Microbial Interactions - Exam 3 - Microbiology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
A type of symbiosis in which microorganisms grow within the host cells
Endosymbiosis
A type of symbiosis in which microorganisms are attached but remain outside of the host cell
Ectosymbiosis
Symbiosis is usually restricted to which form: Parasitism, Commensalism, Mutalism
Mutualism
A type of symbiosis in which both organisms benefit from the associations
Mutalism
What are some examples of mutalism?
Nitrogen fixation, lichen, mycorrhizae, flashlight fishes, symbionts of protozoa, symbionts of insects, and symbiosis in ruminants
Generally refers to the natural process by which nitrogen (N2) in the atmosphere is converted to ammonia.
Nitrogen Fixation
Gram-negative heterotrophic soil bacteria that form symbiotic relationships with plants of the legume family.
Rhizobia
List some examples of the legume family
Clover, Soybeans, Alfalpha, Peanuts
A flowering plant commonly known as the legume family
Fabaceae
A genus of nitrogen fixing bacteria that live in symbiosis with actinorhizal plants
Actinomycetes
Bacteria of this genus form root nudules and are similar to the gram-negative bacteria rhizobia.
Frankia
What genus does the Australian pine belong to?
Casuarina
What genus does the alder belong to?
Alnus
What genus does the California lilac belong to?
Ceanothus
Lichens are slow growers
1-2 mm per year
Mycorrhizae - symbiosis between fungi and plants - non pathogenic
Plants - mineral nutrients form fungi. Fungi - carbohydrate for growth from plant
Two major types of mycorrhizae?
Ectomycorrhiza and Endomycorrhiza
Ectomycorrhizae: woody plants such as pine oak and birch form ectomycorrhizae with fungi
Mycelium of ectomycorrhizal fungi forms a sheath or mantle around the roots of symbiont
From the mantle or sheath: hyphal network extends into roots
Hyphal network --> Hartig net (named after Robert Hartig)
Hyphal network extends into the roots, between the cells, but not penetrate into the cortical cells
~80% vascular plants form endomycorrhizae
Which bacteria are used during yogurt production, innoculation
Lacto del Strep therm
Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Streptococcus thermophilus
Two main types of butter
sweet cream, cultured butter
Which bacteria are used during butter production, cultured butter
Lacto diace, Leu citro
Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc citrovorum
Lacto diace Leu citro
Cultured butter
Yogurt production: Which bacteria produces the acid? Which bacteria produces the flavor?
Strep produces the acid, Lacto produces the flavor.
What test is performed to determine whether raw milk pasteurization was performed correctly
The Phosphatase Test
What is the phosphatase test?
The enzyme phosphatase is destroyed during pasteurization and therefore the absence of this enzyme indicates pasteurization would performed correctly
What does the enzyme phosphatase degrade?
Disodium phenylphosphate to phenol and sodium phosphate
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