Exam 4 Flashcards

core values
Terms Definitions
 
organizational culture
a common perception held by the organization's members
a system of shared meaning
 
organizational culture characteristics
In every organization people talk alot (of) shit


Innovation and risk taking
Attention to detail
Outcome orientation
People Orientation
Team Orientation
Aggressiveness
Stability (vs. growth)
 
dominant culture
expresses core values shared by a majority of the organization's members
 
core values
primary or dominant values that are accepted thoughout the organization
 
strong culture
organization's core values are both intensely held and widely shared
 
subcultures
minicultures within an organization
 
climate psych
atmosphere regarding safety, customer service, diversity, and performance
 
high formalization vs strong culture
high formal: creates predictability, orderliness, and consistency

strong culture: achieves the same end without need for written document
 
culture's functions
 
social glue that help org stay together
conveys sense of identity for org members
facilitates the generation of commitment to something larger than one's individual self-interest
enhances social system stability
serves as a "sense making" and control mechanism that guides and shapes attitudes and behaviors
 
 
advantage to culture functions
when formal authority and control systems are reduced, employees show greater allegiance to their teams than the organization as a whole
 
organizational climate
shared perceptions organizational members have about their org and work environment
 
*climate--everyone person in tucson will have the same climate/weather
 
culture as a liability
Can Dee Apple

barrier to change/innovation
barrier to diversity
barrier to acquisition
 
barrier to change/innovation
when shared values are not in agreement with those that further the organization's effectiveness
 
barrier to diversity
hiring new employees who differ from the majority creates a paradox
 
*mgmt wants to demonstrate support for the differences these employees bring to workplace but newcomers who wish to fit in must accept the org's core cultural values
 
barrier to acquisition
primary cause of failure is conflicting organizational cultures
 
3 ways for culture creation
1) founders hire and keep only employees who think and feel the same way they do bid day 
2) they indoctrinate and socialize these employees to their way of thinking and feeling
pledgeship
3) the founder's own behavior encourages employees to identify with them and internalize their beliefs, values an assumptions
initation
 
sustaining a culture
Save the soy


selection
top management
socialization
 
socialization stages
 
Pregame every Monday


prearrival
encouter
metamorphosis
 
 
 
prearrival stage
period of learning that occurs before a new employee joins the org
 
 
 
 
encounter stage
the degree to which the aspiring member has correctly anticipated the expectations and desires of those in the org in charge of selection
 
metamorphosis stage
new employee changes and adjusts to job or workgroup 
 
impact of socialization process 
has an impact on the new employee's work productivity commitment to the org objectives and eventual decision of staying with the org
 
selection
 
allows employer or applicant to avoid a mismatch and sustaining an org culture by selecting those who might attack or undermine its core values
 
 
top management
senior execs establish norms that filter through the org 
 
 
 
 
socialization
process that adapts employees to the org culture
 
instituation practices
formal, collective, sequential, fixed, serial socialization programs and emphasize divestiture
 
divestiture: sale by a company of a product line subsidary or a division
 
individual practices
programs that are informal, individual, random, variable, and disjunctive, and emphasize investiture
 
investiture: action of formally investing a with honors
 
**high levels encourage person-org fit and high levels of commitment whereas individual practices produce more role innovation
 
rituals
repetitive sequences of activites that express and reinforce the key values of the org
 
material symbols
what conveys to employees who is important and what kinds of behaviors are appropriate
 
like code of conduct
 
creating an ethical organizational culture
 
be visible role model 
communicate ethical expectations
provide ethical training
reward ethical acts and punish unethical acts
provide protective mechanisms
 
 
positive organizational culture
emphasizes building on employee strengths (rewards more than it punishes) and emphasizes individual vitality and growth
 
managerial actions for creating a customer-responsive culture
 
select new employees with personality and attitudes consistent with high service orientation
train and socialize current employees to be more customer focused
change organizational structure to give employees more control
 
 
workplace spirituality
recognition that people have an inner life that nourishes and is nourished by meaningful work that takes place in the context of community
 
why you should grow interests in spirituality
 
as a couterbalance to the pressures and stress of a turbulent pace of life
people look for anchors to replace formalized religion

people question the meaning of work 
desire to intergrate personal life values with one's professional life
people are finding that more material possessions are leaving them feeling unfufilled
 
 
cultural characteristics in spritual organization
 
spirits talk to her
strong sense of purpose
trust and respect
toleration of employee expression
humanistic work practices
 
culture sensitivity
culture is extremely resistant to change
 
talk in low tone of voice
speak slowly
listen more
avoid discussions of religion and politics
 
 
KSA
typical job description set up
 
Knowledge
Skills
Abilities
 
 
selection process in organization
 
initial selection--application forms, background checks
substantive selection--written tests, performance tests, interviews
contingent selection-- final check with drug tests, background check
 
 
how job analysis is done
use sources of information like:
 
written material: employee handbook/company website
direct observation: expensive
interviews: with SME's
structured questionaires: cheap and easy
 
 
SME's
subject matter experts
people who are experts on the job
 
selection methods
references
performance-stimulation tests
physical tests
written tests
drug tests
interviews
 
 
references
 
reference checks
typically false info
previous employers typically use ceiling effect
ceiling effect: references typicaly only say positive things to be safe
 
 
 
performance-stimulation tests
work sample tests: hands on stimulation of part or all of the work that applicants for routine jobs must perform
*makes applicant do a balance sheet or tell you some ideas on the spot
 
assessment centers: evaluates a candidate's managerial potential
 
 
physical tests
make them lift something heavy or run a mile
 
*have legals issues so DO NOT do it
women and disabled people will sue you
 
written tests
 
typical test includes:
intelligent or ability tests
personality tests (do not use to hire people)
integrity tests (stupid yes/no answers)
interest inventories
 
 
types of interviews
 
unstructured: short, casual, and made up of random question
structured: exact same questions are presented in the exact same order
behavioral structured: require applicant to describe how they handled specific problems and situations in previous jobs
 
 
interview protocol
list of questions that every person being interviewed will be asked
 
types of training
boys train people indoors
 
basic literally skills
technical skills
problem solving skills
interpersonal skills
 
 
training analysis
 
organizational: what is the support for this? what are the sources?
person: who will participate in this training?
task: what tasks people do in their jobs. how will people use this training in their job? 
 
 
training methods
informal
on-the-job
off-the-job
*presentation mediums
*hands-on techniques
*group building exercises
*e-training
 
informal training
unstructured, unplanned, and easily adapted to situations and individuals
 
on-the-job training
include job rotation, apprenticeships, understudy assignments, and formal mentoring programs
 
off-the-job
live classroom lectures, videotapes, public seminars, self study programs, internet courses, satellite-banned tv classes and group activites that use role-plays and case studies
 
e-training: advantages/disadvantages
advantages: increases flexibility, fast and efficient
 
disadvantages: expensive to design self-paced online material, employees miss social interactions, online learners are more susceptible to distractions, "clicking through"  causing no assurance they are learning
 
training delivery tips
describe training objectives
use employees' experiences
give opportunites to practice skills
provide feedback
 
behavior that constitutes performance at work
the children cry
 
task performance
citizenship
counterproductivity
 
 
task performance
 
performind duties and responsibilities
 
citizenship
actions that contribute to the psychological envionment of the organization
 
counter-productivity
actions that actively damage the organization
 
purpose of performance evaluations
 
human resource decision
identify training and development needs
pinpoint employee skills and competencies
provide feedback to employees
basis for reward allocation
 
 
evaluation criteria/outcomes
individual task outcomes
behaviors
traits (weakest criteria)
 
methods of performance evaluation
written essays
critical incidents
graphing rating scales
behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS)
forced comparison
 
critical incidents
evaluating the behaviors that are key in making the difference between executing a job effectively and executing it ineffectively
 
graphing rating scales
evaluator rates performance factors on an incremental scale
 
behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS)
appraiser rates the employees based on items along a continuum, but points are examples of actual behavior on the given job rather than general descriptions or traits
 
forced comparison
evaluate one individual's performance against anothers or others
 
group order ranking: places employees into a particular classification
 
individual ranking: rank-orders employees from best to worst
 
why managers are reluctant to feedback
uncomfortable to discuss performance weaknesses directly
employees become defensive
employees tend to have inflated assessment of their own performance
 
 
solutions for improving feedback
 
train managers in giving effective feedback "gas gauge analogy"
use performance review as coaching/mentoring activity rather than judgement process
 
 
improving performance evaluations
 
use multiple evaluators to overcome rater biases
evaluate selectively based on evaluator competence
train evaluators to improve accuracy
provide employee due process
 
 
due process system feautures
individuals are provided with adequate notice of what is expected of them
all evidence related is aired in a fair hearing so individuals affected can respond
final decision is based on the evidence and free of bias
 
 
work life conflicts
org should spend less effort helping employees with time-management issues and more helping them clearly segment their lives
 
work life based strategies
time based
information based
money based
direct based
culture-change based
 
 
time based strategies
 
flextime
job sharing
leave for new parents
transportation
telecommunicating
paid time off for community service
 
 
information based strategies
 
work/life support
relocation assistance
eldercare resources
counseling
 
 
money based strategies
 
insurance subsidies
flexible benefits
adoption assistance
discounts for child-care tuition
direct financial assistance
domestic partner benefits
scholarship, tuition reimbursement
 
 
direct services strategies
 
on-site child care
fitness center
summer child care
on-site conveniences
concierge service
free or discounted company product
 
 
culture change strategies
establishing work-life balanced culture
training managers to deal with work/life conflicts
tie managers pay to employee satisfaction
focus on employes actual performance, not "face time"
 
 
360 degree evaluations
primary objective is to pool feedback from all employee's customers
 
cultural dimensions of performance evaluation
 
individualism (formal)/ collectivism(informal)
person's relationship to the enviroment
time orientation
focus on responsibility
 
 
forces that stimulate change
 
changing nature of the workforce--more cultural diversity
technology
economic shocks
competition
social trends
world politics
 
 
 
change
making things different
 
planned change
activites that are intentional and goal oriented
 
change agents
persons who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing change activities
 
sources of resistance to change
individual: habit, security, economic factors
organizational: stuctural inertia, limited focus of change, threat to expertise
 
forms of resistance for change
overt and immediate--voicing complaints, engaging in job actions
 
implicit and deferred--loss of employee loyalty motivation, increased errors or mistakes, increased absenteeism
 
 
 
factors that help change agents deal with resistance to change
 
education and communication
participation
building support and commitment
develop positive relationships
implementing changes fairly
manipulation and cooptation
selecting people who accept change
coercion
 
 
manipulation
covert influe attempts
 
cooptation
seeks to "buy off" the leaders of resistance group by giving them key role, seeking their advice not to find a better solution but to get their endorsement
 
coercion
application of direct threats or force on the resister
 
Lewin's three step model
RUM
unfreezing
movement
refreezing
 
unfreezing
changing to overcome the pressures of both individual resistance and group conformity
 
driving forces can be increased
restraining forces can be decrease
 
driving forces
direct behavior away from the status quo
 
restraining forces
hinder movement away from equilibrium
 
movement
change process that transforms the organization from the status quo to a desired end state
 
refreezing
stabilizing a change intervention by balancing and restraining forces
 
Kotter's 8-step plan for implementing change
create a sense of urgencing
forming a guiding coalition
create a vision
communicate the vision
empower other to act on the vision
create quick wins
build on the change
institutionalize the change
 
action research
change process based on the systematic collection of data and selection of change action based on what the analyzed data indicate
 
5 steps of action research
diagnosis
analysis
feedback
action
evaluation
 
organizational development
collection of change methods that try to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well-being
 
underlying values of org development efforts
respect for people
trust and support
power equalization
confrontation
participation
 
sensitivity training
training groups that seek to change behvior through structured group interaction
 
survey feedback
tool for assessing attitudes help by organizational members, identifying discrepancies among member perceptions
 
process consultation (PC)
meeting in which a consultant assists a client in understanding processess that need improvement 
 
team building
high interaction among team members to increase trust and openness
 
intergroup development
OD efforts to change the attitudes, stereotypes, and perceptions that groups have of each other
 
* popular approach is emphasizing problem solving
 
appreciative inquiry
approach that seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strength of an organization

discovery
dreaming
design
destiny
 
innovation
new idea applied to initiating or improving a product, process, or service
 
idea champions
actively and enthusiastically promote an innovation, build support, overcome resistance, and ensure that the idea is implemented
 
idea champion characteristic traits
 
extremely high self-confidence
persistence
energy
tendency to take risks
display characteristcs associated with tranformatinal leadership
 
 
learning organization
developed the continuous capacity to adapt to change
 
single-loop learning
process of correcting errors using past routines and present policies
 
double-loop learning
process of correcting errors by modifying the organization's objectives, policies, and standard routines
 
remedy for three fundamental problems
fragmentation
competition
reactiveness
 
how to fix:
estabilish a strategy
redesign the org structure
reshape org culture
 
stress
when an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint, or demand for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important
 
*stress is associated with demands and resources
 
challenge stressors
associated with workload, pressure to complete tasks, and time urgency
 
*prevent less strain than hindrance stress
 
hindrance stressors
keep you from reaching your goals
 
organizational factors of stress
role overload: employee is expected to do too much
 
role ambiguity: role expectation are not clear
 
 
individual differences
experience: tends to be negatively related to work stress
 
wellness programs
org support programs that focus on the employees total physical and mental condition
 
5 steps to work/life balance
identify priorities
set goals
assess the present
make and take action plans
 
 
superhuman syndrome
people who aspire to accomplish what is most important to them, and, and the same time, enjoy their relationships and lives
 
alternating strategies
concentrate heavily on career during certain periods of their lives, but then cut way back or even stop work for periods of time
 
organizational citizenship
behaviors that go above and beyond job requirements
 
**flexible work options increases oc
 
time log
chart that keeps track of what one does with their time
 
personalize success
based on one's goals and priorities, and to be sure to celebrate those successes
 
set boundaries
based on life priorities and goals
 
*learning to say no and insisting these limits are respected
 
bundling
finding ways to spend time that combine aspects of multiple goals
 
to-do list prioritizing
top drawer: most essential and desired items
 
middle drawer: can be put off for a while but still important
 
bottom drawer: put off for a long time without any harm
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