psychology rathus chapter 6-Learning Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Learning is a relatively _______ change in behavior that arises from _______ or _________
permanent, practice, experience
According to COGNITIVE psychologists, learning may be a ______ change that may not be associated with changes in ______
mental, behavior
Classical conditioning is a simple form of associative learning tha enables organisms to ______ events.
anticipate
Reflexes are simple automatic responses to _______
stimuli
Stimulus is an evnironmental condition that evokes a _______ from an organism.
response
______ discovered that reflexes can also be learned through association.These learned reflexes are referred to as ______ ______
Pavlov, conditioned responses (CR)
When the dogs learned to salivate to the sound of a bell (previously neutral) the bell became the ____ ____ and the salivation in response to the bell is a ____ ____
conditioned stimulus (CS)conditioned response (CR)
Taste aversions are examples of ____ ____. They are adaptive to the organism as they motivate them to avoid petentially harmful food.
classical conditioning
The taste aversion is different than classical conditioning because only one ____ may be required. The __ and __ do not have to be contiguous
associationUS, CS
The Law of Effect is _______ principle that responses are "stamed in" by ____ and "stamped out" by _____
Thorndike'srewardspunishments
A simple form of learning in which an organism learns to engage in behavior because it is reinforced is called ___________ conditioning.
Operant
Burrhus Frederic Skinner has 3 historical contributions. what are they?
1. the skinner box2. programmed learning3. the book "Walden II"
Any stimulus which increases the probability that responses preceding it will be repeated serves as a ______
reinforcer
With sufficient reinforcement operants become _____
habits
Immediate reinforcers are more effective than _____ reinforcers.
delayed
_______ reinforcersa re effective because of an organism's biological makeup.
primary
Secondary reinforcers acquire their value thru being associated with established _______. Sometimes called _________ reinforcers.
reinforcersconditioned
_______ occurs as a result of repeated performance of operant behavior without reinforcement.
extinction
spontaneous recovery occurs in operant conditioning. the reward returns and the behavior ________
increases
results of using punishment: children are less likely to develop internal _____ standards. physical punishment is connected with ____ parent/child relationships.
moralpoorer
results of using punishment: physically punished children are more likely to be _____ toward other children and abuse their _______ or their own _______.
aggressivespouses, children
Why not use physical punishment: it hurts. punished individuals may _____ from situation (family, school, etc)
withdraw
psychologists recommend rewarding good behavior or ignoring misbehavior by using ___ ____
time out
wh must pay attention to children when they are ______ well. we must be certain that children are CAPABLE of performing _______ behaviour
behavingdesired
Operant conditioning is when an organism learns to engage in behavior becuase it is __________
reinforced
Operant conditiong: continuous reinforcement - reinforcement after ______ response
every
partial reinforcemtn can also _______ behavior, but is more resistant to ______.
maintainextinction
Interval schedules: Fixed intervals: fixed amount of time must elapse between __________. Variable interval: a variable amount of time occurs b/w ________.
reinforcementsreinforcements
shaping is a procedure for teaching complex behaviors that at first _________small steps toward the target behavior.
reinforces
latent learning: Tolman showed that rats learn about their environment in the __________ of reinforcement.
absence
Learning might remain hidden (or latent) until ther were ________ to behave
motivated
______ _______ proposed that we can acquire operants by observing the behavior of others
Albert Bandura
A person who engages in a response to be imitated is a ________
model.
_________ are said to be vicariously (feel as tho they are actually experience it) reinforced.
observers
If a child watches __ to __ hrs of TV a day, he/she will have seen 8,000 murders and 100,000 acts of violence by the end of elementary school
2 4
Bandura, Ross & Ross conducted a study using a ____ ____
bobo doll
They found that childrend who had observed the agressive model showed signigicantly more ____ behavior toward the doll themselves.
aggressive
Observing the model also disinhibited previously learned agressive _______
responses.
Violence is often shown to have only ____ or minimual effects.
temporary
Few TV programs show harmful ____-term effects.
long
8 ways in which depictions of violence contribute to violence are:1.observational ___ 2.disinhibition 3. increased emotional ___ 4.priming of aggressive thoughts and _____ 5. habituation 6. assumption that violence is ____. 7. decreases the likelihood th
learning, arousal, memories, acceptable, action, violence
4 family constellations may contribute to aggression. parental ____ abuse, paternal _____ punishments, _____ motherhood, _____ rejection
substancephysicalsingleparental
children act less aggresively when they are told that violent behavior they ____ in the media does notrepresent the behavior of most people.
observe
children act less aggresively when they are told that the apparently aggressive behavior they watch are not ____
real
children act less aggresively when they are told that most people resolve conflicts by _____ means.
nonviolent
children act less aggresively when they are told that the real-life consequences of violence are ____ to the victim.
harmful
Counterconditioning is a ____ stimulus repeatedly paired with a ____-evoking object, thereby counteracting the fear response.
pleasantfear
Flooding is when the client is exposed to the fear-evoking stimulus until the fear response is _____
extinguished
Flooding is usually effective but _______
unpleasant
Systematic desensitization is when the client is _____ exposed to fear-evoking stimuli under circumstances in which they remain _____
graduallyrelaxed
The Bell and Pad Treament for ___ _____. Children are taught to wake up in response to ______ tension.
bed wetting.bladder
Biofeedback training: Gaining Bleep Control-enables people to learn tocontrol _____ responses in order to attain reinforcement.
autonomic
Behavior Modification in the class room-teachers are taught to pay attention to children when they are _______ _______. Works well with _____ children. Older children: ____ approval is often more powerful
behaving appropriatelypeer
Programmed Learning: step by step-this method assumes that any complex task can be brokend down into a number of small steps which can be combined in sequence to form the correct behavioral ______
chain
Contingency theory: suggests that learning occurs only when the _____ stimulus provides information about the unconditioned stimulus.
conditioned
Rescorla concluded that the co-appearace of two events cannot in itself explain classical conditiong. Instrea, learning occurs only when the _______ stimulus provides info about the ____ stimulus.
conditionedunconditioned
Learning theory occurs because a ______ stimulus indicates the the _____ stimuls is likely to follow.
conditionedunconditioned
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Definition:

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