particular area or object to draw attention to that portion of the field of view.
Acceptance
A requirement for entering into a binding contract. If a contract proposal (offer) is made, it is accepted if the offeree signs the offer as submitted. If the offeree makes any changes to the offer before signing, it is a counter offer, not acceptance.
Accepted Practices Exchange
APEX. An initiative of the meetings, conventions & exhibitions industry managed by the Convention Industry Council (CIC). APEX develops and manages the implementation of accepted practices (voluntary standards) for the industry.
Access Panel
Removable panel or section of exhibit to permit access to lamps, projectors, mechanisms, etc.
Accessibility
1) Airline lift into and out of a destination. See Also LIFT. 2) Capable of being used by people with physical challenges and disabilities. This is an important aspect of the United States’ Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).
Accessorial Charges
Generally refers to air-freight shipments. Airfreight forwarders can provide many services generally not available from common carriers. In most cases, these charges are not included in the per-pound rate of the carriers. Services include, but are not limited to, inside pickups & deliveries, special pickups & deliveries (specific time of day), waiting time, etc.
Accident Report
A document prepared to record information including time, date, location, parties involved, witnesses, and nature or description of an incident. See INCIDENT REPORT.
Accommodation
1) Any seat, berth, room, or service provided and/or sold to a guest, attendee or passenger. 2) Under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), a step taken to allow a person with a disability to participate in an event or employment.
Accompanying Person
Guest or spouse of an attendee.
Account Sheet
1) Form used to keep track of number of rooms sold and/or still available. See TALLY SHEET. 2) Designates equipment, materials and teaching aids used in sound and visual presentations.
Accreditation
Official authorization or approval; to provide with credentials; to send (an envoy) with letters of authorization; to recognize or vouch for as conforming with a standard; to recognize a college as maintaining academic standards; to consider or recognize as outstanding; approval given by various trade associations to a travel agency allowing the sale of tickets and other accommodations.
Accrual Accounting
1) An accounting method that enters income and expenses into the books at the time of contract versus when payment is received or expenses incurred (cash accounting). 2) A system in which revenue and expenses are accounted for as soon as they are committed.
Acetate
Film positive or negative from which silk screens are produced. Also, a family of plastics for light transmission and surface protection.
Acetone
Solvent and/or adhesive agent for bonding many plastic materials.
Acknowledgement
Written notice that a room reservation request has been received and is being processed.
ACME
Association for Convention Marketing Executives. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
ACOM
Association for Convention Operation Management. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
ACON
Air conditioned. See A/C. See Also HVAC.
Acoustic Baffle
Absorptive board or sound barricade that can be placed around or between acoustic sources to provide sound isolation or deadening and reduce acoustic leakage between multiple microphones (e.g. in a recording studio or live musical performance stage set-up).
Acoustical Tile
Composition board made into squares and placed upon the ceiling or walls to reduce sound.
Acoustician
Specialist in the behavior and control of audio energy within an environment.
Acoustics
Study of the performance of sound energy. Also the way in which sound energy performs in a given space.
ACRA
American Car Rental Association.
Across the Board
Includes everything; inclusive.
Acrylic
The family of clear, color, and translucent thermoplastic resins such as Plexiglas or Lucite.
Acrylic Emulsion
A water-based latex made of acrylic polymer and used for coatings and/or impregnations.
Act of God
An extraordinary natural event such as extreme weather, flood, hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquake or similar natural disaster that cannot be reasonably foreseen or prevented over which a contracting party has no reasonable control, making performance of the contract illegal, impracticable or impossible, thus the parties have no legal responsibility to continue performance of the contract. See FORCE MAJEURE.
Action Station
Chefs prepare foods to order and serve them fresh to guests. Also called Performance Stations, or Exhibition Cooking. Popular items for action stations include: pasta, grilled meat or shrimp, carved meats, sushi, crepes, omelets, flaming desserts, Caesar Salad, etc.
Active Crossover
An electronic device which filters and selectively amplifies frequencies, separating the frequencies into sections or bands, and routing them to outputs designed to drive power amplifiers and in turn, speakers. The frequencies filtered depend on the electrical value of the component parts in the circuits of the device, but not on the source or load impedances connected to the device, except in the case where the crossover is actually a passive crossover designed for insertion in the medium-level signal lines of an audio system rather than in speaker lines.
Active Language
The language being used by the speaker.
Actual Cash Value
ACV. Replacement cost of lost or damaged property less depreciation.
Actual Weight
Also known as gross shipping weight. Determined by (1) weighing a vehicle empty, (2) loading a shipment and returning the vehicle to the scale to obtain the weight, and (3) subtracting the two weights. Can also be obtained by individually weighing each piece of freight.
Ad Hoc Committee
Committee formed to deal with a specific issue to be resolved upon making its final report.
Ad Valorem Tax
Tax applied to an item according to the value of an item. See DUTY.
ADA
Americans with Disabilities Act. U.S. legislation passed in 1992 requiring public buildings (offices, hotels, restaurants, etc.) to make adjustments meeting minimum standards to make their facilities accessible to individuals with physical disabilities.
ADA Compliant
Ready to or disposed to perform in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act.
Additional Insured
An individual or organization listed as covered by a primary insurance agreement.
Add-One
Any component of a package tour that is not included in the package price, but may be purchased as an added feature or to extend the length of the package. Tour options are purchased at additional cost.
Adjoining Rooms
Rooms with common walls, which do not have connecting doors.
Adjustable Standard
Vertical support that allows shelf bracket to be affixed at any point in the support.
Adlux
A black and white photo transparency.
ADME
Association of Destination Management Executives. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
Admission Card
Admission card confirming a booking and registration to an event. See CONGRESS CARD.
Admission Ticket
Ticket used for admission to an event.
Adult Learner
A student who is independently employed and usually pursuing education to attain a specific, practical goal.
Adult Staff-to-Child Ratio
The ratio of adults to children required during a childcare/youth program. Accepted ratios are 3:1 for infants, 4:1 for toddlers, 6:1 for children up to eight years old.
Advance Deposit
Amount of money paid to secure a room, facility or service in advance.
Advance Order
An order for goods and/or services ordered before the move-in date for an exhibition. Usually less expensive than a FLOOR ORDER.
Advance Rate
Fees associated with advance orders, which typically include discounts when paid in advance.
Advance Registration
Booking before an event takes places. Allows attendees to register for an event before it actually takes place. Done through mail, phone, internet or fax. See PRE-REGISTRATION.
Adventure Tour
A TOUR designed around an adventurous activity such as rafting, hiking or ballooning.
Advertising
Information about an event that the organizer pays to have printed or announced in various forms of media (e.g. press, TV, radio, cinema, outdoor).
Advertising Specialties
Promotional items which include a firm's name and/or marketing message.
Advisory Board
A group that offers advice or counsel to event organizer, event management, or other organization on strategic options such as conference content, exhibitor matters, contracting policies or other issues.
Advisory Capacity
A term indicating that a shipper's agent or representative is not empowered to make definitive decisions or adjustments without approval of the group or individual represented. See WITHOUT RESERVE.
AED
Automated External Defibrillator. Device installed in many large public areas (e.g. airports, hotels, convention centers). Can be used by any individual to administer life-saving care to person experiencing a heart attack.
Affiliation
Union of a society, firm or political party with another, but without loss of identity.
Affinity Group
Group sharing common interest, usually people who are members of an organization.
Affixed Merchandise
Products fastened to a display.
Affreightment (Contract of)
An agreement between a shipping line (or similar carrier) and an importer or exporter in which cargo space is reserved on a vessel for a specified time and at a specified price. The importer/exporter is obligated to make payment whether or not the shipment is made.
Agenda
A list, outline or plan of items to be done or considered at an event or during a specific time block. May include time schedule.
Agent
1) Broadly, one who acts or has the power to act: more usually, one that acts as the representative of another. Most frequently in travel, a specific kind of agent such as a retail travel agent. 2) Person that obtains engagements for entertainers, is paid by the entertainers and has no contract for production responsibilities. 3) Person in a speaker bureau/agency that acts on behalf of the seller (speaker) or on behalf of the buyer (customer).
Agricultural Meeting
An event relating to the production of crops, meat, milk or eggs.
AH&LA
American Hotel and Lodging Association. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
Air Cargo
Any property carried, or to be carried, in an aircraft, excluding passenger baggage.
Air Consignment Note
A bill of lading issued by the airline that covers both domestic and international flights transporting goods to a specified destination. Technically, it is a non-negotiable instrument of air transport that serves as a receipt for the shipper, indicating that the carrier has accepted the goods listed therein and obligates itself to carry the consignment to the airport of destination according to specified conditions. A bill of lading that covers domestic and international flights transporting goods. See AIR WAYBILL. See Also BILL OF LADING, INLAND BILL OF LADING, OCEAN BILL OF LADING, THROUGH BILL OF LADING.
Air Express
Expedited airfreight, usually referring to overnight air.
Air Freight
Materials shipped via airplane.
Air Wall
Movable barrier that partitions a large area into smaller areas. May be sound resistant, but not necessarily sound proof. See DIVIDER. See Also MOVABLE WALL, PARTITION.
Air Waybill
A bill of lading issued by the airline that covers both domestic and international flights transporting goods to a specified destination. Technically, it is a non-negotiable instrument of air transport that serves as a receipt for the shipper, indicating that the carrier has accepted the goods listed therein and obligates itself to carry the consignment to the airport of destination according to specified conditions. A bill of lading that covers domestic and international flights transporting goods. See AIR CONSIGNMENT NOTE. See Also BILL OF LADING, INLAND BILL OF LADING, OCEAN BILL OF LADING, THROUGH BILL OF LADING.
Airfreight Forwarder
An airfreight company that transports freight via scheduled airlines. Forwarders do not operate their own planes.
Airport Hotel
Hotel located near a major airport; usually does not have a lot of recreational facilities.
Air-Ride Suspension
Smoothest ride for fragile cargo, made possible by two to four air bags located at the rear axle of the trailer, tractor or fifth-wheel.
Aisle
1) Area between a booth/stand for audience traffic movement. 2) Space between sets of tables, chairs or a booth/stand to allow passage of attendees. See GANGWAY.
Aisle Carpet
Carpet installed in aisles.
Aisle Sign
A sign, usually suspended, indicating aisle numbers or letters.
All Expense Tour
See INCLUSIVE TOUR.
All Suite Hotel
See SUITE HOTEL.
All-Inclusive Tour
See INCLUSIVE TOUR.
All-Risks Insurance
Insurance against loss of or damage to property arising from any fortuitous cause except those that are specifically excluded. An insurance contract which provides All-Risks Insurance is an All-Risks policy.
Alpha List
A list arranged in alphabetical order, such as definitions in a glossary or event attendees.
Alteration
A change made by the client after any part of the production process has begun. Usually billed as an extra charge.
Alternate Media
Alternatives to print materials (e.g. Braille, large print, etc.) provided to assist people with disabilities in achieving full participation.
Alternative Dispute Resolution
Method for resolving disputes without going to court.
Alumni Tour
A TOUR designed for those people who have previously traveled with a particular tour company. Also Called REUNION TOUR.
Amandine
Served with thinly sliced almonds, sautéed in butter.
Ambience
Distinctive acoustical characteristic of a room or acoustic space due to the many sound reflections in the space (e.g., rooms that are said to be acoustically “dead” lack ambience).
Ambient Light
1) Level of illumination from natural lighting sources already existing in an environment. 2) Uncontrolled and unintended illumination.
Amenity
Complimentary items in sleeping rooms such as writing supplies, bathrobes, fruit baskets, shower caps, shampoo and shoe shine mitt provided by facility for guests.
American Breakfast
A meal of fruits and/ or juices, cereal, eggs, meat, bakery goods and hot or cold beverages.
American Plan
AP. A type of hotel rate that includes the price of the room and all meals. Also Called FULL AMERICAN PLAN (FAP). See INCLUSIVE RATE. See Also BERMUDA PLAN, CONTINENTAL PLAN, DEMI-PENSION, EUROPEAN PLAN, MODIFIED AMERICAN PLAN.
American Reception
Stand-up social function with beverage and sufficient food to replace a main meal.
American Service
Food is plated in the kitchen and placed before the guest. Side dishes are used for bread and butter and salad. Food is served from the left, beverages from the right, and all items are removed from the right. This is generally the service used for banquets. See PLATED SERVICE.
Americans with Disabilities Act
ADA. U.S. legislation passed in 1992 requiring public buildings (offices, hotels, restaurants, etc.) to make adjustments meeting minimum standards to make their facilities accessible to individuals with physical disabilities.
AMMC
Alliance of Meeting Management Companies. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
Amorphic Lens
Special lens for projectors used to eliminate distortion in abnormally wide throws.
Amperage
An International System unit for the amount of electrical current transferred from one component to another. This specification is often important when considering the amplifier loudspeaker interface. See AMPERE.
Ampere
The standard measurement of current.
Amphitheater
Outdoor facility with a flat performance area surrounded by rising rows of seats or a grassy slope allowing the audience to view the performance. The seating area is usually a semi-circular shape or adapted to the surrounding landscape.
Amplification
Increase in signal quantity of either amplitude or power level.
Amplifier
Amp. 1) Device which increases the voltage and/or power level of signals fed through it. 2) Device enabling sound to be intensified.
Amplitude
Extreme range of a fluctuating quantity, as an alternating current, swing of a pendulum, etc., generally measured from the average or mean to the extreme. Also used to make reference to the overall volume of a signal.
AMS
Association Management Software
Analog
A method of conveying data electronically in relation to a television, radio or telephone signal by varying its frequency or amplitude.
Anamorphic Lens
Lens adapter designed to produce a wide screen image.
Anchor
An auger-type device used to secure the guy ropes of a tent to the ground, ranging in length from 30-48 inches with a helix of 4-8 inches in diameter. Anchors hold better than stakes do in bare earth and sand. See STAKES.
Ancillary Activities
All event-related support services within a facility that generate revenue.
Ancillary Center
Event facility that is typically part of a larger hospitality complex.
Andragogy
The art and science of helping adults learn as opposed to pedagogy, which is the science of helping children learn.
Androgogic Model
Knowles Theory. A theory that proposes that for adults to learn, the following must be addressed: adults need to know why they need to learn something; adults need to learn through experience; adults view learning as problem solving; adults only learn when the material is immediately relevant.
Angels on Horseback
Baked bacon-wrapped oysters.
Animation
A technique that creates an illusion of movement when used in rapid sequence.
Ann.
Announcer.
Anncr.
Announcer.
Anodizing
The process of preserving metal by adding a protective oxide film by an electrolytic process.
ANSI
American National Standards Institute. An organization responsible for fostering the development of and approving technology standards in the United States. www.ansi.org
Answer Print
The first positive print of a movie film made from the rough edited negative.
Anti-Discrimination Laws
Laws that protect individuals or groups from bias and discrimination on the basis of factors such as age, sex, religion, national origin or disability. Anti discrimination laws may be imposed on the local (e.g. city, county), state or federal level. Federal laws prohibit discrimination in any place of public accommodation. Anti-discrimination provisions are sometimes included in contracts to allow a party to the contract to cancel without liability in the event the other party or parties is found guilty of engaging in discriminatory practices.
Antidiversion Clause
See DESTINATION CONTROL STATEMENT.
Antipasto
Italian appetizers that include olives, salami, peppers, marinated vegetable salads, sliced meats, cheeses and other similar foods.
Anti-Stat for Carpet
A spray that helps reduce static electricity in carpets.
Antistat Wax
A solution applied to plastics to minimize dust accumulation.
Antitrust Laws
Legislation designed to promote competition and prevent unfair practices that may lead to monopolies or suppression of competition.
Anvil Case
Reinforced molded plastic case, normally with foam cut-outs for transporting fragile materials.
AoD
Audio on Demand. Streaming Audio delivered via a network, available anytime, anywhere.
AP
American Plan. A type of hotel rate that includes the price of the room and all meals. Also Called FULL AMERICAN PLAN (FAP). See INCLUSIVE RATE. See Also BERMUDA PLAN, CONTINENTAL PLAN, DEMI-PENSION, EUROPEAN PLAN, MODIFIED AMERICAN PLAN.
Aperture Width/Height
Actual slide or film frame dimensions.
APEX
Accepted Practices Exchange. An initiative of the meetings, conventions & exhibitions industry managed by the Convention Industry Council (CIC). APEX develops and manages the implementation of accepted practices (voluntary standards) for the industry.
APEX Fare
Advance Purchase Excursion Fare (airline). Special fare at a lower rate.
Appellation
1) Designated wine growing areas governed by the rules and regulations of a country's federal local government body. Rules vary from country to country but are similar in their attempt to stimulate the production of quality wines. Regulations are established by the Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) in France, the Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC) in Italy, the Denominaçao de Origem Controlada (DOC) in Portugal, the Denominación de Origen (DO) in Spain and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (BATF) in the United States. 2) Synonym for name.
Appetizer
Any small, bite-size food served before a meal to whet and excite the palate. Used synonymously with the term Hors d' Oeuvres, though this term more aptly describes finger food, whereas appetizer can also apply to a first course served at table.
Application Service Provider
ASP. A company that manages and distributes software-based solutions to customers across a wide area network from a central data center. In essence, ASPs are a way for organizations to outsource some or almost all aspects of their information technology needs.
Application Sharing
A feature of many videoconferencing systems that allows two or more people to use the same software program, even if all do not have it on their computer or conferencing system.
Appliqué
Any item applied to fabric or other surfaces for the purpose of decor.
Appointed Entity
Airline ticket sales outlet, such as a travel agency, accredited by the International Air Transport Association (IATA).
Apprentice
An individual who works in exchange for the learning experience, often unpaid.
Apron
Part of a stage in front of the main curtain.
AQ
Any quantity.
Arbitrage
The process of buying foreign exchange, stocks, bonds, and other commodities in one market and immediately selling them in another market at higher prices.
Arbitration
Private dispute resolution process, often referred to as alternate dispute resolution, in which the parties agree to submit their dispute to an impartial third party for a decision. Depending on the type of arbitration, the arbitrator's decision may or may not be binding. Several organizations, including the American Arbitration Association and JAMS-Endispute, handle arbitration claims. Courts may require some disputes be submitted to arbitration instead of or prior to the formal trial process.
Arc Light
A light source providing high-intensity light utilizing a positive and negative metal rod (instead of a lightbulb) for large screens or long projection distances; also used in follow spotlights; replaced by xenon lamps in the 1980s.
Arch
A curved display ceiling that spans two points, such as a ceiling or entryway.
Architectural Cuisine
Menu items where food is stacked for height, such as endive boats filled with salad greens. See VERTICAL CUISINE.
Area Agreement
A union contract covering companies and unions that bargain on an area-wide basis.
Arena
Facility type featuring a large flat main floor surrounded by fixed seats in a sloping oval or modified oval shape, much steeper that the typical theater. Some are arranged in two or more tiers. Sight lines are nearly always designed for events the size of a hockey floor, circus, ice show, or basketball court.
Argon
An inert, colorless, odorless gas that creates a blue-green color inside a laser tube.
Armorply
A term for plywood or lumber with a metal veneer.
Arranged Environment
A learning environment with planned physical set-up and seating arrangements.
Arrival Manifest
An itemized list of anticipated dates and times of arrival of group members.
Arrival Notice
A document issued by railroads, airlines and maritime services identifying the shipment is sent to the consignee or their agent and informing consignee/agent of cargo’s arrival.
Arrival Pattern
Anticipated dates and times of arrival of group members.
Arrival Time
Time or approximate time guests plan to arrive at a facility.
Arrival/Departure Pattern
A description of arrival and departure activities of an event’s attendees. See MAJOR ARRIVAL. See Also MAJOR DEPARTURE, GROUP ARRIVALS/DEPARTURES. This information should be included in the specifications guide for an event.
Art
Any materials (drawings, photographs, type) used in preparing camera-ready art. Also known as artwork.
Articles and By-laws
Rules adopted by an organization for managing its internal affairs.
As Directed
Based on time and at the direction of the customer.
ASAE
American Society of Association Executives.
ASCAP
American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers. A membership organization that represents individuals who hold the copyrights to music written in the United States and grants licensing agreements for the performance of that music.
ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A code that assigns numbers to alphabetic, numeric and certain other characters. ASCII is the most common format for text files in computers and on the Internet.
Ash Stand
Stand which holds ashtrays. A receptacle for tobacco ashes; an ashtray; ash can.
Aside
A dramatic device in which an actor speaks directly to the audience while other individuals onstage supposedly do not hear him or her.
ASM
Assistant stage manager.
ASP
Application Service Provider.
Aspect Ratio
The ratio of image width to height; pertaining to audiovisual, video and slides.
Assembly
1) The process of erecting display component parts into a complete exhibit. 2) A general or formal meeting of an organization attended by representatives of its members for the purpose of deciding legislative direction, policy matters, the election of internal committees and approval of balance sheets, budgets, etc. Consequently, an assembly usually observes certain rules of procedure for its meetings; mostly prescribed in its Articles & By-laws.
Assessment
1) The process used to evaluate a participant's skill level with respect to a set of materials or requirements. 2) A charge to a supplier(s) from a service entity such as Convention Bureau, Housing Bureau, etc. that is for a specific service such as convention center fees, busing, housing or other that is part of an event customer's agreement. This assessment is normally paid to the service provider directly by the supplier. Compare with REBATE.
Asset
Something of value that is owned.
Assistant Lead Dispatcher
The onsite staff member second in command of the transportation system. Assists the lead dispatcher and fills in when the lead dispatcher is not on site. Normally the assistant lead dispatcher is assigned to the command center.
Association
An organized group of individuals and/or companies who band together to accomplish a common purpose, usually to provide for the needs of its members. Usually nonprofit. See TRADE ASSOCIATION.
Association Agreement
1) A union contract covering companies and unions that bargain on an area-wide basis. 2) A union contract negotiated by a group of employers through an employer's association with the union representing their employees.
Association Booth/Stand
An exhibit booth/stand at which an association provides information about its purpose and services to members and prospective members.
Association Meeting
An event initiated by an association. See ASSOCIATION.
Association Staff
An individual who works for an association.
ASTA
American Society of Travel Agents.
ASTD
American Society for Training and Development.
Asynchronous Learning
Any learning event that is delivered after the original live event or where the interaction is delayed over time. Typically this is on-demand and can be to video-on-demand (VoD), audio-on-demand (AoD), correspondence courses, email messages, bulletin boards, etc.
At Liberty
Euphemism used by actors, consultants, and others for unemployed or available for work. Those who are unemployed.
At Sight
A phrase indicating that payment on a draft or other negotiable contract is due upon demand.
At Site
Location of event or exhibit. See ON-SITE.
ATA
Air Transport Association of America. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
ATA Carnet
An international customs document that permits duty-free and tax-free temporary import of goods for up to one year. It eliminates or reduces VAT charges, customs fees, and bond fees. The initials "ATA" are an acronym of the French and English words "Admission Temporaire/Temporary Admission." ATA Carnets cover commercial samples; professional equipment; and, goods for presentation or use at trade fairs, shows, exhibitions, etc. Items not covered are consumable or disposable goods, which will not be returned home.
At-a-Glance Program
Condensed, quick reference version of an event's program. See POCKET PROGRAM.
ATC
Air Traffic Conference of America (a division of the Air Transport Association (ATA).
Athletic Meeting
An event that involves sports or athletic equipment. Athletes, guests or attendees may be in competition or demonstration.
Atmospheric
A term used to describe a lighting effect created by laser light projected through the air, often enhanced with theatrical fog; also known as aerial beams
Atmospherics
Use of color to create a mood in a room or exhibit.
Attendance
Total number of people at an event.
Attendee
An individual, registered for or participating in an event. Includes delegates, exhibitors, media, speakers, and guests.
Attendee Brochure
Direct mail piece sent to current and prospective attendees that promotes the benefits of attending a specific event.
Attendee Scope
Where attendees come from. It is directly related to the spending characteristics of attendees who fall into each of these categories: INTERNATIONAL- Draws a national and international event audience; 15% or more of event delegates reside outside of event host country. NATIONAL-Draws a national event audience; More than 40% of delegates reside outside of a 400 mile (640 km) radius of event city. REGIONAL-60% of delegates reside within a 400 mile (640 km) radius of event city; Delegates may reside in a multi-state area and/or a regionally homogenous international area. STATE/PROVINCE- More than 80% of delegates reside in event state/province (or event-sponsoring state/province when held in state/province other than home state/province; More than 20% of delegates reside outside a 50 mile (80 km) radius of event site; State/provincial audiences are less inclined to use air travel and local auto rental than regional audiences. LOCAL-80% of delegates reside within a 50 mile (80 km) of radius of event site; Local audiences typically do not require overnight accommodations.
Attenuate
To reduce. In audio parlance, to reduce the level of an electrical signal as with a volume control.
Attraction
A natural or man-made facility, location, or activity that offers items of specific interest. An attraction can be a natural or scenic wonder (e.g. the Grand Canyon), a man-made theme park (e.g. Disneyland) ,a cultural or historic exhibition (e.g. World's Fair), or a wildlife/ecological park (e.g. zoo or aquarium).
Attrition
The difference between the actual number of sleeping rooms picked-up (or food-and-beverage covers or revenue projections) and the number or formulas agreed to in the terms of the facility’s contract. Usually there is an allowable shortfall before damages are assessed.
Attrition Clause
Contract wording that outlines potential damages or fees that a party may be required to pay in the event that it does not fulfill minimum commitments in the contract.
au Gratin
Foods sprinkled with crumbs and/or cheese and baked until browned
au Jus
Served with natural meat juices or gravy without thickening.
au Lait
With milk (e.g. café au lait).
Audience Count
The number of people in an audience. In a controlled situation, this number is most accurately found through ticket sales, turnstile counts, or established seating capacities. In a non-controlled situation, estimates from law enforcement agencies, park and recreation departments, or other organizations involved in crowd control are usually reliable. See COVER. See Also HEAD COUNT.
Audience Left and Right
Stage directions from the audience’s perspective. This is the opposite of STAGE LEFT AND RIGHT. See CAMERA LEFT AND RIGHT. See Also SCREEN LEFT AND RIGHT.
Audience Polling
Computer application that enables voting and then collects and displays the results, simplifying decision-making among event participants.
Audio Frequency
Any frequency which humans hear, typically between a lower limit of about 12 hertz and an upper limit of about 20,000 hertz. This range of audio frequencies is also known as the “audio spectrum.”
Audio Monitor
1) Speaker for listening to the playback of tapes or records. 2) A loudspeaker used for listening to the playback of tapes or records and by musicians to hear themselves or other musicians on stage. 3) Conference call.
Audioconference
A conference using only voice transmissions between two or more sites.
Audiovisual
A/V. Equipment, materials, and teaching aids used in sound and visual presentations, such as television monitors, video, sound equipment, etc.
Audiovisual Aids
Audio and visual support for events, usually taking the form of film, slides, overhead projection, flip charts, sound equipment and blackboards.
Audit
A methodical examination and review of records pertaining to an event. For instance, an independent verification of attendance figures submitted by an exhibition’s producers.
Audition
A tryout performance before producers, directors, casting directors or others for the purpose of obtaining a part in a production or a booking as a speaker.
Auditorium
Room for gathering an audience for speeches, concerts etc. Often used to name entire facilities, though properly applied only to the seated portion of the facility in which the audience is assembled. Typically a building named in this way will be an arena or theater class building.
Auditorium Lens
A projection lens used for long distances.
Auditorium Lights
See HOUSE LIGHTS.
Auditorium Set-Up
Seating arrangement where chairs are arranged in rows facing head table, stage or speaker. Variations are semicircular and V-shaped. See THEATER SET-UP.
Authorized Signatory
A person who is authorized to legally bind an individual or organization to a contract, to sign checks on behalf of an organization, or charge to an organization's master account.
Autograph Table
Traditionally, a table where a speaker autographs books after a speaking engagement. Many speakers currently use the term to mean the table at the back of the room from which they sell their products.
Automatic Advance
Feature on a slide projector which automatically inserts the next slide.
Auxiliary Aids and Services
1) Contracted services (e.g. stewards, technicians, interpreters, tour guides, etc.) that provide support for an event. 2) The use of adaptive equipment or assistance to ensure accessibility for people with disabilities.
Auxiliary Business
Business that is brought to the facility because of, or in conjunction with, an event. See IN CONJUNCTION WITH.
Auxiliary Supply
System for providing power, lighting, air conditioning, heating, catering and emergency battery systems.
Average Room Rate
1) Mathematical average of a series of sleeping room rates. 2) The total sleeping room revenue for a given period's occupied rooms divided by the number of rooms occupied for the same period. In this instance the average is commonly referred to as a hotel's Average Daily Rate (ADR).
Awards Banquet/Celebration
An event, usually formal, to honor outstanding performance.
Awning
A monopitch tent structure that is supported by a frame and is often foldable.
Axis
Imaginary center point.
B&B
1) Bed and Breakfast. 2) Brandy and Benedictine.
b/g
Background, as in background music.
B/P
Bills Payable.
B2B
Business-to-Business.
Baby Spot
1) Small spotlight in a booth/stand, usually 15 watt. 2) Small spotlight in the ceiling of function rooms used to highlight decor, such as centerpieces.
Babysitting Facilities
Arrangements for care of children during a short absence of the parents.
Back Drape
A drape, curtain or fabric panel that provides a soft, colorful background for a speaker. The audience's attention will be zeroed on the speaker with enhanced concentration and retention.
Back Light
1) A light source that illuminates any transparent or translucent material from behind. 2) A lighting instrument used behind and above a presenter to give more depth and better image when video taping or using image-magnification. 3) Lighting instrument used behind and above a presenter to give more depth and better image when video taping or using image-magnification.
Back of the House
A term used in hotels to refer to areas for staff only, as opposed to the front of the house.
Back Projection
Image projected on the back surface of a screen, which is placed between the viewer and the projector. See REAR PROJECTION.
Backbone
A permanently installed series of cable comprised of copper wire cable and/or fiber optic cable, utilized as the main thoroughfare in a building to transmit voice and data signals in or out of the facility.
Backdrop
Drapes, curtain, or fabric panels at the back of a stage, speaker’s table, or exhibit booth/stand.
Backline Equipment
Equipment required by musicians that is needed in order to perform at an engagement. This varies from artist to artist and often must be rented by the event organizer. Generally, it is everything a live band needs, such as amplifiers, apart from the musicians and their instruments.
Back-Lit Panels
Three-dimensional structure (or box) with lights placed behind a transparent image.
Backloader
Truck which loads from a rear-opening door.
Back-of-Room Sales
The act and process of selling books, tapes, and other products at the back of the room, usually immediately after a speech.
Backstage
Portion of the theater behind the main curtain including stage, dressing rooms, and wings.
Back-to-Back
Travel or conference programs operating on a continuous or chronologically sequential basis so that one group arrives as another group departs or shortly thereafter.
Back-to-Back Booth/Stand
The standard exhibit configuration where booths/stands are placed in rows, back to back.
Back-Up Facility
Substitute facility that will serve as an as a viable alternative if the original facility become unavailable or inadequate for its intended purpose.
Backwall
1) The back wall (either hardwall or draped) of a perimeter, booth/stand/exhibit, or inline. 2) Panel arrangement at rear of booth/stand area.
Backwall Booth/Stand
An exhibit that is back to back with another exhibit or against a building wall. See PERIMETER BOOTH/STAND.
Badge
Identifying sign, tag or emblem worn by event participants. Sometimes called a nametag.
Baffle
Partition to control light, air, sound, or traffic flow.
Baguette
Long French bread; crunchy crust.
Baked Alaska
Brick ice cream on cake, covered with meringue and browned quickly in the oven. Sometimes served flaming in a waiter parade.
Baklava
Russian, Greek or Turkish pastry made of flaky dough, honey, butter and chopped nuts.
Balance Sheet
A statement that indicates overall financial status by subtracting expenses from income.
Baling Wire
Thin gauged wire often used in display work for fastening or tying objects.
Ball
Formal social gathering for dancing.
Ball Light
Stationary adjustable light found on older model exhibits.
Ballast
A power supply used with arc or discharge lamps to control current through the bulb.
Bananas Foster
Dessert prepared with bananas, brown sugar, liqueur and served over vanilla ice cream. Often prepared flaming at table side.
Band
Portion of the audio frequency spectrum in the same way that green is a portion of the visible frequency spectrum. The audio frequency spectrum covers a range of over 10 octaves.
Band Pass
Set of two filters that attenuate frequencies beyond the frequency limits of a given band of frequencies. The telephone, for example, is a band pass filter that eliminates low frequencies below about 300 hertz and high frequencies above about 5,000 hertz, causing the characteristic telephone sound most people are familiar with.
Banding
Thin, flat wire used to hold cartons or crates together.
Bandwidth
The amount of information that can be transmitted in an information channel such as a telephone line, ISDN, or Ethernet. Higher bandwidth means that images and sound will load more quickly for use in videoconferences or on the Internet.
Banjo
Type of lightweight cloth used for backdrops.
Bank Draft
An order drawn for the payment of a specified sum of money through a bank to a particular person or entity.
Bank Guarantee Cash Deposit
Payable by the exhibitor to the forwarder, Customs agent, or official authorities in place of a temporary import bond to ensure the amount requested is the minimum amount of import duties and taxes that would be paid in case of final import.
Bank Maze
See STANCHIONS.
Bank Pin
Pin used for hanging booth/stand ID signs, alternative to S-HOOKS.
Bank Remittance
Money forwarded to a bank; may be by mail or electronic means.
Bank Transfer
Movement of funds between banks or from one bank account to another.
Banner
A suspended decorative or communicative panel, usually a temporary fabric or paper. Can be used as hanging signs.
Banner Advertising
An advertisement on a Web site which allows user to “click through” to the advertiser’s Web site.
Banquet
Formal, often ceremonial, dinner for a select group of people, often in honor of a particular person.
Banquet Captain
Person in charge of banquet service at food functions. For small functions, also serves as maitre d. For larger functions, may be responsible for a specific area of the dining room.
Banquet Event Order
BEO. A form most often used by hotels to provide details to personnel concerned with a specific food and beverage function or event room set-up.
Banquet Manager
A person in charge of banquet service.
Banquet Round
1) Round table used for meal service; depending on the diameter, can comfortably seat up to 12 persons. A round for 8 is usually 60-inches in diameter and is also called a 5-footer. The 66-inch round is a newer table size and seats 8 to 10. A round for 10is usually 72-inches in diameter and is also called 6-footer.
Banquet Set-Up
1) Seating arrangement where typically a grouping of rounds is set in such a way as to facilitate the serving of food, most often a hexagonal or square pattern. 2) Function-room set up and tear down. See HOUSEMAN.
Banquet Set-Up Manager
In charge of function room set up, over housemen.
Bare Booth/Stand
Booth/stand with no services or facilities, meaning that these all have to be hired at an additional cost.
Bargaining Agent
Union recognized by the employer or designated by a government agency to act as the exclusive representative of employees in a bargaining unit.
Bargaining Unit
A group of employees designated by a government agency or accepted by the employer as constituting an appropriate unit for representation by a union.
Barn Door
Movable hinged flap used on stage lights to control light spill.
Barrier-Free
Absence of obstacles preventing handicapped persons from moving freely to all public areas within a building.
Barriers to Entry
Conditions that create difficulty for competitors to enter the market. For example, monopolies, cartels, copyrights, trademarks, patents, dedicated distribution channels and high initial investment requirements.
Barter
Trade in which merchandise or service is exchanged directly for other merchandise or service without the use of money. Barter can be an important means of trade with countries using currency that is not readily convertible.
Base
1) Steel floor support piece for upright post. 2) A stand on which something rests or is supported.
Base Currency
Currency in which all official business transactions will take place.
Base Plate
Empty dinner plate used as a base for several courses and removed prior to the main course. Also called Set Plate. See Also UNDERLINER. Compare With SHOW PLATE.
Base Rate
The hourly rate or salary paid for a job performed. It does not include payments of overtime, incentives or other differentials.
Base Salary
The fixed amount paid to an employee on a regular basis, not including any gratuities, commissions, benefits or bonuses.
Batten
BATS. Lengths of pipe from which scenery, curtains, and lights can be hung.
Baud
Bits a modem can send or receive per second
BDI
Both Dates Inclusive.
Bead
Metal edge of lath or framing that finishes corners or openings and gives plaster finish continuous, smooth corners.
Bead Board
A circuit board, which is most often carrying less than 24 volts of electricity.
Beaded Screen
Type of screen with highly reflective surface used for front protection.
Beam
The size, shape and sharpness of the image of the light as projected on a surface.
Béarnaise Sauce
A derivative of the hollandaise mother sauce. It is prepared by adding a tarragon reduction to hollandaise. Béarnaise must be kept on or near heat or it will separate and break down. Often served on Filet Mignon.
Bed and Breakfast
1) A guesthouse, small hotel or private home that offers overnight accommodations and breakfast for paying guests. 2) Sleeping room rate includes breakfast. See CONTINENTAL PLAN (CP).
Bed Hook
The size, shape and sharpness of the image of the light as projected on a surface.
Bed Tax
See TRANSIENT OCCUPANCY TAX.
Beef Wellington
Tenderloin coated with liver pate and baked en Croute (flaky crust).
Beep
Audio signal used for cueing and editing.
Beeper
Small radio receiver that emits a beeping noise when signaled to alert the person carrying it.
Beignet
(ben yay) 1) French doughnut, square shaped, minus the hole, lavishly sprinkled with powdered sugar. 2) Foods dipped in batter and deep-fried.
Bell Captain
A hotel employee who supervises the work of staff whose primary responsibility is to carry luggage, run errands, etc. at a hotel or club. Not to be confused with Concierge.
Below-the-Line Expenses
Expenses for general business purposes not related directly to an event, common referred to as general overhead expenses such as office rent, health insurance, etc.
Benefits
1) Entitlements made available in accordance with employment, such as a medical insurance policy, vacation, sick leave, etc. 2) Compensation or coverage from an insurance policy.
BEO
Banquet Event Order. A form most often used by hotels to provide details to personnel concerned with a specific food and beverage function or event room set-up.
Bermuda Plan
Hotel accommodations with full American-style breakfast included in the rate. See BED AND BREAKFAST. See Also AMERICAN PLAN, CONTINENTAL PLAN, DEMI-PENSION, EUROPEAN PLAN, MODIFIED AMERICAN PLAN.
Betacam/BetaSP
Common video format for presentation graphics, not compatible with VHS format. Commercial beta is used for broadcast quality video. See VHS Format.
Bible
See SPECIFICATIONS GUIDE.
Bid
1) A statement of what one will give or take in return for something else (a price); proposal. 2) Proposal submitted by a convention & visitors bureau and/or hotel(s) to an event organizer that includes defined dates and room blocks.
Bid Document
The proposal, usually prepared in response to a request for proposals or sales lead, submitted by a destination or a facility, inviting an organization to hold its event n their venue. See REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS
Bid Manual/Specifications
Written document issued by an organization which contains requirements and conditions for future events, and solicits proposals for needed services from venues and other service providers. Often also includes primary selection and decision procedures. Same as REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL (RFP).
Bien Cuit
(ben kwee) Well done, as in steak cooked well done.
Bill of Lading
B/L. A document that establishes the terms of a contract between a shipper and a transportation company under which freight is to be moved between specified points for a specified charge. Usually prepared by the shipper on forms issued by the carrier, it serves as a document of title, a contract of carriage, and a receipt of goods. See AIR WAYBILL. See Also INLAND BILL OF LADING, OCEAN BILL OF LADING, THROUGH BILL OF LADING.
Billing Instructions
Notice as to how charges for an event should be handled and to whom invoices should be addressed.
Billing Weight
Generally refers to airfreight and van line shipments. The billing weight is the number upon which freight charges are based. The billing weight will be the actual weight or the dimensional weight, whichever is greater.
Binding
Process of fastening pages of books, brochures, magazines together. See PERFECT BINDING. See Also SADDLE STITCH, SIDE-STITCH BINDING.
Bio
A slang term for biography.
Biographical Sheet
A profile, one-sheet or a short document that lists a speakers’ major credits and gives a brief history of his or her career. A biographical sheet is not a job resume or a vital. To remain true to its singular limit, a biographical sheet should be no longer than one page.
Bisque
(bisk) Soup thickened with a vegetable puree; usually a shellfish soup.
Bit
A unit of measurement that represents one figure or character of data. A bit is the smallest unit of storage in a computer. Bit multiples are called bytes.
Bitmap
A set of bits that defines a graphic image.
Black Light
Ultraviolet lighting that when applied causes phosphorescent paints to glow.
Black Tie
Required dress: dinner jacket, bow tie and cummerbund for the men and formal evening dress for the women. May include national dress. In the U.S. and Canada, Black Tie indicates Tuxedo. “Black tie optional” indicates that formal dress is preferred but not required. See FORMAL DRESS. See Also WHITE TIE.
Black Tie Optional
Men can wear a tuxedo or dark business suit; for women a long, formal gown or a shorter, elegant dress or suit.
Black-and-White
A black-and-white photograph of a speaker, sometimes referred to as a B&W. See GLOSSY.
Blackboard
Hard, smooth, usually dark surface used for drawing or writing with chalk. See CHALKBOARD. See Also MARKER BOARD.
Blanket License
Used particularly in regard to music licensing, a blanket license allows the music user unlimited access to the collectives' licensed repertory, for a contractual period of time, in exchange for a profit participation in the music user's economic growth. See Also ASCAP, BMI, & SESAC.
Blanket Wrap
Non-crated freight shipped via van line covered with protective blankets or padding.
Bleachers
Stand of tiered planks providing seating space for spectators. Can be permanent or temporary.
Bleed
Ink that extends beyond edges of printed page. Area beyond usable section of blowup or copy block that allows for trimming or wrapping.
Bleeding Edge
A level of technology more advanced than cutting edge or state-of-the-art. Bleeding edge equipment should be given extra attention, being careful to test and retest and not make adjustments between the rehearsal and the event.
Blind Commission
A commission that is paid by a hotel to a third party that reimburses for services and comes out of the hotel sleeping room rate, but is not disclosed to the guests or the event organizer. Such commissions may fall within commercial bribery laws and if involve use of interstate commerce may also be federal law violation. See KICKBACK.
Blind Fastening
Method of using nails or screws to secure tongue and groove flooring into the edge of the board just above the tongue thus concealing the fastener.
Blintze
Thin pancake rolled around a filling of cream cheese and chopped meat or fruit.
Blister Pack
Vacuum formed transparent plastic wrap.
Block
1) Total number of sleeping rooms reserved for an event. 2) A number of rooms, seats, or space reserved in advance for a group. 3) To assign space. See ROOM BLOCK.
Block
1) Number of rooms reserved for one group. 2) To assign space.
Blocked Space
Sleeping rooms, exhibit, event, or other function space reserved for future use by an individual or organization.
Blocking
1) First stand-up rehearsal during which the director sets up all the action for the scene. 2) The act of reserving or assigning sleeping rooms, exhibit, event, or other function space.
Block-Out
Usually refers to painting out portions of photo or negative on screen.
Blower
General term for device to circulate or remove warm air from restricted areas (i.e., projector housings).
Blow-Up
Enlargement of photo, art, or typography.
Blue Laws
State or local laws that regulate the types of businesses that must be closed, or the types of products that may not be sold on Sundays.
Blue Sky
Term for extreme design, thinking or abstract value.
Blueline
Final proof copy for client's approval before printing. Also referred to as a proof.
Blueprint
A mechanical drawing of booth/stand layout, construction and specifications. See FLOOR PLAN.
Bluetooth
The process for the wireless convergence of cell phones, computers, personal digital assistants (PDA), etc.
BMI
Broadcast Music Incorporated. A music licensing organization that represents individuals who hold the copyrights to music written in the United States. It grants licensing agreements for the performance of music.
BO
1) Bad Order. 2) Buyers Option.
Board
Body appointed by the governing board or general assembly to manage the affairs of a society, association, etc., on a day-to-day basis.
Board Meeting
A meeting of the governing body of an organization.
Board of Trustees
An official body which manages the affairs and administers the funds of an institution or organization.
Boarding Pass
Permit to board a ship, train, plane, or other form of transportation.
Boardroom
A room set permanently with a fixed table and suitable seating.
Boardroom Set-Up
Seating arrangement in which rectangle or oval shaped tables are set up with chairs on both sides and ends. Often confused with HOLLOW SQUARE SET-UP.
Body Type
Type size used for main text.
Boeuf à la Bourguignonne
(boff a la borg in yone) Traditional beef stew with vegetables in burgundy wine sauce.
Boldface
Darker type distinguished from lighter type faces.
Bomb Threat
A claim of knowledge or belief that an explosive or incendiary bomb has been or will be placed.
Bombé
Molded dessert of ice cream, whipped cream and fruit.
Bonbon
Any sweet candy.
Bonded Warehouse
A warehouse authorized by customs authorities for storage of goods on which payment of duties is deferred until the goods are removed.
Bonding
The purchase, for a premium, of a guarantee of protection for a supplier or a customer. In the hospitality industry, certain bonding programs are mandatory.
Bone Yard
Storage area where equipment is stored during an exhibition. This area may be located within the exhibition hall in an unused portion of the floor. Alternate spelling is Boneyard. See DUMP.
Boneyard
Storage area where equipment is stored during an exhibition. This area may be located within the exhibition hall in an unused portion of the floor. Alternate spelling is Bone Yard. See DUMP.
Bonus
A sum given to an individual in addition to the individuals base compensation, generally as a reward for accomplishing a goal.
Book
To reserve flights or accommodations for a passenger or guest.
Book of Abstracts
Collection of abstracts being presented during an event which are made available to event participants for use in selecting which sessions to attend.
Booking
1) An arrangement with a company for use of facilities, goods or services. 2) For a Hotel Event, a future event contracted in writing by an event organizer with a hotel. According to guidelines from the International Association of Convention & Visitor Bureaus, the local CVB should receive a copy of the contract, or a written communication from an authorized agent of the hotel that a contract has been signed. The communication should detail dates, space requirements and estimated room block. The CVB should track estimated attendance and attendee spending for the event. 3) For a Citywide or Convention Center event, according to guidelines from the International Association of Convention & Visitor Bureaus, given the long-time frame often involved in such an event, the booking process generally takes two steps. The first is a “Confirmed Booking” where a future event is confirmed in writing (letter, booking notice), signed by an authorized agent of the event organizer and the convention center (if applicable). The written communication should detail dates, space requirements and estimated room block. The local CVB should track estimated attendance and attendee spending. The second step is a “Contracted Booking” where a future event is contracted in writing by the event organizer with the event facility (e.g., convention center). The local CVB should receive communication of this stage in writing from an authorized agent of the convention center.
Booking Policy
Guidelines by which a convention center (or other venue) prioritizes reservations; may correspond to hotel rooms the event will use in the area.
Book-on-Payment
BOP. Payment guaranteed by travel agency for a package reserved within cancellation period.
Boom
Adjustable support for positioning microphones or lighting fixtures.
Boom Arm
Attachment placed on a standard straight microphone stand which extends the reach of the stand to the side. Often used to place a microphone in front of a singer seated at a piano.
Boom Lift
A motorized platform used to lift people to a given height. See SCISSOR LIFT.
Booth
One or more standard units of exhibit space. In the US, a standard unit is generally known to be a 10' x 10' space (one standard booth/stand unit, equaling 100 nsf). However, if an exhibitor purchases multiple units side-by-side or back-to-back, the combined space is also still referred to as a BOOTH or a STAND. Specific area assigned by management to exhibitor under contractual agreement. See STAND.
Booth/Stand Area
Amount of floor space occupied by exhibitor. Also Called EXHIBITION AREA.
Booth/Stand Contractor
Company which constructs or assembles exhibit booths/stands under contract with the organizing committee. See GENERAL SERVICE CONTRACTOR.
Booth/Stand Number
Number assigned by the event's management to designate each exhibitor's space.
Booth/Stand Package
When an exhibitor receives a variety of services for one single price (e.g. each booth/stand receives carpet 1-6’ draped table, a 500-watt outlet and 500 lbs of drayage).
Booth/Stand Personnel
An individual assigned to represent the exhibitor in an assigned space.
Booth/Stand Sign
1) Identification sign indicating name, city, state and booth/stand number for each exhibitor. 2) Sign behind desk indicating service provided at that point. See FASCIA.
Booth/Stand Size
Dimensions of assigned exhibit space.
Boothmanship
See EXHIBITORSHIP.
Bootleg Wages
The wages above those at the prevailing rate or the union scale which an employer may pay in a tight labor market to hold or attract employees. May also refer to wages at rate below the prevailing or union rate which an employee may accept in order to obtain employment.
Bordeaux Wines
Wines from the Bordeaux region in southwest France known for richness and fragrance. Red wines (also known as Clarets) include Médoc, Margaux Saint-Emilion, Pauillac and Pomerol; fine white Bordeaux include Sauternes, Barsac and Graves. A Château is a wine estate in Bordeaux; some of the best are Château Latour, Château Mouton-Rothschild, Château Lafite-Rothschild, and Château Margaux.
Border Chaser
Border of lights placed around a sign or other object whose lights can be turned on and off in a sequence that make them appear to chase around the border.
Border Light
Rows of lights mounted above the acting area.
Borscht
Chilled soup made of chopped beets, onions, lemon juice or vinegar, salt and pepper, water or soup stock, topped with sour cream. Sometimes cabbage is added.
Bouillabaisse
Wine-flavored mixed seafood stew.
Bouquetière
Mix of fresh vegetables, in season.
Box Lunch
Light lunch to go, in a box.
Brad Gun
A nail gun. A pneumatic device which installs fasteners of various types and sizes.
Brains Trust
A group of expert advisors assembled especially to answer questions of immediate or current interest.
Brainstorming
Group sessions in which all participants contribute creative ideas which are not initially judged for merit.
Break
Short interval between sessions at which time coffee, tea and/or other refreshments are served. See COFFEE BREAK. See Also ENERGY BREAK, REFRESHMENT BREAK.
Break Terminal
Location at which common carriers separate consolidated freight.
Breakage
Expenses budgeted for a tour but not used or extended, thus resulting in additional profit to the operator.
Break-Bulk Center
Regional distribution center that consolidates and distributes multiple less than truckload (LTL) shipments headed in the same direction.
Breakdown
1) Time required to dismantle a function area. 2) To itemize estimates, invoices, and the like.
Break-Even Point
The point at which revenues are equal to expenses.
Break-Out Rooms
Small function rooms set up for a group within an event as opposed to a plenary or general session.
Break-Out Sessions
Small group sessions, panels, workshops or presentations, offered concurrently within the event, formed to focus on specific subjects. The event is apart from the general session, but within the event format, formed to focus on specific subjects. These sessions can be arranged by basic, intermediate or advanced; or divided by interest areas or industry segment.
Breakpoint
Level at which quantity discounts are allowed for volumes of freight, number of items printed, etc.
Break-Up
Image or audio distortion, such as losing signal on cell phone.
Bridge
Device allowing multiple outputs from the same input. Most often used to allow electronic media to take a feed of the program for use in broadcast programming.
Bridgeway
1) Area between booths/stands for audience traffic movement. 2) Space between sets of tables, chairs or booths/stands to allow passage of attendees. See GANGWAY.
Brilliance
Degree of intensity of colors.
Broadband
Ability to transmit huge volumes of voice and video over a network or the internet, without jumpy images.
Broadcast Fax
A service that transmits a fax to a large number or people, such as an entire association membership or company.
Broadcast Music, Inc.
BMI. A music licensing organization that represents individuals who hold the copyrights to music written in the United States. It grants licensing agreements for the performance of music.
Brochure
Printed marketing folder describing and promoting the advantages of a particular hotel, event, destination, etc.
Broker
A non-asset based transportation provider that sells transportation services for commercial shippers. Brokers commonly use freight forwarders.
Brokering
Bureau with customer who wants a speaker goes to an agent representing an exclusive speaker, to buy said speaker. Commission is determined by the exclusive agent.
Brushed Finish
Finish primarily on aluminum or steel achieved by rubbing with wire brush or steel wool to achieve a matte quality.
Brussels Tariff Nomenclature
An international system of classification for goods that was once widely used for specifying tariffs. It was changed, in name only, to the Customs Cooperation Council Nomenclature (CCCN) in 1976 and was later superceded by the Harmonized System of Tariff Nomenclature. See HARMONIZED SYSTEM OF TARIFF NOMENCLATURE.
Brut
Dry, as in wine. Not sweet.
Buck-Boost Transformer
A transformer used to convert electrical voltage either up or down (such as 208v to 220v, or 240v to 220v).
Budget
A statement of estimated revenues and expenditures for a specified period of time; divided into subject categories and arranged by principal areas of revenue and expense. See BUDGET CHART. See Also CASH FLOW CHART, PHASED BUDGET.
Budget Chart
Estimated total of revenue and expenditure; divided into subject categories projecting cash needed to meet expenses over a specific time frame. See BUDGET. See Also CASH FLOW CHART, PHASED BUDGET.
Budget Philosophy
Financial goal of the event (break even, profit or lose money).
Buffer Zone
1) Block of seats on plane located between smoking and nonsmoking sections allowing for variance in the smoking and nonsmoking boundary on international flights. 2) Zone in Canada, 225 miles from the U. S. border, dividing the two tax structures applied to Y class fare. (First class, business class excluded.)
Buffet
Assortment of foods, offered on a table, self-served.
Building Rules
Regulations set by building management outlining procedures for their property.
Build-Up
System of programming flasher to light lamps in cumulative sequence with time intervals between.
Bulk Carrier
A bulk carrier is a vessel engaged in the carriage of such bulk commodities as petroleum, grain, or ores which are not yet packaged, bundled, bottled, or otherwise packed.
Bulk Fare
Rate/fare available only to tour organizers or operators who purchase a specified block of seats, passes or tickets at a low, non-commissionable price and then have the responsibility of selling the block, including a commission in their marked up price for the block.
Bulkhead
Seats at the front of an airline cabin facing a wall.
Bullet Catch
Device for holding hinged door closed.
Bullets
Large, heavy dots or symbols used in written text for emphasis or to separate points used for emphasis.
Bullnose
Technique for finishing raw edge with half round molding, or shaping to half round.
Bumping
1) Removing a confirmed passenger from a full flight to make room for a passenger with higher priority.
Bunching
Linen gathered together in loose folds on top of a table to provide a decorative ‘bed’.
Bungee Cord
An elastic type cord used for hanging drape around columns.
Bunting
Flags used collectively, or swagged strips of cloth hung as festive decorations from walls or tables.
Bureau
A booking or sales company that sells the services of multiple speakers. See SPEAKERS BUREAU.
Bureau Listing
A speaker grants the right to a speakers bureau to list the speaker as available. See LISTING.
Burgundy Wine
Wine from the Burgundy region in eastern France which produces both red and white wines. The white wines, made from Chardonnay grapes, and the red wines, made from Pinot Noir or Gamay grapes, are considered the world’s best examples of these wines. Some of the better known Burgundy wines include those from Beaujolis, Pommard, Beaune, Meursault, Chablis, Pouilly-Fuissé, Chambertin, Corton, Romanée Conti and Echézeaux.
Burned In Copy
Written copy appearing on photographs.
Bus
1) Vehicle for transporting people. See SHUTTLE. See Also MOTOR COACH. 2) Connector panel which allows passage of signals. 3) To clear trash from an area where food and beverage are being served.
Bus Duct
Metal raceway enclosing high-voltage power feeds, suspended from overhead or in the floor, from which high-voltage power over 100 amps must be fed.
Bus Schedule
Designated time locations where motor coaches will pick up and discharge passengers.
Bus Staff
Personnel who remove dirty dishes and reset tables in a restaurant or hotel.
Business Agent
Political, elected position within a union. Salary is not paid by service contractor, but by the union itself. See FOREMAN. See Also SHOP STEWARD, UNION STEWARD.
Business Attire
Business suits or jackets with shirts and ties for men and day dresses or suits for women; usually taken to mean office and not recreational wear. Can include informal forms of national dress.
Business Casual
A style of dress that is less formal than the standard office attire of suit and tie or dress.
Business Center
Area in hotel or event venue offering various office facilities and services.
Business Center Services
Services that will allow attendees to keep in touch with their office (phone, fax, message, etc.)
Business Class
Class of airline service between first class and economy class with special amenities for business travelers.
Business Exchange
A Web site that serves as a year-round online marketplace for buyers and sellers within a given marketplace. Such sites are also referred to as business-to-business (B2B) marketplaces, business-to-consumer (B2C) marketplaces or consumer-to-consumer (C2C), depending upon the target audience.
Business Occurring
Referring to the number of groups and attendees meeting in a city during a specific time frame.
Buss
Like a bus that may carry many passengers, an audio buss is a wire or circuit that may carry more than one audio signal at a time.
Busy
Cluttered image on the screen.
Butler Service
1) Servers offer a variety of both hot and cold hors d’oeuvres on platters to guests at receptions. 2) A style of table service where guests serve themselves from platters presented by the server. 3) Specialized in-room service offered by a hotel.
Butt Joint
Joint in carpentry achieved by nailing and gluing square ends of lumber together.
Buyer
The person or group representative who signs the contract and pays for the speaker.
Buying Agent
See PURCHASING AGENT.
Buying Team
Two or more people from the same company who jointly evaluate a product or service and either make, or influence, the buying decision.
Buzz Session
Method to increase audience participation by dividing all participants in discussion groups each of which reports the group’s findings and opinions during a following plenary session.
Buzz Set-Up
See CRESCENT-ROUND SET-UP.
BX Cable
BX is no longer manufactured, but the term is still common in the field. See MC CABLE.
By the Bottle
Liquor served and charged for by the full bottle.
By the Drink
Liquor served and charged for by the number of drinks served.
By the Person
A fixed price per attendee; covers all consumption of food and beverage at a function, within a given time frame; usually includes beverages, snacks or hors d’oeuvres. In some cases, beverages are purchased by the person, while food is ordered by the piece.
By the Piece
Food purchased by the individual piece, usually for a reception.
By-Laws
See ARTICLES AND BY-LAWS.
Byte
The amount of memory needed to store one character such as a letter or a number.
C&F
Cost and Freight. A pricing term indicating that these costs are included in the quoted price.
C&I
Cost and Insurance. A pricing term indicating that these costs are included in the quoted price.
Cabana
Room adjacent to pool area, with or without sleeping facilities.
Cabaret Set-up
Room arrangement with cocktail tables with chairs and a stage.
Cabaret Table
Small round table, 15- 30 inches in diameter (38-76 centimeters) used for cocktail type parties. Also Called COCKTAIL TABLE. See Also TUXEDO TABLE.
Cable
Used for suspending objects and is much stronger than wire. Its thickness ranges from 1/8” to ½”.
Cable Modem
Allows you to connect your computer to a local cable television line and receive data at high speed. Cable modems attach to a coaxial cable line to communicate with a cable modem termination system at the cable television company.
Cable Pick
Rigging point or working line used to lift overhead equipment above an exhibit space or exhibit.
CAD/CAM
Computer Assisted Drawing/Computer Assisted Manufacturing.
CADD
Computer Aided Design and Drafting.
CAE
Certified Association Executive.
CAEM
Canadian Association of Exposition Managers.
Cafeteria Service
A food service operation in which customers carry their own trays and select food from a display counter or counters. It is similar to a buffet, but food is served by attendants.
Calamari
Italian fried squid.
Call
1) Method of securing union employees. 2) Time specified for labor to report (e.g. an 8:00 a.m. call). 3) Minimum amount for which union labor must be paid. See LABOR CALL.
Call Board
Theater bulletin board with announcements of rehearsals, work calls and other general theater announcements.
Call Brand
Brand of liquor, distinguished from HOUSE BRAND, selected by a customer according to personal preference. Usually a higher quality than house brands.
Call for Papers
An invitation to submit topic ideas for the conference program. Document containing detailed instructions for submission of papers for assessment and selection by a review committee; often referred to as “Abstract Forms.” See ABSTRACT. See Also CONFERENCE PAPERS.
Call Pay
See REPORTING PAY.
Call-Out
Notations on drawings or exhibits of special significance, i.e. finish, edge, color, detail or features.
Cam
Metal disc, either eccentric or notched, commonly used to open and close flash switches and other mechanical devices.
Camera Card
Cue card which displays script to performers on stage in order to prompt lines. See CUE CARD. See Also IDIOT CARD.
Camera Chain
The combination of television cameras, cables, video controls and power supply.
Camera Left and Right
Directions from camera’s perspective, as opposed to STAGE LEFT AND RIGHT. See AUDIENCE LEFT AND RIGHT. See Also SCREEN LEFT AND RIGHT.
Camera-Ready Art
Materials ready for photographic reproduction.
Cam-Lock Connectors
Means of connecting electrical cabling to electrical equipment.
Campus Housing
Dormitory or other university/college sleeping accommodations.
Can Service
Foods are prepared tableside and an assembled plate is served by the attendant.
Canadian Customs Invoice
Document required by Canadian Customs identifying shipper, seller, consignee, terms, date of shipment, material being sold/shipped, classification code, quantity, unit and total prices. Additional information required on the invoice depends on shipper and consignee arrangements.
Canapé
(can a pay) Hot or cold appetizer with a bread or cracker base.
Cancellation Clause
Provision in a contract which outlines damages to be paid to the non-canceling party if cancellation occurs, due the canceling party's breach of the contract.
Cancellation or Interruption Insurance
Insurance that protects a event organizer against financial loss or expenses incurred when contractually specified perils necessitate canceling or relocating a event, or cause a reduction in attendance.
Cancellation/No-Show Percentage
A factor included in WASH. The number of rooms that did not materialize (either canceled or no-showed on the planner date of arrival). See also WASH.
Cancelled Business
A booking that subsequently did not take place, either because the event itself was cancelled or left the destination or facility before taking place. According to the International Association of Convention & Visitor Bureaus, the local CVB should track the estimated number of room nights, attendance and attendee spending and the reason associated with the cancellation.
Candelabra
Ornamental branched holder for more than one candle.
Canned
A slang term for a standard ”off the shelf” speech or presentation. Often, the term “ canned” is used in a negative context to refer to material that a speaker uses too often, without changes, in presentations.
Canopy
1) Drapery, awning or other roof-like covering. 2) An overhead projecting cover.
Cantilever
A horizontal beam or piece supported on one end and extending beyond its vertical support.
Canvas
Material used for outdoor banners.
Cap Nut
A piece of hardware with an internal screw thread that is used on the end of a bolt when a finished appearance is desired.
Cap Strip
Piece of finished material used to cover end framing.
Capacitor
Electronic circuit component part designed to store electricity.
Capacity
Maximum number of people allowed in any given area.
Capacity Control
Restriction on the number of seats available at a particular fare.
Cappuccino
A hot beverage of 1/3 espresso, 1/3 steamed milk, 1/3 foamed milk.
Captain
Person in charge of banquet service at food functions; supervisor of the servers.
Caption
See CUTLINE.
Carbon Neutral Travel
Carbon Neutral is the point at which enough trees are planted to offset completely emissions from a manufacturing process, distribution, product usage, building or individual.
Cargo Insurance
Additional coverage protecting the owner of goods for loss or damage while goods are in a carrier's possession. Recommended for all international shipments.
Carnet
(carnay) A customs document permitting the holder to carry or send merchandise temporarily into certain foreign countries (for display, demonstration or similar purposes) without paying duties or posting bonds.
Carnival
Mobile enterprise principally devoted to offering amusement or entertainment to the public in, upon or by means of portable amusement rides or devices or temporary structures in any number or combination, whether with other structures or forms of public attraction.
Carousel Tray
Circular holder used for projecting 35mm slides.
Carpaccio
An appetizer of thin shavings of raw beef fillet, often drizzled with olive oil and lemon juice or served with a mayonnaise or mustard sauce and often topped with capers and/or onions. Sometimes tuna, or other meat, is used in place of the beef.
Carpenter
Skilled person used for fabrication and installation of displays; labor to perform display uncrating, installation, dismantling, recrating. (Note: this type of labor is performed by individuals with a variety of job titles throughout the world).
Carpet Knife
Knife used for cutting carpet.
Carpet Tape
Double-faced tape used to adhere edge of carpet to floor or to repair carpet tears. See DUCT TAPE.
Carriage Bolt
A bolt with a square shank next to the head to allow tightening in wood without tools.
Carrier
1) Exclusive use of all or some space on an airplane, bus, ship, or other vehicle for a special period of time and for a specific itinerary. 2) Transportation contractor moving passengers or freight (van line, common carrier, rail car, airplane).
Cartage
1) Fee charged for transporting freight between destinations. 2) Short distance hauling of exhibit properties.
Cartage Agent
Ground service operator who provides pickup and delivery in areas not served directly by air carrier.
Cartons
Small shipping containers made of cardboard.
Case Study
An intensive analysis of an individual unit or situation.
Cases
Shipping containers usually made of plastic or fiberglass.
Cash Accounting
A system in which revenue and expenses are counted as they are actually received.
Cash Against Documents
CAD. Payment for goods in which a commission house or other intermediary transfers title documents to the buyer upon payment in cash.
Cash Bar
Private room bar set up where guests pay for drinks individually.
Cash Based Accounting
An accounting method that enters income and expenses into the books at the time when payment is received or expenses incurred.
Cash Flow
The transfer of monies into and out of an enterprise.
Cash Flow Chart
Estimate total of revenue and expenditure; divided into subject categories projecting cash needed to meet expenses over a specific time frame. See BUDGET CHART. See Also PHASED BUDGET.
Cash in Advance
CIA. Payment for goods in which the price is paid in full before shipment is made. This method is usually used only for small purchases, for poor credit risks or when the goods are built to order.
Cash Registration
Full payment for anticipated room and tax charges at registration; credit for incidentals not extended.
Cash Reservation
Payment with reservation for full or part of stay.
Cash with Order
CWO. Payment for goods in which the buyer pays when ordering and in which the transaction is binding on both parties.
Cassette
Self-enclosed two-reel tape module — video or audio.
Casual Attire
Sports shirt (possibly with jacket) for men; resort wear for women.
Casualty
Rooms that were reserved by attendees but not used; often refers to “no shows” or last minute cancellations.
Casualty Insurance
A type of insurance that is primarily concerned with the legal liability for losses caused by injury to persons or damage to the property of others.
Category Cable
(Unshielded Twisted Pair Cable or UTP) Usually referred to as Cat 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 cable. Cat 5 transmits data the fastest. Fast Ethernet requires enhanced Cat 5 cable or Cat 5 to operate at its full potential. See BACKBONE.
Caterer
1) A food service vendor, often used to describe a vendor who specializes in banquets and theme parties. 2) An exclusive food & beverage contractor within a facility.
Catering
The provision of food and beverages.
Catering Sales Manager
Staff person responsible for selling and servicing group and local food and beverage functions.
Catwalk
Walkway above auditorium used for hanging lights and sound equipment.
Caviar
Sturgeon roe (eggs); lightly salted. The lighter the color, the better quality and the more expensive.
CBT
Computer-Based Training.
CC
Current Cost.
CDME
Certified Destination Marketing Executive. A certification of the International Association of Convention and Visitor Bureaus. www.iacvb.org
CD-ROM
Compact Disk-Read Only Memory. A disk that can hold many times the data of a traditional floppy disk.
CDX
Blemish-free wood surface.
CEC
Continuing Education Credit. Requirement of many professional groups by which members must certify participation in formal educational programs designed to maintain their level of ability beyond their original certification date. See CONTINUING EDUCATION UNIT (CEU).
Ceiling Decor
Suspended decorations to enhance appearance of hall, or create a more intimate environment by 'lowering' the ceiling.
Ceiling Height
Maximum height of ceiling of an exhibition hall or event room. Dimensions quoted by halls and hotels often do not take into account any light fixtures hanging from the ceiling.
CEIR
Center for Exhibition Industry Research. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
Celastic
Material formed to shape by using treated fabrics, resins, and adhesives.
Celebrity Speaker
A speaker who is booked for his/her name value.
Celotex
Material composed of compressed paper and adhesives.
Celsius
A temperature scale (Also Called CENTIGRADE) where 0° is freezing and 100° is the boiling point. To convert Celsius temperatures to Fahrenheit, multiply the Celsius figure by 9, divide by 5, and add 32.
Centerpiece
Decoration for the center of a banquet table.
Centigrade
See CELSIUS.
Central Console
The desk from which technicians operate microphones and audiovisual equipment.
Century Weight
CWT. A measurement for exhibit freight, usually 100 pounds.
Certificate in Meeting Management
CMM. Certification program offered by Meeting Professionals International; global certification in meeting management that focuses on strategic thinking and actions for senior level meeting professionals.
Certificate of Inspection
A document certifying that merchandise (such as perishable goods) was in good condition immediately prior to its shipment.
Certificate of Insurance
A document provided by an insurance company as proof that a policy has been issued and coverage is in effect.
Certificate of Manufacture
A statement (often notarized) in which a producer of goods certifies that the manufacturing has been completed and the goods are now at the disposal of the buyer.
Certificate of Origin
A document, required by certain countries for tariff purposes, certifying as to the country of origin of specified goods.
Certification
Program and process by which a participant completes proscribed training and passes an assessment.
Certified Association Executive
CAE. Certification program offered by the American Society of Association Executives. Certification designed to elevate professional standards, enhance individual performance and designate those who demonstrate knowledge essential to the practice of association management.
Certified Destination Marketing Executive
CDME. A certification of the International Association of Convention and Visitor Bureaus. www.iacvb.org
Certified Exhibition Manager
CEM. An exhibition management professional, as officially designated by the International Association of Exhibition Management.
Certified Hospitality Marketing Executive
CHME. A certification program offered by the Hospitality Sales & Marketing Association International. www.hsmai.org
Certified Hospitality Sales Professional
CHSP. A certification program offered by the American Hotel & Lodging Educational Institute.
Certified Hotel Administrator
CHA. A certification program offered by the American Hotel & Lodging Educational Institute.
Certified Incentive Travel Executive
CITE. A designation offered by the Society of Incentive & Travel Executives (SITE).
Certified Manager of Exhibits
CME. An exhibit industry professional, as officially designated by the Trade Show Exhibitors Association.
Certified Meeting Professional
CMP. Certification program offered by the Convention Industry Council. This designation certifies competency in 27 areas of meeting management through application and examination.
Certified Speaking Professional
CSP. Accredited designation offered by the National Speakers Association. This designation is earned for extensive, documented speaking experience and client satisfaction.
Certified Special Events Professional
CSEP. Accredited designation offered by the International Special Event Society. This designation is earned for professional achievement in event management.
Certified Weight
An official weight issued from a Certified Weight Master. This individual certifies a shipment's weight as the only acceptable weight for transportation and drayage at a tradeshow. Weights can be determined by weighing the vehicle heavy (full) and light (empty), or by weighing each piece.
CESSE
Council of Engineering and Scientific Society Executives. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
CEU
See CONTINUING EDUCATION UNIT.
CHA
Certified Hotel Administrator. A certification program offered by the American Hotel & Lodging Educational Institute.
Chafing Dish
Used to warm or cook food, it consists of a container (usually metal) with a heat source directly beneath it, which can come from a candle, electricity or solid fuel (e.g. Sterno). There's often a larger dish that is used as a water basin (like the bottom of a double boiler) into which the dish containing the food is placed to prevent food from burning.
Chai
Spiced tea with cream and sweetener.
Chain Drive
Power transmission via chain for the movement of an object.
Chain Hoist Motor
Motor that pulls a chain through itself in order to lift a load.
Chain Lock
Protective or security device which connects by a chain a closed and ajar door to doorjamb. Also Called SECURITY LOCK.
Chair
A person selected to preside over a committee, a conference session or entire an conference.
Chalkboard
See BLACKBOARD. See Also MARKER BOARD.
Chamfer
Technique of reducing sharp corner of lumber by sanding or machining edge.
Change Order
Facility form to advise departments of changes in reservations or functions.
Channel
1) Individual signal path through a system which has more than one such path. A special line reserved to a specific usage (e.g. speech on walkie talkies, etc.). 2) Generally, any material milled or extruded in a continuous U-shape.
Character Generator
Electronic device that allows words or characters to be displayed on a television image.
Charger
Another name for a larger plate, used as a base plate or platter.
Charrette
The binding together of designers, planners, and business professionals to discuss development concepts and plans. Freely sharing ideas in a relaxed, yet intense atmosphere — a brainstorming session is at the heart of a successful Charrette. It is a planning process, ideal for entertainment and recreational projects.
Chart of Accounts
A detailed list of the individual line items that make up the revenue and expense categories in a budget. A numbering system used to identify every line item in a budget, so income and expenses are posted to the correct accounts.
Charter
1) Exclusive use of all or some space on an airplane, bus, ship, or other vehicle for a special period of time and for a specific itinerary. 2) To create a new association, organization or chapter of an association or organization.
Charter Operations
1) In terms of motor carrier certificates, the transportation of groups organized by someone other than the carrier, and which are sold the exclusive use of the vehicle. 2) An operator authorized to arrange transportation in charter operations.
Charter Party
A written contract, usually on a special form, between the owner of a vessel and a charterer who rents use of the vessel or a part of its freight space. The contract generally includes the freight rates and the ports involved in the transportation.
Charts
Diagrams, music books, sheets, or scores.
Chaser
Mild drink taken after hard liquor.
Chaser Flasher/Lights
Electronic device to accomplish rapid sequential lighting.
Chat
A real time synchronous electronic discussion forum where participants can communicate with instructors, mentors and peers to simulate the classroom environment.
Chateaubriand
Thick tenderloin steak, cut from the center or 'barrel' of the loin.
Chaud
(show) Hot.
Chaud Froid
(show fwah) Hot/cold jellied sauce used to decorate buffet show pieces, such as hams or turkeys.
Cheat
Varying the positions of actors to achieve a better TV picture.
Check-In
Procedure for hotel guest arrival and registration.
Check-In Time
Time at which hotel guests may check in and occupy sleeping rooms.
Check-Out
Procedure for hotel guest departure of their sleeping room including account settlement.
Check-Out Time
Time set by facility when hotel guests are required to vacate sleeping rooms.
Chef’s Choice
Selection of food items to best complement the entrée. The selection is being left up to the chef.
Chef’s Table
The opportunity to sample a menu in advance of the event, usually in the company of the chef. Also refers to a food event held in the kitchen where the attendees interact with the chef and kitchen staff.
Chemise
With skins, as in boiled potatoes in their skins.
Cherries Jubilee
Flaming dessert served over vanilla ice cream.
Cherry Picker
Equipment capable of lifting a person or persons to a given height. See HIGH JACKER. See Also MAN LIFT, JLG, SCISSOR LIFT, GENIE LIFT, HI LOW, FORKLIFT.
Chevron
Type of cloth used for backdrops.
Chevron Set-Up
Seating arrangement in which chairs are arranged in rows slanted in a V shape and separated by a center aisle. They face the head table or speaker. See HERRINGBONE SET-UP. See Also V-SHAPE SET-UP.
Chief Executive Officer
CEO. The principal officer responsible for overall administration of an organization.
Chief Financial Officer
CFO. Executive responsible for financial affairs of an organization.
Chief Operating Officer
COO. Executive responsible for day-to-day operations of an organization.
Chiffonade
Foods served with shredded vegetables, such as lettuce salads with shredded carrots and/or red cabbage.
Chinoise
French word for Chinese.
Chipping
Distortion of audio signals caused by input signal peaks or voltage amplitudes which cause a circuit to attempt to exceed its own maximum voltage capabilities.
CHME
Certified Hospitality Marketing Executive. A certification program offered by the Hospitality Sales & Marketing Association International. www.hsmai.org
Chop Suey
Chinese stew, with meat or fish, plus bamboo sprouts, onions, rice and water chestnuts.
Chow Mein
Chinese dish of bean sprouts, celery, mushrooms, and a meat or fish served over crispy or pan-fried soft noodles.
CIC
Convention Industry Council (formerly the Convention Liaison Council). A federation of national and international organizations representing individuals, firms or properties involved in the meetings, conventions, exhibitions and travel and tourism industries.
CIF
Cost, Insurance, Freight. A pricing term indicating that these costs are included in the quoted price.
CIF&C
Cost, Insurance, Freight, and Commission. A pricing term indicating that these costs are included in the quoted price.
CIF&E
Cost, Insurance, Freight, and Exchange. A pricing term indicating that these costs are included in the quoted price.
Cioppino
An Italian fish stew made from tomatoes, white wine, and clams, shrimp, crab, calamari, swordfish, fresh basil and garnished with a garlic crouton.
Circle Trip
A journey with stopovers that returns to the point of departure without retracting its route.
Circline
Circular fluorescent fixture.
CITE
Certified Incentive Travel Executive. A designation offered by the Society of Incentive & Travel Executives (SITE).
City Central
Association of American Federation of Labor - Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) local unions in a city or metropolitan area.
City Guide
A freelance guide who comes aboard a motorcoach to give an informed overview of the city or attraction to be toured.
City Tour
A sightseeing trip through a city, usually lasting a half-day or full day, during which a guide points out that city’s highlights. See TOUR.
Citywide Event
An event that requires the use of a convention center or event complex, as well as multiple hotels in the host city.
Clamp-On Fixture
Electrical fixture with C-clamp device for attaching to display.
Clamp-On Lights
A light fixture that has a clamping device that allows it to attach to a wall or pole. They are 150 watts to 250 watts.
Classification
Commodity tariff used to classify shipments. Shipments are evaluated by their density, sensitivity, packaging and other criteria. Rates are assessed on a shipment after a commodity classification is established.
Classroom Set-Up
Seating arrangement in which rows of tables with chairs face the front of a room and each person has a space for writing. Also Called SCHOOLROOM SET-UP.
Classroom Table
Rectangular table, often narrower than regular tables and 30-inches high. Can be 6' or 8' long and 18- or 24-inches wide.
Clause
A detailed section of a contract pertaining to a specific issue.
Clean Bill of Lading
A receipt for goods issued by a carrier with an indication that the goods were received in apparent good order and condition, without damages or other irregularities. See FOUL BILL OF LADING.
Clean Draft
A draft to which no documents have been attached.
Clear Date/Time
Generally the last point in time at which an exhibitor-appointed carrier must be in line or at the dock in order to be loaded after the close of the show.
Clearance
Clear space between the passing object and sides or roof of a passageway.
Cleats
Wood strips on sides of shipping container for sliding and handling purposes. Also wood strips on a structure for attaching another fixture or structure.
Climate Neutral
Climate Neutral products or services reduce and offset the greenhouse gases generated at each stage of their life-cycle on a cradle-to-cradle basis: the sourcing of their materials, their manufacturing or production, their distribution, use, and ultimate end-of-life disposition.
Clinic
Workshop-type educational experience where participants learn by doing.
Clogged Head
Buildup of oxide on the video recorder head causing noise, breakup, or loss of picture.
Closed
See FULL HOUSE.
Closed Circuit Video
A video distribution system which limits reception of an image to those receivers which are directly connected to the origination point by coaxial cable or microwave link.
Closed-End
(Incentive travel) Number of winners are limited by a predetermined amount.
Closing Ceremony
Final activities at an event which occur during the closing/last session.
Closing Session
The final session of an event in which the subjects which have been discussed are summarized and possible conclusions reached and announced.
Cluster
1) Enclosed lights used to illuminate the top of film and stage sets. 2) Group of speakers mounted in auditoriums, arenas, and theaters.
CMAA
Club Managers Association of America.
CMP
1) Certified Meeting Professional. 2) Complete Meeting Package at conference centers; includes lodging, all food and beverage, support services, including audio visual equipment, room rental, etc.
Coach
1) Individual who helps develop presentation skills. 2) Class of airline service.
Coach Fare
Economy airline fare.
Coat Rack
Frame to hold wearing apparel, usually on hangers. See GARMENT RACK. See Also Costumer.
Coated Stock
Paper manufactured with coatings of clay or other materials to give the base paper a smooth, often glossy, surface.
Coaxial Cable
Cable used to transmit audio and television signals.
Cobra Head Extension Cord
A two-wire extension cord that has the capability of having two of more items plugged into the end. These cords are not allowed in some convention facilities (e.g. Las Vegas) due to the possible overload and tripping of breakers. They are also considered a fire hazard.
Cocktail Attire
Men should wear nothing less formal than a blazer and slacks; for women, dressy pantsuits or short, dressier dresses.
Cocktail Table
Small round table, 15- 30 inches in diameter (38-76 centimeters) used for cocktail type parties. Also Called CABARET TABLE. See Also TUXEDO TABLE.
COD
Cash on Delivery, Collection on Delivery.
CODEC
Compression/Decompression or Coder/Decoder. Videoconferencing standard, included in hardware and/or software, used to compress or code video, audio, and data signals for transmission and decompress or decode the signal at the other end of the transmission.
Coeur
(coor) Heart (e.g. 'hearts of lettuce' ).
Coffee Break
See BREAK. See Also ENERGY BREAK, REFRESHMENT BREAK.
Cold Call
Sales call made without an appointment.
Collaborative Tools
Email, bulletin boards, live chat, instant messaging and other technologies that allow participants to communicate electronically with other participants.
Collateral
Assets that can be pledged to guarantee a loan. The promotional material used by the salespeople to support or corroborate the features and benefits of the item being sold.
Collection and Consolidation Service
Service performed for a shipper in which a number of LTL shipments are picked up or received and forwarded as one truckload shipment.
Collective Agreement
Written agreement between an employer and a union specifying the terms and conditions of employment for workers, the status of the union, and the procedure for settling disputes arising during the contract term. See UNION CONTRACT.
Collective Bargaining
The process of negotiation between an employer or employers and an employee organization, union or unions to reach agreement on the terms and conditions of employment for a specified period.
Colloquium
An informal meeting for the purpose of discussion; usually of an academic or research nature and in order to ascertain areas of mutual interest through exchange of ideas. Conducted as and when convenient, but with little regularity.
Co-Location
To hold two related events at the same time and in the same place.
Color Key Proof
Proof copy for approval of color positioning.
Color Separation
See FOUR-COLOR SEPARATION.
Column
A pillar in a facility which supports the roof or other structures. Usually refers to pillars in function space and exhibition halls and is typically denoted on floor plan as a solid square.
Combo
Small group of musicians such as a small jazz or dance band.
Commando Cloth
A woven fabric with a nap, similar to Duvetyne, but heavier, completely light blocking and with a coarser nap. A substitute for velour, most often used for masking drapes. See DUVETYNE.
Commercial Invoice
An itemized statement furnished to a purchaser by a seller and usually specifying the price of goods or services and the terms of sale.
Commission
A payment to a sales representative for meeting or exceeding a sales revenue goal. Or a payment made to an individual or organization for bringing business to another individual or organization.
Commissionable Rate Commitment
A contract in which the room rate to be charged to attendees includes a commission to be paid to either the sponsoring group or a third party such as a travel agent or independent event planning or site selection organization.
Commitment
Agreement between buyer and seller to purchase/sell the particular product. See CONTRACT. See Also LETTER OF AGREEMENT.
Committee
A group of people appointed for a specific purpose.
Committee of Honor
Committee of individuals eminent in the related field whose names are lent to an event by way of endorsement.
Common Carrier
Transportation company which handles crated materials; an agency or business that is available to the public for transportation of persons, goods, or messages; usually referring to freight transportation on regularly scheduled trucks or airplanes.
Communication Center
Area in a venue for telephone, fax, Internet, telex or teleconferencing facilities.
Commuter Airline
Airline connecting small communities with large airports.
Compensation
1) Payment for a thing of value tendered or a service rendered, usually refers to base salary plus benefits, bonus and/or commission. 2) Something, usually in the form of a monetary payment, that makes up for a loss.
Complete Meeting Package
An all-inclusive plan offered by conference centers; includes lodging, all meals and support services.
Complimentary
Comp. Service, space or item provided at no charge.
Complimentary Ratio
The number of rooms provided at no cost based on the number of occupied rooms.
Complimentary Registration
Waiver of registration fees.
Complimentary Room
A sleeping room or function room provided to an individual or organization at no cost. See COMPLIMENTARY RATIO.
Comprehensive Layout
Artist’s precise rendering of proposed piece showing paper and color selection, size and placement of type, illustrations and photographs.
Computer Card
See REGISTRATION CARD KEY.
Computer Data Projection
The projection of a computer signal from a personal computer, laptop or other computer device onto a screen from a LCD or equivalent projector for viewing by audience.
Computer-Based Training
CBT. Any instructional event that can be accessed by a stand alone computer - usually CD-ROM based.
Computerized Registration
Automated registration records.
Con Carne
With meat, (e.g. 'chili con carne').
Concert Rider
See RIDER.
Concessions
1) Merchandise or refreshments sold on site, to individuals, in conjunction with an event. 2) Contractual agreement where one party provides something of value to the other party in exchange for something else, pending certain conditions.
Concierge
1) Facility staff which provides special services such as tickets to local events, transportation, and tour arrangements. 2) Designated area in facility providing special amenities and services to guests.
Conclave
Gathering of a group with shared or special interests.
Concurrent Sessions
Multiple sessions scheduled at the same time. Programs on different themes or subjects offered simultaneously.
Condensed Type
Narrow or slender type permitting greater number of characters per line.
Conference
1) Participatory meeting designed for discussion, fact-finding, problem solving and consultation. 2) An event used by any organization to meet and exchange views, convey a message, open a debate or give publicity to some area of opinion on a specific issue. No tradition, continuity or periodicity is required to convene a conference. Although not generally limited in time, conferences are usually of short duration with specific objectives. Conferences are generally on a smaller scale than congresses. See CONGRESS. See Also CONVENTION.
Conference Call
Telephone or video connection between three or more persons.
Conference Center
A facility that provides a dedicated environment for events, especially small events. May be certified by the International Association of Conference Centers.
Conference Handbook
A manual which provides information about a conference. Contents would include descriptions of programs, information on participants, agendas, schedules of events, speaker notes, and logistical information.
Conference Officer/Organizer
Title generally conferred upon the chief administrator of the entire event.
Conference Pack/Kit
Generally a comprehensive collection of conference documentation and/or event materials within a bag, binder, envelope or folder. Also called information kit. See REGISTRATION KIT. Also CALLED REGISTRATION PACKET.
Conference Papers
Abstracts of lectures to be presented during a conference compiled in the book of abstracts. See ABSTRACT. See Also CALL FOR PAPERS.
Conference Reminder
An email, bulk fax, or bulk mail broadcast that provides attendees and prospects with the latest news and information about an upcoming event. Such reminders are usually distributed on an opt-in basis. See EMAIL ALERT.
Conference Report
An official summary of conference events.
Conference Service Coordinator
Primary contact person assigned to an event in a convention center.
Conference Set-Up
Seating arrangement in which rectangular or oval tables are set up with chairs placed around all sides. It is often confused with Hollow Square Set-up. The preferred industry term is BOARDROOM SET-UP.
Configuration
1) Arrangement of seats within an aircraft. See PITCH. 2) The layout of tables, chairs and other equipment in a function room. See FLOOR PLAN. 3) Sleeping berth in a day/night compartment on a European train.
Confirmation
Oral or written agreement by a facility to accept a request for accommodation; to be binding the agreement must state the intent of the parties, the particular date, the rate, type of accommodations, and the number to be accommodated; oral agreement may require a credit card number. See CONFIRMED RESERVATION.
Confirmation Letter
Letter to speakers, acknowledging that a commitment has been made between the speaker and the organization, outlining information about the event.
Confirmation Number
Proof of Registration, i.e., a reservation number that will be accepted by the hotel holding the room.
Confirmed Letter of Credit
A letter of credit, issued by a foreign bank, whose validity has been confirmed by an American bank. An exporter whose payment terms are a confirmed letter of credit is assured of payment even if the foreign buyer or the foreign bank defaults. See LETTER OF CREDIT.
Confirmed Reservation
Oral or written agreement by a facility to accept a request for an accommodation; to be binding the agreement must state the intent of the parties, the particular date, the rate, type of accommodations, and the number to be accommodated; oral agreement may require guest credit card number. See CONFIRMATION.
Conflict of Interest Statement
Written document requiring individuals to disclose any conflicts of interest that may be created by their involvement with an organization.
Confrontation
Efforts of a dissident group to obstruct the conduct of an event.
Congress
1) The regular coming together of large groups of individuals, generally to discuss a particular subject. A congress will often last several days and have several simultaneous sessions. The length of time between congresses is usually established in advance of the implementation stage, and can be either pluri-annual or annual. Most international or world congresses are of the former type while national congresses are more frequently held annually. 2) Meeting of an association of delegates or representatives from constituent organizations. 3) European term for convention. See CONFERENCE. See Also CONVENTION.
Congress Auxiliaries
Those persons who work in the congress’ auxiliary services and have been identified by the organizer and the contracted firm (if any) whose names are clearly stated in a previously prepared register.
Congress Card
Admission card confirming a booking and registration to an event. See ADMISSION CARD.
Congress Travel Agent
Travel agent specializing in handling incoming or outgoing event participants and additional travel arrangements including pre- and post-tours.
Connecting Rooms
Two or more guestrooms with private connecting doors permitting access between rooms without having to go into the corridor.
Consecutive Interpretation
Oral translation of several phrases or entire speeches from one language to another. Speaker pauses between phrases to allow for interpretation. See INTERPRETATION, INTERPRETATION IN RELAY, SIMULTANEOUS INTERPRETATION, TRANSLATION, WHISPERED INTERPRETATION, WIRELESS INFRARED INTERPRETING SYSTEM.
Consideration
The inducement to a contract. The cause, motive, price, or impelling influence which induces a contracting party to enter a contract.
Consignee
Recipient. The person, people, or organization to whom something is delivered or addressed. Compare with CONSIGNOR.
Consignment
Delivery of merchandise from a seller (the consignor) to an agent (the consignee) under agreement that the agent sell the merchandise for the account of the seller. The consignor retains title to the goods until the consignee has sold them. The consignee sells the goods for commission and remits the net proceeds to the consignor.
Consignor
A person who sends freight. Compare with CONSIGNEE.
Consolidate
1) Shipping freight to a central depot where several loads bound for the same destination are put together before being shipped to that destination. 2) Merging events, jobs, tasks, etc.
Consortium
A loosely knit group of independently owned and managed companies, e.g. destination management companies (DMCs), tour operators, hotels, etc., with a joint marketing and distribution process.
Construction Drawing
A drawing that gives detailed diagrams and instructions for building an exhibit.
Consular Declaration
A formal statement, made to the consul of a country, describing goods to be shipped.
Consular Invoice
A document, required by some countries, describing a shipment of goods and showing information such as the consignor, consignee, and value of the shipment. Certified by a consular official of the foreign country, it is used by that country’s customs officials to verify the value, quantity, and nature of the shipment.
Consultant
Individual who provides counsel and assistance to a client on specific assignments. For very large projects, a consulting firm may be retained rather than a individual.
Consumer Show
Exhibition that is open to the public, usually requiring an entrance fee. See EXHIBITION. See Also GATE SHOW, PUBLIC SHOW. Compare With TRADE SHOW.
Consummé
(con sue may) Clear soup, served hot or chilled.
Contact Cement
Bonding agent usually used for cementing plastic laminates to wood.
Contact Management System
A software program that matches contacts with prospects.
Container Detention
A charge that is assessed when the container is removed from the carrier’s control but is not returned within the allowable free time. See PIER DEMURRAGE.
Content
The educational component of an event. See CONFERENCE.
Continental Breakfast
Light morning meal consisting of pastries, juices, and hot beverages. Usually served buffet style.
Continental Buffet
Buffet consisting of pastries, juices, and hot beverages.
Continental Plan
A room rate that includes a continental breakfast. See Also AMERICAN PLAN, BERMUDA PLAN, DEMI-PENSION, EUROPEAN PLAN, MODIFIED AMERICAN PLAN.
Continental U.S.
The contiguous 48 states, not including Alaska, Hawaii or any US Territories.
Contingency Plan
An alternative plan that may replace the original plan when circumstances change.
Continuing Education
Structured educational and training experiences for personal or professional development.
Continuing Education Unit
CEU. Requirement of many professional groups by which members must certify participation in formal educational programs designed to maintain their level of ability beyond their original certification date. CEUs are non-academic credit. One CEU is awarded for each 10 contact hours in an accredited program.
Continuity
Smooth flow of action and narration from scene to scene.
Contract
An agreement between two or more parties that creates in each party a duty to do or not do something and a right to performance of the other's duty or a remedy for the breach of the other's duty. See COMMITMENT. See Also LETTER OF AGREEMENT.
Contract Carrier
Trucking company that enters into a specific contract with a shipper to transport goods for an agreed-upon price. Contained within the contract are all the terms and conditions, liability, transit times, etc. The contract carrier is required to secure authorization from the DOT for such operations.
Contracting
A system in which all or part of the product or the work to be done is sublet to contractors.
Contractor
An individual or organization providing services to a trade show and/or its exhibitors. May be Official (appointed by show management) or Independent (appointed by exhibitor). Typically refers to either a general service contractor or specialty contractor. See DECORATOR. See Also A/V CONTRACTOR, DRAYAGE CONTRACTOR, EXCLUSIVE CONTRACTOR, EXHIBITION SERVICE CONTRACTOR, GENERAL SERVICE CONTRACTOR (GSC), IN-HOUSE CONTRACTOR.
Contractor Logistics Services
This is the transportation service division of the general show contractor. They handle/arrange for all modes of transportation (air, motor and van line), but the services are still executed by the traditional motor, van line and air carriers.
Contrast
Difference of intensity of color between light and dark areas of a picture, fabric, etc.
Contributed Paper
Written transcript provided after acceptance of the submitted abstract and usually the basis for a speech or demonstration.
Contributor
One who presents a paper, either verbally or in a visual form (e.g. a poster).
Control Track
Section of video tape which controls the speed of the tape.
Controlled Economy Countries
Countries whose governments strictly regulate the national economy.
Controversy Panel
To stimulate interest and debate, arrange for two or three views of a controversial issue to be presented.
Convener
Member of committee in charge of convening participants.
Convention
An event where the primary activity of the attendees is to attend educational sessions, participate in meetings/discussions, socialize, or attend other organized events. There is a secondary exhibit component. Compare With MEETING, EXHIBITION, TRADE SHOW, CONSUMER SHOW.
Convention and Visitors Bureau
CVB. Convention and visitor bureaus are not-for-profit organizations charged with representing a specific destination and helping the long-term development of communities through a travel and tourism strategy. Convention and visitor bureaus are usually membership organizations bringing together businesses that rely on tourism and events for revenue. For visitors, CVBs are like a key to the city. As an unbiased resource, CVBs can serve as a broker or an official point of contact for convention and event planners, tour operators and visitors. They assist planners with event preparation and encourage business travelers and visitors alike to visit local historic, cultural and recreational sites.
Convention Center
Facility that combines an exhibition space with a substantial number of smaller event spaces. The purpose of these buildings is to host trade shows, public shows, conventions, large food functions and other functions related to the convention industry. They may be purpose built or converted and municipally or privately owned. See EXHIBITION CENTER. See Also FACILITY, HALL.
Convention Rate
Rates assigned for a particular group. This is usually a discounted rate.
Convention Services Manager
CSM. Professional at a hotel, convention center or convention bureau who is responsible for event operations management on all levels.
Convertibility
A currency is usually described as convertible if the holder can exchange it freely for another currency.
Cookie
A file sent to a Web browser by a Web server that is used to record one's activities.
Coordinating Committee
Committee in charge of coordinating the organization of the event.
Coordination Fee
A charge for professional services.
Co-President
One of two or more persons appointed as president on an equal footing with the official president.
Co-Promotion
Joint participation in the costs and profits from an event.
Copy
1) All original material being prepared for reproduction. 2) Reproduction of original material.
Copyfitting
Determining space required and type size for copy to fit allotted space.
Copyright
Federal laws that allow for the ownership of intellectual property (writings, art, music). Copy-written material cannot be used without the owner’s permission or the payment of royalty fees.
Coquilles St. Jacques
(co keel san jock) Scallops prepared in butter; served in a scalloped, shell-shaped ramekin.
Cordial
A liqueur usually served after dinner, e.g. Amaretto, Chambourd, Frangelica, etc., or a shell-shaped ramekin. See LIQUEUR.
Corkage
The charge placed on beer, liquor, and wine brought into the facility but purchased elsewhere. The charge sometimes includes glassware, ice, and mixers.
Corner Booth/Stand
An exhibit space with exposure on at least two aisles. Some organizations charge premiums for corner booths/stands.
Cornucopia
1) Pastry roll shaped like a horn, filled with whipped cream and nuts. 2) A large paper or plastic horn filled with fresh fruits spilling over onto the table. Also called a horn of plenty.
Corporate Exhibit
An institutional exhibit telling the story of the company without intentionally marketing the product or service.
Corporate Meeting
Gathering of employees or representatives of a commercial organization. Usually, attendance is required and travel, room and most meal expenses are paid for by the organization.
Corporate Planner
Meeting planner who works for a corporation.
Corporate Rate
Special rate for sleeping rooms or other goods and services that is made available to business travelers. These rates may vary by corporation, depending on the negotiated agreement.
Corporate Show
An exhibition produced by a corporation where exhibits are limited to products and services of that corporation or its marketing partners; no competitors participate. See EXHIBITION. Compare With TRADE SHOW.
Corporate Travel
The market segment comprised of groups or individuals that work for a given company and are traveling for business reasons at the company’s expense.
COS
Cash on Shipment.
Cost Center
An account (usually a number) to which expenses for a function or activity are charged.
Cost Charge per Square Meter/Foot
Basic charge for a particular unit of measurement.
Cost Control
Process of maintaining levels of expenditure within the budget.
Cost of Goods
The direct costs involved in producing a product or service which usually includes labor and materials.
Cost of Sales
The cost of goods plus the expenses involved in selling and delivering the product or service.
Cost Plus
Basic charges for a service plus the markup or margin to ensure margin and profit for service provider.
Costing
Process of itemizing and calculating all costs the tour operator will pay on a given tour. Usually the function of the operations manager.
Costumer
1) Hat and coat rack. 2) A person or organization that makes, sells, or rents costumes.
Couchette
Sleeping berth in a day/night compartment on a European train.
Council
Group of members responsible for establishing and enforcing the rules and regulations.
Count
1) Total number of individuals in attendance at a function or event for a given period. 2) Total number of exhibitors for a given period.
Counter
A working cabinet for display, demonstration, or registration.
Countermount
Technique for mounting material to rear of panel equal to weight and consistency to face mounted material. This prevents warping.
Countersink
Technique of recessing heads of screws and nails below the surface.
Countervailing Duty
An extra duty imposed by the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury to offset export grants, bounties, or subsidies paid to foreign suppliers in certain countries by the governments of those countries as an incentive to exports.
Country of Origin
Denotes country of parental nationality.
Coupon
Ticket which travelers exchange for prepaid services such as accommodations, meals and tours. SEE VOUCHER.
Courier
European term for a travel professional who supervises arrival details and escorts tours.
Cover
1) Table setting for one person. 2) Actual number of meals, or servings, served at a food function. 3) Dome placed over a plate, used to keep food warm/cold and measure the number of meals served at a food function.
Cover Charge
A fee, usually a flat amount per person, charged to patrons to cover the cost of music and entertainment.
Cover Plate
A protective, removable panel used with self-contained exhibits in transit.
Cover Stock
Heavy-weight paper used for covers of brochures.
Covered Area
Any area that covers an exhibit space and prevents the building fire sprinkler from discharging water unobstructed to the floor. This includes single story exhibits with ceilings, upper deck exhibits, roofs, overhead lighting installations and any material hanging or installed overhead that is not recognized as acceptable under fire sprinkler systems fire codes.
Covers
Actual number of meals served at a catered meal function or in a restaurant. See AUDIENCE COUNT. See Also HEAD COUNT.
CPAE
Council of Peers Award for Excellence; inductee into the CPAE Speaker Hall of Fame.
CPCE
Certified Professional Catering Executive. A certification program offered by the National Association of Catering Executives (NACE).
CR
Carrier's Risk.
Craft Union
A labor organization, the membership in which is restricted to individuals possessing or working at a specific skill or trade (e.g. diemaking, carpentry, or plumbing).
Crafting List
Names the content of what is enclosed inside a crate (e.g. exhibit pieces, carpet, etc.).
Craftsperson
A skilled individual who provides actual services on the show floor. Usually a unionized worker.
Crate
Wooden box for packing and shipping exhibits.
Crated Exhibit
An exhibit that is transported from event to event in crates (small to huge wooden boxes). Crates make handling the exhibit easier, and minimize damage during material handling. In most cases, individual pieces are jigged in place within the crates.
Crating List
Names the contents of what is enclosed inside a crate (e.g. exhibit pieces, carpet, etc.).
Crawl
Text moving horizontally across the bottom of a video screen.
Credentials Committee
Committee formed to verify that individuals have the necessary qualifications to attend a meeting or become a member of an association.
Credit
1) An item entered on creditor side of an account (opposite of “debit”). 2) To add one sum to another.
Credit Card Badge
A lead retrieval method using embossed plastic cards similar to credit cards.
Credit Risk Insurance
Insurance designed to cover risks of nonpayment for delivered goods.
Credits
Names of persons who either created or performed in a program.
Crème Brûlée
Pudding of cornstarch, eggs, milk, sugar and whipped cream served in a ramekin.
Crêpe
(crayp) Very thin pancake, used to roll up anything from meat to dessert.
Crescent-Round Set-Up
Uses 60-, 66- or 72-inch (152-, 168- and 183-centimeter) diameter rounds with seating on two thirds to three quarters of the table and no seating with its back to the speaker. Used for banquet-to-meeting or meeting-to-banquet quick set. See BUZZ SET-UP. See Also HALF SET-UP.
Crew
Stagehands, technicians, truck loaders, etc.; responsible for the technical set-up of an event.
Croissant
(kwa sant) Crescent shaped French bread that is very tender, due to a lot of butter.
Crop
To use less than the full frame area of a photograph or less than the full area of art work.
Crop Mark
Indication on original art or photo defining area that is to be reproduced.
Crosby
A clamp connector used with cables.
Cross Aisle
An aisle at a right angle, or perpendicular, to a main aisle.
Cross Bar
Rod used in draping or as a support brace.
Cross Dissolve
Gradual changing of one picture or sound or color to another.
Cross Face
Smooth change from one color or image to another.
Cross Fade
Change from one scene to another in which visual images are blended together and one image fades out as another fades in. See DISSOLVE.
Crosstalk
Undesired sound from radio devices infringing upon the sound system, typically heard as bleed-over between left and right stereo speakers, or as leakage of high-frequency sound between busses or circuits in audio mixers, microphone cable snakes and multiple circuit audio signal wiring.
Cru
Raw, uncooked.
Crudités
1) Pieces of raw vegetables served as hor d’oeuvres, often with dip. 2) Raw vegetable salad, usually julienne cut.
Crumber
An implement used to clean the crumbs from in front of the guest between dinner and dessert.
CSEP
Certified Special Event Professional; an earned designation from the International Special Events Society (ISES).
CSM
Convention Services Manager. Professional at a hotel, convention center or convention bureau who is responsible for event operations management on all levels.
CSP
Certified Speaking Professional; an earned designation from the National Speakers Association (NSA).
CTC
Certified Travel Counselor.
CTLO
Constructive Total Loss Only.
CTP
Certified Travel Professional.
CTSM
Certified Trade Show Marketer.
Cube
Area occupied by an exhibit within a trailer, determined by multiplying the exhibit’s length, times width, times height.
Cube Taps
Three way plugs for combining electrical cords. (Note: cube taps are illegal by fire code in some facilities.)
Cubic Content
The use of exhibit properties in the airspace over the entire leased area above a height of eight feet or more.
Cue
Visual or aural signal to elicit response or action.
Cue Card
Off-stage card that displays script to performers on stage in order to prompt lines. See CAMERA CARD. See Also IDIOT CARD.
Cue Channel
Portion of the audio signal-carrying channels in a system that is used to allow musicians to hear other performers or portion of the ensemble sound in order to match pitch or tempo.
Cueing
1) Assigning cue numbers to various elements of a production. 2) Setting audio tape or video film at a specific point.
Cultural Services
A service concerned with organizing activities which are mainly related to the artistic and intellectual side of civilization.
Currant
Small piquant berry used for jellies, or dried and used like raisins.
Current Assets
Assets that can be converted quickly to cash. e.g. marketable securities, notes, inventories, account receivables.
Current Liabilities
All debts incurred in the normal day-to-day business and due within one calendar year.
Curriculum Vita
A document similar to a resume and is often referred to as a “vita.” It highlights a speaker’s education and key jobs held. A speaker in the academic community usually uses a curriculum vita.
Custom Exhibit
An exhibit which is unique to the specific requirements of the user.
Custom Fabricated Exhibit
An exhibit that is individually designed and built with a wide range of materials.
Custom House
An individual or firm licensed to enter and clear goods through customs.
Custom Menu
Menu specifically created for a client.
Customized Tour
A TOUR designed to fit the specific needs of a particular target audience.
Customs
1) The governmental authorities designated to collect duties levied by a country on imports and exports. The term also applies to the procedures involved in such collection. 2) Practices common to many of a particular group.
Customs Broker
An individual or company which provides customs clearing services to shippers of goods to and from another country. Licensing and requirements vary from country to country. In the United States, a customs broker must be licensed by the Treasury Department and pass a government examination covering a broad range of knowledge, including all phases of import regulations, rates of duties, and customs law.
Customs Cooperation Council, Nomenclature of
See BRUSSELS TARIFF NOMENCLATURE.
Cut
1) Instantaneous change from one scene to another without a fade-in or fade-out. 2) Signal to interrupt or cancel.
Cut & Lay
Installation of carpet other than normal booth/stand or aisle size.
Cut Out
Profile cut display item (e.g. letters, photos, etc.).
Cut Rate
Cost per hundred weight.
Cutline
Text identifying a photograph; caption.
Cut-Off Date
Designated date when the facility will release a block of sleeping rooms to the general public. The date is typically three to four weeks before the event. See RESERVATION REVIEW DATE.
Cut-Off Time
Hour when a non-guaranteed reservation must be filled or it may be cancelled.
Cut-Off Time
A specific point in time at which the exhibition contractor will cease (for the day) all unloading or loading activities. In transportation environment this refers to the specific time a shipment must be tendered to a carrier in order to receive service that day. For example, a flight that departs at 10:00 p.m. may have a cargo cut-off time of 7:00 p.m.
Cutting Sheet
Drawings made by carpentry shops, detailing size and shape of raw material to be cut. See TEMPLATE.
CVA
Convention & Visitors Authority. See also CONVENTION AND VISITORS BUREAU.
CVB
Convention and Visitors Bureau. Convention and visitor bureaus are not-for-profit organizations charged with representing a specific destination and helping the long-term development of communities through a travel and tourism strategy. Convention and visitor bureaus are usually membership organizations bringing together businesses that rely on tourism and events for revenue. For visitors, CVBs are like a key to the city. As an unbiased resource, CVBs can serve as a broker or an official point of contact for convention and event planners, tour operators and visitors. They assist planners with event preparation and encourage business travelers and visitors alike to visit local historic, cultural and recreational sites.
CWT
Abbreviation for "hundred weight." This is the unit of measure used in drayage and freight shipments.
CYC
See CYCLORAMA.
Cycles
The amount of "movement" in electrical current. International standard is 50 cycles; in U.S., 60 cycles.
Cyclorama
1) Platforms of varying heights used together to create a stage, such as the rows of steps a choral group would use during a performance. See DAIS. See Also RISER, PODIUM. 2) Stage background scene giving illusion or depth. Also called CYC.
D/B/A
Doing Business As
DA
Distribution Amplifier. Amplifier which increases the amplitude of a signal in a line in order to distribute it to multiple points of use.
Daily Newsletter
Daily information sheet for participants during event. See SHOW DAILY.
Dais
Raised platform usually above the floor of a hall or large room. See PODIUM. See Also RISER.
Damage Clause
Part of a contract dealing with procedures, penalties, and rights of the party causing damages.
Damask
Woven silk or linen fabric used for napery (napkins and tablecloths).
Dance Floor
Area for dancing, can be carpeted when not used for dancing. Portable dance floors come in 3 foot x 3 foot sections.
Dark
A day on which a facility or hall has no events or performances booked. Monday is the traditional dark day for theaters.
DAT
Digital Audio Tape
Data Projection
See COMPUTER DATA PROJECTION.
Data Projector
A self-contained unit with a LCD panel, light source and lens that works with both PC and Mac computers and duplicates the image being shown on the monitor without any need for special software or complex setting up. See LCD PROJECTOR.
Database
A collection of all information on all prospects (attendees and exhibitors).
Date Draft
A draft document, such as a contract, which matures a specified number of days after the date it is issued, without regard to the date of acceptance.
Date Protection
A guarantee that the dates an event organizer has selected for an event in a specific facility are reserved for that organizer.
Day Glo
Trademarked name for iridescent paints or inks that glow.
Dead Areas
Areas where sound is muted or absent.
Dead End Flight
Last leg of a flight.
Dead Time
Time during which an employee is unable to work due to factors beyond his or her control and for which he is paid.
Debate
A discussion which takes place within a meeting, a public or private sitting or in one of the various types of assembly or meeting.
Debt Service
Regular payments required to keep a loan current.
Declared Value
Shipper's stated value of entire shipment in terms of dollars.
Décor
Props, lighting, and other elements used to create a theme or ambiance. Décor is used to enhance an event with elements including but not limited to carpet, pipe and drape, stage props, customized lighting, linens, tablescapes, skirting, ceiling treatments, stage sets, projection images, special effects or sound effects.
Decorating
Dressing up an area with carpet, draping, plants, etc.
Decorator
An individual or company providing installation & dismantle and booth/stand and hall dressing services for a trade show and/or its exhibitors. Decorator services may be provided by carpenters, sign painters or others depending upon union jurisdiction. Term applies to both contractor and skilled craftsperson.
Deferred Air Freight
Long haul air freight that waits for available cargo space (usually 1 to 2 days) at a reduced rate.
Deferred Airfreight/Deferred Service
Airfreight that can wait for available cargo space because of low delivery priority. Usually a three- to five-day service that moves at a reduced cost.
Deferred Rebate
A deferred rebate is the return of a portion of the freight charges by a carrier to a shipper, in exchange for the shipper giving all or most of his shipments to the carrier over a specified period of time (usually 6 months). Payment of the rebate is deferred for a further similar period during which the shipper must continue to give all or most of his shipments to the rebating carrier. The shipper thus earns a further rebate which will not, however, be paid without an additional period of exclusive or almost exclusive patronage with the carrier. In this way, the shipper becomes tied to the rebating carrier.
Definite Booking
Space reservations confirmed in writing.
Delegate
1) Person who attends an event primarily to visit exhibits or attend meetings and/or conference sessions. This excludes exhibitors, media, speakers, and companions. 2) Registered meeting participant. 3) Voting representative at a meeting.
Delegate Card
Admission card confirming a booking and registration.
Demi
Half.
Demi Tasse
Small cup of coffee, used for espresso.
Demi-Pension
A rate inclusive of breakfast and dinner, in addition to the room. In the U.S. and Canada it is called MODIFIED AMERICAN PLAN (MAP), which means breakfast and one other meal (usually dinner). See Also AMERICAN PLAN, BERMUDA PLAN, CONTINENTAL PLAN, EUROPEAN PLAN.
Demographics
Characteristics that help create a profile of exhibitors and attendees. May include company location, job function, purchase budget, purchase intentions.
Demonstration
1) The act of showing how to do something. 2) A group of individuals organized to picket or protest against a group using placards, literature, songs, shouts and, sometimes, marches or sit-ins.
Demonstrator
Person hired to work in a booth/stand demonstrating or explaining products.
Denied Boarding Compensation
Refund of airfare or payment to passenger when airline fails to honor a confirmed reservation within two hours of scheduled departure.
Density
Pounds per cubic foot, determined by mathematical formula where the weight of an article or shipment is divided by the cubic feet it occupies.
Departure Date
Date when majority of event participants check out of a facility.
Departure Tax
Fee collected from traveler by host country at time of departure.
Deposit
An advanced partial payment to secure product or service.
Depreciation
The gradual erosion of the usability and value (possibly due to obsolescence) of an organization's fixed assets. In some cases depreciation can be declared as a tax deduction.
Design
Artist’s concept or visualization of how a printed piece should look.
Desktop Publishing
Using a personal computer to prepare materials for printing.
Desktop Videoconferencing
DVD. Videoconferencing on a personal computer.
Destination
A city, area or country which can be marketed to groups or individuals as a place to visit or hold an event.
Destination City
A city which in and of itself is an attraction, e.g. Orlando or San Francisco.
Destination Control Statement
Any of various statements which the U.S. Government requires to be displayed on export shipments and which specify the destinations for which the shipment has been authorized. Also Called ANTIDIVERSION CLAUSE.
Destination Management Company
DMC. A professional services company possessing extensive local knowledge, expertise and resources, specializing in the design and implementation of events, activities, tours, transportation and program logistics. Depending on the company and the staff specialists in the company, they offer, but are not limited to, the following: creative proposals for special events within the meeting; guest tours; VIP amenities and transportation; shuttle services; staffing within convention centers and hotels; teambuilding, golf outings and other activities; entertainment, including sound and lighting; décor and theme development; ancillary meetings and management professionals; and, advance meetings and onsite registration services and housing.
Destination Manager
Local on-site coordinator.
Detail Drawing
Drawing showing method of construction, plan views, elevations, floor ports, drains, etc.
Dialogue
Discussion of ideas and opinions.
Die Cut
Method of producing repetitive cutout shapes in quantity.
Diffuser
An open grid or a solid translucent plastic to soften or conceal light sources.
Digital Subscriber Line
DSL. Provides high-speed access to the Internet via telephone lines. DSL service requires a DSL modem.
Digital Video
Capture, manipulation and storage of video in digital format on a computer. Can be displayed on a computer as part of a graphic presentation.
Dimensional Weight
Generally refers to air-freight and van line shipments. Invoices are calculated with two weights, actual and dimensional. The dimensional weight is based upon the volume of the shipment. The billing weight is the larger of the two.
Dimmer
A device to control light intensity. See RHEOSTAT.
Dimmer Board
A combination of switches, dimmer plates and fuses for controlling light. See SWITCHBOARD.
Dine Around
Use of a number of restaurants in a destination with reservations and billing arrangements to one particular client.
Dinner
Evening meal for a group; not usually ceremonial.
Direct Billing
Accounts receivable made available to individuals or firms with established credit.
Direct Flight
Flight between two points on the same aircraft. There may be stops, but no plane changes.
Direct Lighting
The aiming of a fixture directly at the object/area to be illuminated.
Direct Mail
A marketing technique in which material is mailed directly to individuals in a target audience.
Direct Sales Method
Selling direct to the end user with promotional efforts using advertising, direct mail or telephone sales.
Direct Spending
All expenditures associated with an event that flow into the host destination’s local economy. Direct spending includes attendee spending, exhibitor spending and event organizer spending. See Also ECONOMIC IMPACT, INDIRECT SPENDING, & INDUCED SPENDING.
Directional Signs
Signs directing attendees to an exhibit, event or special area.
Directory
1) The printed document passed out to event attendees that includes a list of conference sessions, exhibitor descriptions, a floor plan and other information. 2) An alphabetized list of members with contact information.
Disability
A physical or mental impairment that limits normal life functions.
Discussion Form
Paper containing an application to put a question during a conference session to a particular speaker on a specific subject; usually submitted in advance of the session.
Discussion Group
1) A group of participants in a separate debate within some types of meetings. Similar to a working group but with no expectation of reports or papers. 2) A threaded bulletin board where participants can post messages under the heading of a particular topic and responses are grouped by topic or thread. Groups are asynchronous, not occurring in real-time.
Discussion Leader
Person who introduces topic of discussion and controls the discussion in the group. Moderator.
Dishonored Reservation
If a hotel accepts a reservation but can't provide a room, the hotel has breached the contract and the injured guest is owed damages. The usual term is for the guest to be compensated for the first night to stay at the second hotel and usually reimbursement for transportation between the hotel and the second hotel. See HOTEL RESERVATION.
Dismantle
1) Take-down and removal of exhibits. 2) To take apart.
Dismantling Deadline
The time and day by which booths/stands have to be dismantled and removed from an exhibition area.
Dispatcher
Person responsible for scheduling and routing freight, labor, shuttle busses, etc.
Display
An arrangement of products or informational material.
Display Builder
Company or person that fabricates displays.
Display Case
See SHOWCASE.
Display Material
The material exhibited by the various exhibitors. Such material is usually insured or has its value stated in writing for insurance purposes.
Display Place
Exhibit booth/stand.
Display Rules & Regulations
A set of specifications for exhibit construction endorsed by all major exhibit industry associations. Also refers to the individual additional rules which may be adopted by event management.
Dispute
A conflict or difference of opinion between an employer and a union or between an employer and employees over some phase of their relationship. Usually refers to a serious controversy that threatens or causes a work stoppage or that is submitted to an arbitrator or government agency for settlement.
Dissolve
See CROSS FADE.
Dissolve Unit
Device that activates fade-out and fade-in of slides from one projector to another.
Distance Learning
A type of education where students work on their own at home or from an office, and communicate with faculty and other students via email, electronic forums, chat, webconferencing and other forms of online communication. Includes correspondence courses, audio, video and internet delivery. Meeting and event Web sites can facilitate distance learning by offering online educational programs.
Distribution Channel
The path a product follows to be delivered to the end user. This may be through distributors, retail outlets, self service outlets, vending machines, telephone sales, direct mail sales, etc.
Distributor
An enterprise that purchases products for resale to their customers who are usually retail outlets. The distributor expects to receive a significant price discount for providing the distribution service.
Distributor Show
An exhibition produced by a distributor at which exhibitors are the manufacturers of products sold by the distributor and attendees are the distributor's customers. See EXHIBITION. See Also TRADE SHOW.
Divider
Movable barrier that partitions a large area into smaller areas. May be sound resistant, but not necessarily sound proof. See AIR WALL. See Also MOVABLE WALL, PARTITION.
DMC
Destination Management Company. See Also DESTINATION MANAGEMENT COMPANY.
DMC Consortium
National and/or international alliances of destination management companies who form select communities for the purpose of sharing collective efforts for business sharing, education, ethics and destination management industry monitoring.
DMCP
Destination Management Certified Professional. An accreditation offered by the Association of Destination Management Executives (ADME).
Docent
Tour guide in a museum, educational facility or art gallery.
Dock
A place where freight is loaded onto, and taken from, vessels or vehicles.
Dock Receipt
A receipt issued by an ocean carrier to acknowledge receipt of a shipment at the carrier's dock or warehouse facilities. When delivery of a foreign shipment is completed, the dock receipt is surrendered to the vessel operator or his agent and serves as the basis for the preparation of the OCEAN BILL OF LADING. See WAREHOUSE RECEIPT.
Dock Usage
Instructions on the allotment of a loading dock’s space and time required for loading and unloading of trucks for an event. This information should be included in the specifications guide for an event.
Document Sharing
A feature of many videoconference systems that allows participants at each conference site to view and edit the same document.
Dog Bone
A 1’ five wire cord that is used to help transfer high voltage power to 120 volt power on the BCP.
Dog House
An electrical outlet that will accommodate 6 plugs. See SEX (SIX) BOX.
Dolly
Any of several kinds of low, flat, wheeled frames for transporting heavy objects.
Dolma
Stuffed grape leaves.
Domestic Beer/Wine
Beer or wine produced in the country where it is served.
Donation
Sum of money or item of value received as a gift or contribution.
Donkey Dick
A metal pole placed on the front of a forklift for carrying rolls of carpet.
DOS
Director of Sales.
DOT
Department of Transportation. In the United States, on the national level, the Federal Department of Transportation is a government agency responsible for safety, interstate highways and interstate commerce matters.
DOT
Department of Transportation.
Double
A guestroom assigned to two people.
Double Bed
Bed measuring 53-by-75 inches (135-by-191 centimeters).
Double Booking
1) Reserving space for two groups to use the same space at the same time and neither can be fully accommodated as contracted. 2) An organization reserving space in more than one venue for the same event. 3) Two or more reservations made for the same traveler for the same dates. Can be canceled by the airlines if discovered as they consider this a violation of their ticketing rules.
Double Cloth
Use of two tablecloths on a banquet table for decorative purposes, to muffle sound, or to attach skirting to. Usually two different colors are used. See OVERLAY.
Double Decker
Two-storied exhibit. See MULTI-STORY EXHIBIT.
Double Lock
Two locks, one a dead bolt, on a door for extra security.
Double Room
A sleeping room occupied by two persons. The room may have one or more beds of any type in it. The symbol used by APEX to denote it is:
Double Room Rate
The price per person for a sleeping room to be shared with another person.
Double Width
Two tables placed together, allowing extra room in a BOARDROOM SET-UP.
Double-Double Room
A sleeping room with two beds that is occupied by two persons. The symbol used by APEX to denote it is:
Double-Faced Panel
A panel of wood or other material that is finished, or not rough, on both sides.
Double-Faced Tape
Tape used to adhere carpet to floor, signs, or panels.
Doubletime
Premium pay, which is double the base rate of hourly wage.
Doubling
Playing, by musicians, of more than one instrument during an engagement.
Downgrade
To move to a lesser accommodation or class of service.
Downlighting
The use of lighting instruments to light down onto objects below.
Downline Space
On a multi-leg itinerary, the flights following first flight.
Downlink
The station which receives data transmissions from a communications satellite.
Download
Transfer a file from a host computer to your computer.
Downstage
Front of the stage, closest to the audience.
Draft
Bill of Exchange. An unconditional order in writing from one person (the drawer) to another (the drawee), directing the drawee to pay a specified amount to a named payee at a fixed or determinable future date.
Drain Line
Pipe that drains water. Usually used on the exhibit floor for displays that require water.
Dram Shop Laws
In the United States, a legal term for laws covering the liability of people serving alcoholic beverages. Under dram shop laws, a party injured by an intoxicated person can sue establishments contributing to that person’s intoxication. Many dram shop laws also cover serving alcohol to a minor.
Draped Booth/Stand
A booth/stand made up of back wall and sidewall of pipe and drape (typically provided by management).
Draper
Person who installs drapes, pleats, and special decor.
Drapery
Decoratively arranged tablecloths or skirting on the front of head tables and around reception and buffet tables.
Drapes
Decorative material, usually hung on pipe frames to partition an area, adorn a room, or provide privacy.
Draping
Decorating with drapes.
Drawback
A refund of duties paid on imported goods that is provided at the time of their re-exportation.
Drayage
Delivery of exhibit materials from the dock to an assigned exhibit space, removing empty crates, returning crates at the end of the event for recrating, and delivering materials back to dock for carrier loading.
Drayage Charge
The cost of moving exhibit materials within the confines of the exhibit hall, based on weight. This charge is calculated in 100-pound units, or hundredweight, abbreviated cwt. (There is usually a minimum charge for all drayage.)
Drayage Contractor
Company responsible for handling exhibit materials.
Drayage Form
Form for exhibitor requesting handling of materials.
Drayer
Official event handler designated to move exhibits from truck to dock to booth space. Usually handled by general service contractor.
Dress
1) Clothing worn by talent. 2) Dress rehearsal; final camera rehearsal. 3) Set dressing; necessary set properties. 4) To neatly arrange cables lying on the floor.
Dress Casual
Collared shirts, sweaters, turtlenecks, blazers and slacks, such as khakis or corduroys for men; casual dresses or slacks, sweaters and blouses for women. No shorts, jeans, t-shirts, flip flops, etc. See FRIDAY CASUAL.
Dress Code
Required or suggested acceptable manner or style of dress for an occasion or event.
Dressed Lumber
Term referring to lumber that has been sanded or smoothed down to less than its rough dimensions.
Dressing
1) Sauce for salads; stuffing in poultry. 2) Decor, costumes.
Dressing the Exhibit
Placing graphics, plants, literature and applying any finishing touches to the display.
Drive-In Instructions
Directions informing a venue or facility of the number of event participants expected to travel by automobile an event, in order to ensure adequate parking and bell staffing. This information should be included in the specifications guide for an event.
Driver
Another name for loudspeaker; the word “driver” is used by non-engineers to designate a compression driver like those used to drive horns for acoustic amplification and directional control of sound.
Drop
Large, painted piece of material used for stage background.
Drop Slot
Opening in countertop to receive cards.
Drop Time
The time at which passengers have been dropped off and vehicle service ends.
Drop-Off Food
Self-service hot and/or cold foods are prepared at one location and then delivered to the event site at a different location.
Dropout
Momentary loss of recorded audio or video signal during playback, due to imperfections in the tape.
Dry
Audio signal or sound without reverberation. An audio signal or sound with reverb is called “wet.”
Dry Lease
Rental of a plane without crew, supplies, fuel, and maintenance service.
Dry Run
Rehearsal or trial run-through of program.
Dry Snacks
Finger foods, such as peanuts, pretzels, potato chips, and corn chips, usually served at receptions.
DSL
Digital subscriber line. Brings high bandwidth via copper phone lines.
DSM
District Sales Manager.
DT Labor
Work performed on overtime and charged at twice the published rate.
du Jour
Of the day, e.g. soup du jour or vegetable du jour.
Dual Podiums
Placing two identical podiums at stage right and stage left, so that they can be used with multiple speakers or presenters. See PODIUM. See Also LECTERN.
Dual Projection
The projection of two images at a time using two separate projectors and two screens.
Dual Set-Up
Arrangement of duplicate set-ups in two or more different locations.
Dualing Menus
Split (dual) entrées, e.g. Surf & Turf.
Dub
1) To transfer recorded sound from one unit to another. 2) Copy of a recording or Tape.
Duchess Potatoes
Potatoes mashed with eggs and squeezed through a pastry tube. Can be served as a side dish, or used to pipe decoration around a serving platter.
Duct Tape
Tape used to adhere carpet edges to floor or to cover wires and cables on a carpet. See CARPET TAPE. See Also GAFFER'S TAPE.
Dummy
Mock-up of printed pieces as they should appear in the final form, made up of the correct size and number of pages, showing the position of the various text elements and illustrations.
Dump
See BONEYARD.
Duo
Two performers or musicians.
Duoserve Property
A hotel property in which logistics are handled by the convention services manager (CSM), with catering handled by a separate manager.
Duotone
Photograph prepared for two-color reproduction.
Dupe
Duplicate. Copy of film or tape which has been printed from the original copy.
Duplex Outlet
Double electrical outlet.
Duty
1) Fee levied on imported and exported goods. Duties are generally based on the value of the goods (ad valorem duties), some other factors such as weight or quantity (specific duties), or a combination of value and other factors (compound duties). 2) Actions required by one's occupation. See AD VALOREM TAX.
Duty Roster
List outlining hourly schedules and responsibilities of all event staff members.
Duty-Free Imports
Item amounts and categories specified by a government that are free of tax or duty charges when brought into the country.
Duvetyne
A woven fabric with a nap, similar to Commando Cloth, but lighter and with a finer nap. A substitute for velour, most often used for masking drapes. Often misspelled as duvatyne, duventyne, and duvetine.
DVC
Desktop videoconferencing.
DVD
Digital Video Disk - holds more data than a CD Disk.
Dye Transfer
Technique of producing full color, accurate color prints.
Dynamic Range
Difference, in decibels, between the loudest and the quietest passages in a musical or audio program. Also, the difference between the maximum signal level that can be produced under nominal operating distortion levels by an electronic circuit, and that circuit’s obnoxious noise level (called the “noise floor”).
E&O Insurance
Errors and Omissions Insurance. See ERRORS AND OMISSIONS INSURANCE.
E&OK
Errors and Omissions Excepted.
EAC
Exhibitor-Appointed Carrier. See EXHIBITOR-APPOINTED CARRIER.
EAC
Exhibitor Appointed Contractor. Any company other than the designated "official" contractor providing a service to an exhibitor.
EAON
Except As Otherwise Noted.
Early Arrival
1) To reach your destination before the appointed date or time. 2) When a hotel guest with a confirmed reservation requests to check in to his/her room prior to the scheduled date and/or check-in time. 3) Arrival prior to arrival of the majority of the group.
Early Registration
Registration received before a pre-definite date, usually offering a lower fee.
Early-Out
A guest who checks out of a housing facility (hotel, motel, etc.) one or more days earlier than his or her scheduled departure date. Also Called UNDER-STAY, UNEXPECTED DEPARTURE. Compare With OVERSTAY.
Easel
Three-or four-legged stand with a rack used to display cork board, magnetic board, posters, signs, charts, or other objects.
EBITDA
Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization. A measure of an enterprise’s net income.
EC
European Community.
ECB
Event-Contracted Block. See also EVENT-CONTRACTED BLOCK.
Echo
Any or all audibly discrete delayed sound images. In contrast, reverberation produces a wash of sound, with no discrete echoes.
Echo Buss
Typically, a dedicated audio channel within an audio mixing console, through which a signal intended to be sent or received to or from an echo or reverberation device (e.g. an echo chamber) is routed.
Éclair
(ee clare) Oblong puff pastry filled with custard or whipped cream and topped with chocolate.
e-Commerce
1) Electronic commerce. 2) Buying and selling products and services while online over the internet.
Economic Impact (Total)
The total value of an event. Events generate secondary spending (indirect and induced) on the host destination’s local economy over and above the original direct spending. These secondary impacts, when combined with the original direct spending, result in the total economic impact of an event. See Also DIRECT SPENDING, INDIRECT SPENDING, & INDUCED SPENDING.
Economic Multiplier
Total economic impact divided by direct spending. See Also ECONOMIC IMPACT, DIRECT SPENDING.
ECU
European Currency Unit. Currency unit of the European Community.
EDAC
Exhibit Display Association of Canada.
EDC
Exhibitor Designated Contractor. See EAC.
Edge Light
Technique of illuminating engraved lines in glass or plastic by transmitting light through edge of material.
Editing
Correcting and/or improving final copy before typesetting.
EDPA
Exhibit Designers and Producers Association. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
Educational Conference Center
Facility that is affiliated with a campus or university.
Educational Meeting
An event held for the purpose of teaching information.
Educational Program
Substantive instructional content at an event.
Educational Session
Time period during which information or instruction is presented.
Educational Visit
Tour of place or location by a group of individuals with a common interest in the subject matter visited ( i.e., work place or manufacturing plant). See STUDY MISSION.
EE
Errors Excepted.
Effects
Effects devices can be broadly classified as anything that changes the sound of signals passing through them.
Effects Projector
Device combining theatrical projector with variable throw, and rotating decorated lens; used to project ripples, waves, clouds, etc.
Efficiency
1) Sleeping room at a housing facility with food preparation amenities. 2) The ratio of input and output usually expressed in a percent. For example, a loudspeaker, which produces 8 acoustic watts when fed 100 electrical watts, is 8% efficient.
EFX
Special Effects.
Egg Foo Yung
Chinese pancake which includes eggs, bean sprouts, subgum (mushrooms) and often either pork, shrimp or chicken.
Eggcrate
Construction technique of joining two materials by notching both and inserting slots into each other.
Eggplant
A member of the nightshade family, related to the potato and tomato, actually a berry. There are many varieties and colors from dark purple to white, and range from 2 to 12 inches and from oblong to round. The most common in the U.S. is the large, pear-shape variety with a smooth, glossy, dark purple skin. Japanese or Asian eggplants are very narrow and range in color from solid purple to striated shade. Italian or baby eggplant looks like a miniature version of the common large variety, is more delicate skin and flesh.
Eggs Benedict
Poached eggs on an English muffin, with Canadian bacon (or ham) and hollandaise sauce. This item holds well in hot boxes.
e-Key
Key used to prevent a guest from entering his/her room.
e-Learning
The use of an electronically based network or Internet technology to design, deliver, select and extend learning. Included in this category are TV and satellite broadcasts, Internet delivered video-on-demand, audio-on demand, and any other computer-based form of learning and training.
Electric Eye
A device that creates a light beam, the interruption of which will activate a relay switch for control of a desired animation.
Electric Pointer
Laser device which a speaker uses to cast an illuminated spot on the wall, blackboard, screen, etc., to draw attention to a particular feature.
Electrical Contractor
Person or company contracted by event management to provide electrical services to exhibitors.
Electrician
A technician trained in the installation, operation and dismantling of all electrical equipment.
Electronic Blackboard
System for sending handwriting, and hand-drawn graphics, over a telephone line. The sender may use either a light pen or a digitizing tablet, and the appropriate image will appear on a television monitor at the remote location.
Electronic Crossover
See ACTIVE CROSSOVER.
Electronic Editing
Process by which program elements are inserted and assembled on medium without physically altering the medium, e.g. video tape, CD Roms.
Electronic Payment
Payment by means of electronic funds transfer, e.g. using a credit card at a point-of-sale terminal.
Electronic Pour
System of dispensing exact amounts of liquor per drink.
Electronic Whiteboard
A system of controlling multimedia presentations by displaying computer generated images onto a white board. The board copies all information written or taped onto it, and saves, publishes or prints out the notes.
Elevated Table
Table raised to counter height. See TUXEDO TABLE. See Also COCKTAIL TABLE.
Elevation
1) Height. 2) Front and side views of a scaled drawing.
Ellipsoidal Spotlight
Type of adjustable spotlight formerly known as a klieg light. It is used to light lecterns, signs and areas that need a tightly focused pool of light. See LEKO. See Also LECTERN.
Email Alert
See CONFERENCE REMINDER.
Email Newsletter
A newsletter distributed to a subscriber list via email. Often referred to as “opt-in” or permission marketing because subscribers choose to receive the information.
Embedding
Technique of capturing object in Lucite or other materials.
Embedment
Casting in plastic. Can be done with photos and translites, or transparencies.
Embossing
Impressing letters or artwork in relief. Blind embossing is an inkless impression on blank paper.
Emcee
The master of ceremonies at a banquet or similar event. Sometimes spelled MC.
Emergency Action Plan
Procedures about how to react and respond to an emergency situation, such as medical emergencies, fire and bomb threats.
Emergency Exit
Door, clear of obstructions, designed for egress in the event of fire or panic.
Emergency Medical Plan
A formalized plan of action for handling on-site emergencies from basic first aid to fire or serious injury.
Emotional Factors
Emotions brought to class by adult learners that may help or hinder their learning.
Employer's Association
Organization of employers who band together mainly to deal with labor unions as a unified group.
Empty Sticker
The tag indicating a crate may be moved into storage. The sticker identifies the exhibitor and the return location for the crate.
en Brochette
Broiled and served on a skewer. See À LA BROCHE. See Also SHISH KEBOB.
en Casserole
Food served in the same dish in which it was baked.
en Coquille
Cooked and served in shell or shell-shaped ramekin.
en Croûte
Baked in a flaky crust (e.g. Beef Wellington).
Encryption
The translation of data into code. One of the most effective ways to achieve data security.
End Cap
An exhibit space with aisles on three sides. See PENINSULA.
Endorsement
1) To give approval or agreement to a certain subject matter or event. 2) To inscribe, as a signature or notation, on a document. 3) A provision added to an insurance policy that alters or explains its coverage. 4) The authority to reissue a ticket for travel on airlines other than the issuing carrier (the carrier on which the ticket was originally written).
Energy Break
Refreshment break where nutritious foods and beverages are served, occasionally including some form of exercise. See BREAK.
Engagement
Used as a noun to describe a set booking or date when a buyer has secured the services of, or employed, a speaker.
Engineering
Department in a facility (hotel, convention center, etc.) responsible for operating and maintaining a building’s services systems, such as climate control, electrical, and water.
English Breakfast
A large, hearty breakfast that can include juice, hot cereal, eggs, meat (often fish), pastries with jellies and preserves, and hot beverages.
English Service
Food is brought to the table on a tray, presented to the host, who either cuts the food him/herself or chooses to have it done by the server away from the table. Vegetables are placed in bowls on the table for guests to serve themselves. See FAMILY-STYLE SERVICE.
Entertainment
Activity performed for the amusement and enjoyment of others.
Entertainment Program
Program of events organized for the entertainment of participants.
Entrecôte
Sirloin steak.
Entrée
Main meal course. (In Europe, it is the term used to describe the appetizer.) With the increase in international business, it is recommended that the word entree no longer be used, in favor of main course.
Environmental Considerations
Those conditions in an event facility surrounding and affecting projection and audio quality (i.e., doors, ceiling height, etc.).
EOR
Exhibitor of Record.
Épice
Highly spiced.
EPO
Each pays own. See PAY OWN.
Equalization
The intentional alteration of levels of portions of the audio frequency spectrum to fit the requirements of frequency response defined by a listener. Traditionally, the term equalization was used to describe the replacement (always a boost) of energy lost as a result of long telephone line runs of wire, but today the term is used to describe any change in frequency response or spectral balance done intentionally by using any device, which includes circuits that can produce these changes.
Equalizer
Device used to compensate for undesired sound system characteristics or room acoustics.
Equipment Manager
A person assigned to issue and maintain accountability of equipment such as radios, uniforms, flashlights, signage, umbrellas, traffic cones, and stanchions.
Erase
1) Permanently remove information from a magnetic medium such as a videotape. 2) Delete from a computer storage device.
Erection
The set up and teardown of exhibits. See I&D.
Errors and Omissions Insurance
Errors and Omissions Insurance – Often referred to as E&O insurance. A form of insurance that indemnifies the insured for any loss sustained because of an error or oversight on his part.
ESCA
Exhibition Services & Contractors Association. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
Escargots
Snails cooked in broth.
Escoffier Dish
Serving containers for chafing dishes.
Escort
A person, usually employed or subcontracted (or independently contracted) by a DMC, who accompanies a tour from departure to return, as a guide. 2) A person who performs such functions only at the destination.
Escorted Tour
1) A prearranged travel program, usually for a group escorted. In a fully conducted tour, escort and/or guide service is provided throughout. 2) A sightseeing program conducted by a guide (e.g. a city tour). See TOUR. See Also ESCORT.
ESG
Event Specifications Guide is the industry's official term for the document used by an event organizer to convey information clearly and accurately to appropriate venue(s) and/or suppliers regarding all requirements for an event.
Espresso
A very thick, strong coffee, served in a demi tasse cup.
Est. Wt.
Estimated Weight.
Estimate
1) Critiquing and rating the overall success of an event. 2) Developing an event profile from accurate event statistics. 3) Approximate calculation of exhibit costs.
ETA
Estimated time of arrival.
Etching
Inscribing lines of textures on the surface of rigid materials using acids or tools.
ETD
Estimated time of departure.
Ethernet Internet Service
Local area network of computers and associated devices that share a global information system.
Étouffée
Succulent, tangy, tomato-based sauce, usually used with crawfish or shrimp.
Étouffée
A Cajun dish of crawfish or shrimp with vegetable, usually served over rice.
European Community
EC. The block of Western European countries formerly knows as the European Economic Community (EEC).
European Currency Unit
ECU. Currency unit of the European Community, called the “Euro.”
European Plan
EP. A room rate that does not include meals. See Also AMERICAN PLAN, BERMUDA PLAN, CONTINENTAL PLAN, DEMI-PENSION, MODIFIED AMERICAN PLAN.
Evaluation
1) Critiquing and rating the overall success of an event. 2) Developing an event profile from accurate event statistics.
Evaluation Learning Method
Tests whether attendees learned what was expected, and if they can use the information effectively.
Event
An organized occasion such as a meeting, convention, exhibition, special event, gala dinner, etc. An event is often composed of several different yet related FUNCTIONS.
Event Organizer
Person whose job it is to oversee and arrange every aspect of an event. Person can be an employee or hired ad hoc to plan, organize, implement, and control meetings, conventions, and other events.
Event Site
Premises where an event will be held. See SITE.
Event Specifications Guide
Event Specifications Guide is the industry's official term for the document used by an event organizer to convey information clearly and accurately to appropriate venue(s) and/or suppliers regarding all requirements for an event.
Event-Contracted Block
ECB. The rooms that are contracted for by an event organizer with a hotel(s) or housing facility(s) for a particular event.
Ex
From. When used in pricing terms such as "Ex Factory" or "Ex Dock," it signifies that the price quoted applies only at the point of origin (in the two examples, at the seller’s factory or a dock at the import point). In practice, this kind of price quote indicates that the seller agrees to place the goods at the disposal of the buyer at the specified place within a fixed period of time.
Excess Baggage
Baggage which exceeds the free allowance set by the airline.
Exchange Rate
The relative value of two different currencies at a specific time.
Exciter Lamp
Lamp which projects illumination through optical sound track on 16mm film. Light patterns are read by the projector sound head converted to electronic signals fed to an audio amplifier.
Exclusion
A contractual provision that denies coverage for certain perils, persons, property, or locations.
Exclusive
Any agreement which limits who may provide specific products or services under certain conditions to only one party. A general service contractor, for instance, may have an "exclusive" in a particular facility, meaning that no other contractor is allowed to provide the same services or products in that facility.
Exclusive Contract
Contract between a facility and a service provider designating that provider as the only provider of a specific service or products in that facility.
Exclusive Contractor
Contractor appointed by event or building management as the sole agent to provide specific services or products.
Exclusive Right to Sell
When a speakers bureau/agency has a contract with a speaker and is the sole and exclusive representative of the speaker.
Exclusive Use
Rental of entire truck or van by one shipper.
Excursion
A tour. A recreational trip or activity provided to event participants and/or accompanying persons as a scheduled portion of the event program. See TOUR.
Executive Coach
A luxury motorcoach with seating of 25 or less which can include such amenities as TV, galley, wet bar, card tables, etc.
Executive Committee
A committee of the Board of Directors that acts between meetings of the board to determine organizational policy.
Executive Conference Center
A first class conference facility that caters to executive level events.
Executive Director
Person appointed or hired to handle or direct day-to-day organizational functions.
Exhibit
Individual display area constructed to showcase products, services or convey a message.
Exhibit Booth/Stand
Individual display area constructed to showcase products or convey a message.
Exhibit Designer/Producer
Person or company responsible for designing and constructing an exhibit booth/stand.
Exhibit Directory
Program or catalog for attendees listing exhibitors and exhibit booth/stand location. See DIRECTORY.
Exhibit Hall
Area within facility where exhibition is located.
Exhibit House
Company that fabricates displays. See SHOP. See Also DISPLAY BUILDER.
Exhibit Manager
1) Person in charge of individual exhibit booth/stand. 2) Event management staff member in charge of entire exhibit area.
Exhibit Producer
An individual or company that designs and/or builds exhibits. May also provide other services. See DISPLAY BUILDER.
Exhibition
1) An event at which products and services are displayed. The primary activity of attendees is visiting exhibits on the show floor. These events focus primarily on business-to-business (B2B) relationships. 2) Display of products or promotional material for the purposes of public relations, sales and/or marketing. See TRADE SHOW. See Also CONSUMER SHOW, GATE SHOW, PUBLIC SHOW.
Exhibition Area
Amount of floor space occupied by exhibitor. Also Called BOOTH/STAND AREA.
Exhibition Center
Venue at which exhibitions are held.
Exhibition Contractor
The organizer or promoter of an exhibition; responsible for the letting of space, financial control and management of the exhibition; sometimes an agent acting in this capacity.
Exhibition Manager
Preferred term for the specific person responsible for all aspects of planning, promoting, and producing an exhibition. Also Called SHOW MANAGER, SHOW ORGANIZER. See SHOW MANAGEMENT.
Exhibition Occupancy
Total square feet of space used for exhibits times the number of use days divided by the total exhibit space in the building multiplied by 365. Expressed as a percentage.
Exhibition Plan
Plan showing space to be occupied by the exhibition; the areas intended for booths/stands and those for passageways and services etc. See FLOOR PLAN.
Exhibition Service Contractor
Supplier of booth/stand equipment, rental furnishings, floor coverings, labor, drayage and signs for exhibitions and trade shows. See GENERAL SERVICE CONTRACTOR.
Exhibitor
1) Person or firm that displays its products or services at an event. 2) Event attendee whose primary purpose for attending the event is to staff a booth/stand.
Exhibitor Advisory Committee
Representatives of an event's exhibiting companies who act as advisers to show management on rules and procedures, and also update show management on industry trends and issues.
Exhibitor Appointed Contractor
EAC. Any company other than the designated "official" contractor providing a service to an exhibitor. Can refer to an Install & Dismantle Company (I&D House), photographer, florist or any other type of contractor.
Exhibitor Kit
See EXHIBITOR MANUAL.
Exhibitor Lounge
An area either on or adjacent to the exhibit floor where exhibitors may relax or meet with customers.
Exhibitor Manual
Manual or kit, usually developed by the service contractor for an event, containing general event information, labor/service order forms, rules and regulations and other information pertinent to an exhibitor's participation in an exhibition.
Exhibitor Move-In
The time period allowed for exhibitors to prepare their exhibit space for show opening. It generally begins after the exposition contractor to receive/unload show-site deliveries.
Exhibitor Newsletter
A newsletter sent by event management to exhibitors prior to a event. It includes updates on deadlines, event rules and regulations, events, and marketing opportunities offered by event management, plus educational articles to improve exhibitors' effectiveness.
Exhibitor Prospectus
Direct mail promotional materials sent to current and prospective exhibitors to encourage participation and promote the benefits of exhibiting in a specific show. Contains information about technical points, cost of exhibition space, floor plan of the exhibition and application for participation.
Exhibitor Retention
Persuading current exhibitors to participate in subsequent events. Exhibitor retention rate is the percentage of exhibitors that renew.
Exhibitor-Appointed Carrier
EAC. For freight shipped to (inbound) or from (out-bound) a show, exhibitors are free to choose the carrier of their choice. This choice is predicated upon the exhibitor making necessary pick-up/delivery arrangements. When doing so, the exhibitor is said to have designated an EAC. Selecting a particular carrier is commonly associated with receiving preferred service and/or rates.
Exhibitorship
Skills to effectively present an exhibiting company's message. Includes body language, opening line and message presentation. Also Called BOOTHMANSHIP.
Exhibits-Only
The right to attend the exhibit-based portion of an event, not the paid conference or other fee events.
Exit Visa
An endorsement made on a passport denoting that a person may leave the country.
Expanded Metal
Sheets of metal cut and expanded to form an open mesh, usually used as decorative grill.
Expected Attendance
Total number of people anticipated to attend an event prior to the event taking place.
Expedited Service
Service offered by a transportation company to assure prompt delivery.
Expenses
All contracted out-of-pocket business costs. These normally include airfare, taxi-fare, car rental costs, lodging, gratuities, special phone calls having to do with the event, meals, and last-minute presentational materials. Expenses charged to the client should not include anything of personal nature (i.e. movies, alcohol).
Explainer
Personnel hired at an exhibition who have technical knowledge of a product; they may or may not be bilingual.
Export
To send or transport goods out of one country for sale or display in another country. The exporter is usually the seller or the seller's agent. See IMPORT.
Export Broker
An individual or firm that brings together buyers and sellers for a fee, but does not take part in actual sales transactions.
Export Declaration
Required for shipments valued at more than $2500; used by the U.S. government to monitor the dollar volume of export shipments.
Export License
A government document which permits the “licensee” to engage in the export of designated goods to certain destinations.
Export Management Company
A private firm that serves as the export department for several manufacturers, soliciting and transacting export business on behalf of its clients in return for compensation. i.e. a commission, salary, or retainer plus commission.
Exposition
See EXHIBITION.
Exposition Manager
See EXHIBITION MANAGER.
Expository Learning
The instructor presents to the learners and the learners remain passive and watch or listen.
Extended Type
Type that is wider than standard, allowing fewer characters per line.
Extra Overnight Stays
All extra nights spent by the participant other than overnight event stays.
Extra Section
Added aircraft or bus to accommodate a group too large for one aircraft or bus.
Extraordinary Session
A special session for activities, needs, or situations that are different from those normally and originally scheduled.
Extruded
To form metal or plastic, push out.
Eye Bolts
Eye bolts or eye screws have a looped head or an opening in the head.
F&B
Food and Beverage.
F&B Guarantee
See GUARANTEE.
F&B Service Time
Specific time at which a food and beverage function, or segment of a function (e.g., appetizer, entrée, dessert), should be served.
FAA
Federal Aviation Administration.
Fabrication
Construction of an exhibit or display.
Facilitator
An individual who guides discussion and/or decision making.
Facility
A structure that is built, installed or established to serve a particular purpose. See CONVENTION CENTER, HALL.
Facility Manager
The manager of a convention center, exhibition hall or other venue.
Fade
Progressive lessening or dimming of an image from the screen. See DISSOLVE.
Fade-In
Gradual fade from a dark screen to a visual image. See CROSS FADE. See Also DISSOLVE.
Fade-Out
Room lights are turned off or video screen becomes black. See GO TO BLACK.
Fader
Device used to control all dimming circuits.
Fahrenheit
A temperature scale in which 32° is freezing and 212° is the steam point. To convert Fahrenheit temperatures to Celsius, subtract 32 from the Fahrenheit reading, multiply by 5 and divide by 9. (A simple way to calculate is to subtract 10% of Fahrenheit, then double the result, which may be off a degree, but is generally close enough.)
Fair
1) Enterprise principally devoted to the exhibition of products of agriculture or industry. Typically, fairs also provide entertainment activities such as rides, games and food concessions. 2) Exhibition of products or services in a specific area of activity held with the objective of promoting business.
Fair trade
Small farmers are paid a fair market price that enables them to improve their standard of living.
Fajitas
Marinated meat prepared Mexican-style.
False Bow
Staged bow and exit by the artist, with a planned return pending audience response.
Fam Trip
Familiarization Trip. Offered to potential buyers of a venue, a program designed to acquaint participants with specific destinations or services and to stimulate the booking of an event. Often offered in groups, but sometimes on an individual basis. See SITE INSPECTION.
Familiarization Trip
Fam Trip. Offered to potential buyers of a venue, a program designed to acquaint participants with specific destinations or services and to stimulate the booking of an event. Often offered in groups, but sometimes on an individual basis. See SITE INSPECTION.
Family Name
Preferred term for use on event housing and registration forms to indicate the name by which all immediate family members are known. Same as LAST NAME, SURNAME. Compare with GIVEN NAME.
Family Plan
A discount price offered by companies to second and successive members of families.
Family-Style Service
Platters and bowls of foods are set on the dining tables, from which guests serve themselves. Usually involves guests passing the containers to each other. See ENGLISH SERVICE.
FAP
Full American Plan. See AMERICAN PLAN (AP).
Farci
Stuffed, e.g. stuffed meat.
Fascia
Placard or sign at top of exhibit usually with company name.
Fashion Goods
Goods where style is important and price is secondary. These products could include clothing, jewelry, furniture, draperies, and dishes, but can sometimes be stretched into other areas such as umbrellas, walking canes, cigarette holders, etc.
Fashion Show
Choreographed display of garments and/or accessories by models.
Fast Fold Screen
Brand name for a large screen with a frame which folds down into a small case for storage. The legs of this screen are attached at the sides of the screen, or the screen may be flown from above.
Featherbedding
1) Unfair labor practice of causing an employer to pay for services which are not performed, or requiring more people than necessary to do a job, or requiring the performance of superfluous work. 2) Making oneself comfortable through the receipt of excessive or unjustified compensation for little or no work. See MAKE WORK PRACTICES.
Featherrock
Material cut from volcanic lava in rough and varying sizes, or synthetic materials that looks exactly like heavy rock but is lightweight; useful for decorative stone, venues and dioramas.
Fee
1) A fixed amount or percentage charged. 2) The cost of participating in a meeting or event, paid to the organization conducting the meeting.
Fee for Service
The amount charged for providing a service.
Feedback
1) Regeneration of sound from audio speakers back through a microphone causing a squealing sound. 2) Response about an activity, policy, or idea.
Feeder Space
Reservations for passenger from home city to gateway city for international or Hawaii flights.
Fête
A party or celebration.
Fettuccine Alfredo
Fettuccine noodles in a white cheese sauce.
FHC
Notation on floor plans indicating the location of fire hose cabinets.
Fiber Optic Cable
A cable that is made up of tiny glass strands that are wrapped and bundled together to make up a cable. Fiber can transmit voice, data and video at gigabyte speed, or 1 billion bytes per second, with less signal loss than copper wire because the signal is carried by light rather than electricity. See BACKBONE.
Fiber Optics
1) In displays, the use of cut glass fibers to display colored light. 2) In telephony, material used for carrying voice and data signals.
Fiberglass
A material fabricated from plastic resins and glass fiber. Available in rigid forms, translucent and opaque. Can also be custom fabricated in intricate shapes.
Field Services
Handling installation and dismantling, including freight, drayage, carpentry, electrical, plumbing, iron workers, riggers and maintenance.
File Server
A computer that shares its resources, such as printers and files, with other computers on a network.
Filet Mignon
Cut of the beef tenderloin.
Fill Light
Light used to fill in shadows created by key light.
Fillet
'Almost' boneless cut of fish.
Film
A flexible strip of chemically treated material used in taking still or moving pictures.
Film Chain
Projectors and video equipment transmitting projected materials through a television system.
Film Clip
Brief filmed piece.
Filmstrip
Series of slides reproduced on one continuous strip of film.
Filter
1) A transparent material that is over a light that can affect the intensity, color, and focus of the light. 2) Circuit that selectively attenuates portions of the audio frequency spectrum. A filter is the opposite of the traditional equalizer, which selectively boosts, but for the purpose of modern convenient control of sound on mixes and equalizer units, the circuits of tone-altering controls usually incorporate the dual abilities to equalize and filter by simply rotating a knob one way or another.
Final Program
Document containing the definitive conference and social program, circulated immediately prior to a conference or distributed at the commencement of the event.
Final Report
Conclusive summary of conference events.
Financial Procedures
An outline of accounting and banking techniques.
Financial Report
Document incorporating the statement of income and expenses and the budget at a given date.
Financial Responsibility Law
A law that requires a person or organization to furnish evidence of ability to respond to claims for harm from a specified type of activity. The most common financial responsibility requirement applies to motor vehicle operators, who must have evidence of ability to pay for automobile-related injuries or damage. An auto liability policy is the main form of financial responsibility.
Finger Bowl
Hot water, sometimes scented, and fresh linen served to a guest after the meal so that the hands and face can be cleansed.
Finger Food
Food at a reception that does not require a knife, fork or spoon.
Finger Pull
Hinged finger grip usually mounted in recess on hinged doors.
Finished
Wooden articles that have passed the state of manufacture "in the white" (refers to wood that has been primed).
Fire Aisle
Interior aisle in an exhibition floor plan used for emergency egress that must be kept clear of obstructions.
Fire Exit
Door or passageway, clear of obstructions, designed by local authorities for egress from a building or structure.
Fire Extinguisher
Any agent used to extinguish fires such as water, sand, CO2, Halon, etc.
Fire Insurance
This insurance usually covers loss or damage attributable to fire, smoke, explosion, or forces of nature. It can also cover water damage.
Fire Lane
An external vehicle lane that must be kept clear of obstruction to allow emergency egress.
Fire Marshal
In the United States, Fire Marshals' responsibilities vary from state to state, but they tend to be responsible for fire safety code adoption and enforcement, fire and arson investigation, fire incident data reporting and analysis, public education and advising Governors and State Legislatures on fire protection.
Fire Retardant
Term used to describe a finish (usually liquid) which coats materials with a fire resistant cover. This does not render the material fire-proof.
Firm Offer
A speaking engagement that is definitely confirmed as in, "I've got a firm offer for Baltimore on that date." A firm offer is one that becomes contractually binding upon acceptance of the offer by the third party.
First Aid
Emergency care or treatment given to an ill or injured person before regular medical care is available. Also the place where such emergency care is provided.
First Announcement
Initial notification of an event, generally outlining the basic framework of a meeting; a widely circulated document. Also Called PRELIMINARY ANNOUNCEMENT.
First Name
Name given to identify individual family members. See GIVEN NAME (preferred).
First Option
See OPTION.
Fishpole
Holder with microphone often used in Q. & A. sessions. See GOOSENECK LIGHT.
FIT
Foreign Independent Travel. A custom-designed, prepaid travel package with many individualized arrangements. FIT are unescorted and usually have no formal itinerary.
Fixed Assets
Usually non-liquid assets that are integral to the enterprise's day-to-day business operations (e.g. plants, equipment, furniture and real estate).
Fixed Costs
The day-to-day cost of doing business that is pre-committed, such as salaries, insurance, lease expenses, utilities, etc.
Fixed Expense
Expense incurred regardless of the number of event attendees.
Fixed Jig
Permanent felt support mounted within a shipping container.
Fixed Seating Assignments
Chairs of event rooms permanently affixed to the floor.
Fixed Theater
Permanent, non-movable seats in an event room or amphitheater.
Flag Carrier
Carrier designated by a country to serve international routes.
Flambé
(flom bay) Meat dish or dessert item flamed with spirits.
Flame Resistant/ Retardant
Material that is fire resistant.
Flange
That part of an extruded, formed or fabricated component that protrudes from the basic shape. Often used as mounting plate.
Flare
Dark flashes caused by light reflections from polished objects.
Flash
Technique of blinking on and off to add emphasis.
Flash Box
Smoke-producing device for special effects.
Flasher
Device to activate one or more lamps by intermittently interrupting current.
Flat Cable
Cable and extension cords that are used to lie on the floor under the carpet. It is flat to help reduce tripping hazards and provide a safer walk area within a booth/stand space.
Flat Framed
1' x 2', 1' x 3' or 1' x 4' mounted on flat surface, usually associated with banners or signs.
Flat Rate
Flat rate for which a hotel or motel agrees to offer any of its available sleeping rooms (with the exception of suites) to a group. Final assignment of rooms is at the discretion of the hotel. See RUN-OF-THE-HOUSE RATE.
Flatware
Utensils used in a place setting (e.g. knife, fork, spoon).
Flipchart
Large pad of paper placed on, or attached to, an easel. Flipcharts are often used by speakers and facilitators for illustrative purposes. They are commonly used with permanent or non-permanent dry ink markers.
Float
A large 4-wheel dolly with upright handle, can be manual or motorized.
Floater
Worker(s) with no fixed assignment who are used to help out where needed.
Flocking
An electrostatic spraying process producing a velvety finish on any surface.
Flood Light
A light designed to provide general illumination.
Floor Load
Maximum amount of weight per square foot/meter a floor can support. (May also refer to the maximum amount of power available from floor outlets and ports.)
Floor Manager
Person retained by event management to supervise the installation, dismantling and operation of the exhibit area.
Floor Marking
Method of marking booth/stand spaces in an empty exhibit hall to indicate where booth/stands will be set.
Floor Order
Order for exhibitor services placed on-site after exhibit set up begins. Usually more expensive than an ADVANCE ORDER.
Floor Plan
1) Schematic drawing of an exhibit hall including dimensions, design, shape, entrances, aisles, numbered exhibit booth/stands, lounges, concession areas, restrooms, electrical/plumbing accessibility, etc. 2) Scale plan of the floor area of a hotel’s event space. 3) Schematic drawing of a function room with specific requirements (dais, tables, chairs, etc.) drawn to scale.
Floor Port
Utility box, recessed in the floor, containing electrical, telephone, and/or plumbing connections.
Floor Speaker
Member of a meeting audience who participates in discussion during a meeting session.
Floor-Length Linen
Covers table across top and down to floor. Used for more formal events.
Flop
To reverse a photo or illustration so that it conforms to the basic design.
Florentine
Served with spinach.
Flush
Type is set so that it is even with right margin, left margin and/or both margins.
Flush Mounted
Mounting of one material to another with no space between them.
Fly
Objects and scenery hanging from above.
Flyer
One-piece printed announcement or advertisement.
Fly-In Instructions
Directions informing a venue or facility of the number of event participants expected to travel by plane to an event, in order to ensure adequate parking and bell staffing. This information should be included in the specifications guide for an event.
Flying
Raising and supporting sound, lighting or other equipment or décor from the ceiling.
Foam Core
Corrugated lightweight material with a Styrofoam® center sandwiched in the center; used for signs, decorating, and exhibit construction.
FOB
Freight On Board. When something is purchased and paid for with terms 'FOB origin' it means the responsibility of the seller stops when the 'goods' are delivered to the transporting company at the point of origin. It is the responsibility of the buyer to pay for transportation.
Focal Length
1) Distance from the center of the lens to the film plane. 2) Size of lens required to obtain a specific size picture.
Focus
Proper sharpness of the outline of an image.
Focus Group
Method of doing research using a small group led by a facilitator.
Foie
(foy) Liver.
Foie Gras
Seasoned goose liver pâté.
Foldback
See CUE CHANNEL.
Folio
Form on which all charge transactions incurred by a registered guest are recorded.
Follow Spotlight
Manually movable spotlight (a brilliant light projected onto a particular area).
Font
Alphabet of type in a specific style. See TYPEFACE.
Food & Beverage
Any catered or concession service provided by a facility.
Force Majeure
An event (e.g. war, labor strike, extreme weather, or other disruptive circumstances) or effect that cannot be reasonably anticipated or controlled: a "fortuitous event." See ACT OF GOD.
Force Majeure Clause
A clause in an agreement that excuses performance in the event that a FORCE MAJEURE makes the performance impracticable or impossible.
Forced Freight/Forcing the Floor
Removal of freight from the event floor after the event close that was not picked up by an exhibitor's carrier, or shipments left behind at the booth/stand at the close of the event without a bill of lading. Forced freight is generally removed from the hall at a specified time and held by the general contractor or official common carrier or until payment is made for forwarding.
Forecast
1) To estimate a hotel’s revenues and occupancy situation on any given date or dates. Used for planning of staffing, purchasing and budgeting. Does not reflect contract commitments. 2) To estimate revenues and expenses for a future event.
Foreign Exchange Currency Risk
Risk that an organization takes when dealing with foreign currency due to exchange rates fluctuating over time.
Foreign Independent Tour
FIT. Custom-designed prepaid tour for an individual traveler.
Foreign Sales Agent
An individual or firm that serves as the foreign representative of a domestic supplier and seeks sales abroad for the supplier.
Foreign Trade Zone
An area within a country where imported goods can be stored or processed without being subject to import duty. See FREE PORT. See Also BONDED WAREHOUSE.
Foreign/National
Membership or meeting participation available to organizations or individuals from one nation, but able to meet in another nation.
Foreman
Supervisor of a group of workers whose duties will vary based upon the region of the country and the union affiliation. See JOB FOREMAN. See Also WORKING FORMAN.
Fork Food
Food at a reception that requires only a fork and not a knife.
Forklift/Forktruck
Vehicle with a power-operated pronged platform for lifting and carrying loads, used to transport heavy exhibit materials short distances, and for loading and unloading materials.
Formal Dress
See BLACK TIE. See Also WHITE TIE.
Formica
A brand name for a plastic laminate.
For-Profit
An organization that organizes events with the intention of making a profit.
For-Profit Event Management Company
A management company whose owners or stockholders share in its net proceeds.
Forum
1) Open discussion with audience, panel, and moderator. 2) A meeting or part of a meeting set aside for an open discussion by recognized participants on subjects of public interest. Also for legal purposes, as part of the proceedings of a tribunal, court or similar body.
Forward Contract
An agreement guaranteeing a specific price for a product or service at a given future date. May also guarantee a specific rate of exchange when foreign currency is used.
Foul Bill of Lading
A receipt for goods issued by a carrier with an indication that the goods were damaged when received. See CLEAN BILL OF LADING.
Four Hour Call
Minimum work period for which union labor must be paid in special circumstances (generally, a minimum call is one hour.). Not to be confused with minimum charges to exhibitors applied by contractors that service events.
Four-Color Separation
Process of printing a full color image utilizing four colored screened patterns from which printing plates can be engraved.
Foyer
Pre-function space; public area in a venue for assembly or registration.
FP
See FRONT PROJECTION.
Fraises
(frays) Strawberries.
Framboises
(fram bwah) Raspberries.
Frame
Individual picture in a filmstrip or motion picture.
Framed Hardboard
Masonite or similar material on a 1 x 2 or 1 x 3 frame.
Fraternal
Groups where membership is based on common personal interests rather than common job or career responsibilities.
Free Form
Self-supporting and independent exhibit material. See ISLAND EXHIBIT.
Free Paper
Written transcript given as a result of acceptance of the submitted abstract on a subject chosen by the author.
Free Papers Session
Reports on particular topics which, while closely related to the subject of an event, do not strictly refer to the matters under discussion.
Free Port
See FOREIGN TRADE ZONE.
Free Pour
Alcoholic beverages poured by hand without the use of shot glasses or other measuring devices.
Free Rider
Union term for a non-union worker who received the benefits of the union's collective bargaining activity without sharing in the costs.
Free Standing
Self-supporting and independent display material.
Free Trade Zone
An area designated by the government of a country for duty-free entry of any non-prohibited goods. Merchandise may be stored, displayed, used for manufacturing, etc., within the zone and re-exported without duties being paid. Duties are imposed on the merchandise (or items manufactured from the merchandise) only when the goods pass from the zone into an area of the country subject to the customs authority.
Freeze Frame
Motion picture or video frame that is stopped so a single frame is displayed. See STOP MOTION.
Freight
Properties, products, and other materials that are shipped.
Freight Contractor
The event-designated company responsible for handling exhibit properties from the dock to the exhibit space.
Freight Desk
A shipping company that typically handles international freight shipments. At an event, handles inbound and outbound exhibit materials.
Freight Elevator Usage
Instructions on the allotment of a facility’s freight elevator’s space and time required for an event. This information should be included in the specifications guide for an event.
Freight Forwarder
An independent business which handles export shipments for compensation. At the request of the shipper, the forwarder makes the actual arrangements and provides the necessary services for expediting the shipment to its overseas destination. The forwarder takes care of all documentation needed to move the shipment from origin to destination, making up and assembling the necessary documentation for submission to the bank in the exporter's name. The forwarder arranges for cargo insurance, makes the necessary overseas communications, and advises the shipper on overseas requirements of marking and labeling. The forwarder operates on a fee basis paid by the exporter and often receives an additional percentage of the freight charge from the common carrier. In the United States, an export freight forwarder must be licensed by the Federal Maritime Commission to handle ocean freight and by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) to handle air freight. An ocean freight forwarder dispatches shipments from the United States via common carriers, books or arranges space for the shipments, and handles the shipping documentation. See INTERNATIONAL FREIGHT FORWARDER.
Freight Handling Form
Form for exhibitor requesting handling of materials. Not to be confused with long haul shipping forms or bills of lading.
French Hours
Not taking meal breaks. Taking breaks and eating as you work, as conditions permit.
French Service - Banquet Style
Platters of food are composed in the kitchen. Each food item is then served from the guest's left by the server from platters to individual plates. Any course can be 'Frenched' by having the dressing put on the salad or having sauce added to a entrée or dessert after it has been placed in front of the guest. See FRENCH SERVICE - CART STYLE.
French Service - Cart Style
This pattern of service involves the use of serving pieces (usually silver); heating and garnishing of food table-side by a captain; and the serving of food on a heated plate, which is then served to the guest by a server. Plated entrees are usually served from the right, bread and butter and salad from the left and beverages from the right. All are removed from the right. See FRENCH SERVICE - BANQUET STYLE.
Frequency
Spacing in time of events. In audio signals, frequency refers to the cyclic repeat of vibrations. In wire, the vibrations are electrical variations. In air, the vibrations are changes in air pressure. The ear hears air pressure variations with frequencies between about 12 times per second and 20,000 times per second of 12 Hz (hertz) and 20 kHz (kilohertz).
Frequency Rates
The amount of time between motorcoaches on a given route or at a specific location.
Frequency Response
Measurement of how a device being measured responds to test signals of constant amplitude without regard to frequency, over a particular measurement range of frequencies. An electrical device whose specifications say it is “flat from 20Hz to 20kHz,” will not cause any amplitude deviation in signals fed through it over that frequency range, as a result of changing the frequency of the test signal.
Fresnel Lens
Lens which produces a soft edged beam of light. Theatrical fixture with adjustable lens 150 W through 1500 W.
Friday Casual
See DRESS CASUAL.
Frisket
Technique of applying lettering or art to surface of rigid material by tracing outline on translucent paper; affixing the paper to surface or materials, cutting away paper within lettering spaces and then spraying color over surface. When balance of paper is removed, the lettering remains.
Frites
(freets) French slang for French fried potatoes.
Froid
Cold, chilled.
Fromage
Cheese.
Front Desk
1) Hotel registration area. 2) The center of event facility activities, including registration and cashier services.
Front Office
The office situated in the hotel lobby, the main functions of which are: 1) control and sale of sleeping rooms; 2) providing key, mail and information service for guests; 3) keeping guest accounts, rendering bills and receiving payments; and 4) providing information to other departments.
Front Projection
FP. Projection of an image onto the front surface of a light reflecting screen from a projector placed within or behind the audience.
Frontages/Front Space
Refers to dimension across the front of an exhibit (for example, a 30' x 10' exhibit has 30' of front space and 10' depth).
FSA
Fire Safety Act. In the United States, the aim of the Hotel and Motel Fire Safety Act of 1990 is to save lives and protect property by promoting fire and life safety in hotels, motels and other places of public accommodation. The law mandates that federal employees on travel must stay in public accommodations that adhere to the life safety requirements in the legislation guidelines. It also states that federally funded meetings and conferences cannot be held in properties that do not comply with the law. This is applicable to all places of public accommodation, and requires that such properties are equipped with: hard-wired, single-station smoke detectors in each guestroom in accordance with the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) standard 72; and, an automatic sprinkler system, with a sprinkler head in each guest room in compliance with NFPA standards 13 or 13R. Properties three stories or lower in height are exempt from the sprinkler requirement.
FTP
File Transfer Protocol. The process of uploading websites or other data.
Full American Plan
FAP. See AMERICAN PLAN (AP).
Full Disclosure
Informing the party purchasing a product or service of any rebates, surcharges or commissions included in the price of the product or service before they are purchased.
Full House
Closed; filled to capacity.
Full-Booth Coverage
Carpet covering entire area of booth/stand.
Full-Service Restaurant
A food service establishment that includes coffee shops, dinner houses, fine dining establishments, and theme restaurants with several menu selections and table service.
Fume
(foo may) Smoked.
Fumigation
To apply smoke, vapor, or gas to something for the purpose of disinfecting or of destroying pests. Fumigation is required in some countries for live plants and wooden packing.
Function
1) Any of a group of related organized occasions that contribute to a larger event. 2) An activity or role assigned to an event planner (or other industry professional).
Function Board
Announcements on facility board or video screen listing the day’s events, times and locations. See DIRECTORY. See Also READER BOARD.
Function Book
Diary or log used to control and document the assignment of function space within a facility. May be computerized.
Function Sheet
See BANQUET EVENT ORDER (BEO).
Function Space
Area in a facility which can be reserved by a individual or entity to hold events.
Fundamental
Any pure tone. The pitch remaining when all harmonics (overtones) are removed from a basic frequency or musical tone, producing a pure tone. An amplifier or audio circuit that can pass a pure tone without adding any harmonics of its own is said to have low harmonic distortion. Musical instruments usually produce tones rich in harmonics, giving each its particular sound or ”timbre.” Small loudspeakers will be heard to reproduce bass instruments even while producing little or no fundamental pitch because the ear and brain reconstruct the sound of the instrument based on prior knowledge of its timbre.
Funnel Flight
Flight, with one flight number, requiring a change of planes at an intermediate stop.
Furniture Dolly
See FLOAT.
Fuse Head
An electrical igniter used to initiate a pyrotechnic effect. Sometimes called a Squib Head.
Future Bookings
Events or meetings which are contractually committed to occur at a future date in a specific venue.
G&A
General & Administrative. Expenses incurred by an organization that cannot be charged directly to a specific project account, i.e., overhead costs such as rent, etc.
Gaffer
Electrician on a film or video shoot.
Gaffer’s Tape
Fabric tape used in anchoring cables to the floor. See DUCT TAPE. See Also CARPET TAPE.
Gain
Level of audio volume. See LEVEL.
Gala Dinner
Primary social function of an event, usually in the evening, including entertainment or speeches after a formal meal.
Galantine
Boned meat, pressed into symmetrical shape, that usually includes truffles. When the loaf is sliced, a decorative pattern is revealed. Served cold, generally as an appetizer.
Galley Proof
Sheet of copy that has been typeset for the author to correct before printing.
Gang Box
See TROUBLE BOX.
Ganging Menus
When two or more groups in facility have the same menu.
Gangway
Space between sets of tables, chairs or booths/stands to allow passage of attendees. See AISLE.
Garcy Strip
Trade name of manufacturer that produces brackets and standards for the mounting or materials, usually shelves.
Garlic
Pungent bulbs made of sections called cloves encased in a parchment like membrane. Garlic is a cousin to leeks, chives, onions and shallots.
Garment Rack
Frame which holds apparel. See COSTUMER.
Garni
See GARNISH.
Garni Hotel
Hotel without dining facilities.
Garnish
Food decoration, usually edible, which adds color and form to food presentation. Also Called GARNI.
Gate Show
Exhibition open to the public usually requiring an entrance fee. See CONSUMER SHOW. See Also PUBLIC SHOW. Compare With TRADE SHOW.
Gateau
(gah toe) Cake.
Gateway
A dedicated computer that attaches to two or more disparate networks and converts data packets from one form to another.
Gateway City
City with an international airport.
Gator Foam
Laminated foam board used for signage, available in a variety of thicknesses. More rigid and durable than FOAM CORE.
GATT
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. A multilateral treaty whose purpose is to help reduce trade barriers between the signatory countries and to promote trade through tariff concessions.
Gel
1) Theatrical color filter used in conjunction with theatrical projection fixtures and spotlights. 2) Gelatin.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GATT. A multilateral treaty whose purpose is to help reduce trade barriers between the signatory countries and to promote trade through tariff concessions.
General Assembly
General and formal meeting of an association, club, organization or company attended by a specified proportion at least of its members for the purpose of deciding legislative direction, policy matters, the election of internal committees and approval of balance sheets, budgets and the like. An assembly generally observes certain fixed rules of procedure.
General Export License
Any of various licenses covering export commodities for which validated export licenses are not required. No formal application or written authorization is needed to ship exports under a general export license.
General Liability Insurance
An insurance policy that provides protection against claims involving bodily injury and property damage to third parties.
General Service Contractor
GSC. An organization that provides event management and exhibitors with a wide range of services, sometimes including, but not limited to, Installation & Dismantle, creating and hanging signage and banners, laying carpet, drayage, and providing booth/stand furniture. See DECORATOR.
General Session
A meeting open to all those in attendance at a event. See PLENARY SESSION.
General Strike
A simultaneous strike by the unionized workers in all trades and industries in a geographic area. Also, a strike by all the unionized workers in one industry.
Genie Lift
The manufacturer of a variety of lifts used in the erection of event displays. The first model manufactured was a hand-cranked material handling lift. Also Called HURTY GURTY. Genie now also manufactures motorized lifts that can be used as material lifts or man lifts.
Geographic Segmentation
The arbitrary division of a market by country, region, state, zone, district, standard metropolitan statistical area (SMSA), city, etc.
Gerber
Machine for cutting vinyl lettering used in making signs.
Get-Together
A planned informal gathering that occurs during an event which offers an opportunity for social interchange.
Ghee
Clarified butter.
GIF