USF MCB 3020C VANDENBERGH MICROBIOLOGY TEST 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Symbiosis
This term describes an intimate association between different organisms of different species.
This term describes an intimate association between different organisms of different species.
Symbiosis
Symbiosis is divided into WHAT groups
endosymbiosis AND ectosymbiosis
endosymbiosis
the microbe grows within the host cell
ectosymbiosis
the microorganism remains outside the host cell but may be attached.
in this type of symbiosis the microorganism remains outside the host cell but may be attached.
ectosymbiosis
in this type of symbiosis the microbe grows within the host cell
endosymbiosis
name the types of associations Symbiosis is Usually categorized into
mutualism, parasitism, commensalism
Mutualism
both species benefit.
Parasitism
one species benefits (parasite), the host is harmed. Usually the parasite is smaller than the host. Sometimes these associations last a long time.
Commensalism
one organism is benefited, the other is not affected.
in this association of symbiosis
one species benefits, the host is harmed. Usually the subject is smaller than the host. Sometimes these associations last a long time.
Parasitism
in this association of symbiosis
one organism is benefited, the other is not affected.
Commensalism
in this association of symbiosis
both species benefit.
Mutualism
T/F there is always a clear distinction between the different associations of symbiosis(mutualism,parasitism,commensalism)
False,sometimes diseases or therapies can change a mutualistic relationship into a parasitic one.
name all given examples of mutualism
nitrogen fixation, lichen, mycorrhiza associations, flashlight fishes, in protozoans, in insects, in ruminants.
nitrogen fixation
This example of mutualism involves a symbiotic relationship between a Gram negative bacterium and certain plants of the legume family The association results in the formation of root nodules and the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen.
This example of mutualism involves a symbiotic relationship between a Gram negative bacterium and certain plants of the legume family
nitrogen fixation
name the gram negative bacterium involved in nitrogen fixation with the legumes
Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Azorhizobium
Rhizobium
gram negative bacterium involved in nitrogen fixation with the legumes
Bradyrhizobium
gram negative bacterium involved in nitrogen fixation with the legumes
Azorhizobium
gram negative bacterium involved in nitrogen fixation with the legumes
_____to_____ times more nitrogen is fixed symbiotically than non symbiotically
Five to ten times more nitrogen is fixed symbiotically than non symbiotically
T/F the association between the microbe and the plant in nitrogen fixation is not specific
False, the association between the microbe and the plant in nitrogen fixation is highly specific
_________
converts gaseous nitrogen into a useable form. It increases the available nitrogen for the plant.
Nitrogen fixation
nitrogen fixation
converts gaseous nitrogen into a useable form. It increases the available nitrogen for the plant.
when Rhizobium infects the leguminous plant the plant secretes this compound that attracts the Rhizobium
flavonoid compounds
Rhizobium are attracted to which area of the leguminous
the root area
Rhizobium have a set of ___ genes that are constitutively expressed. The ___ gene recognizes specific flavonoids secreted by plant roots.
nod/nodD
In the presence of this _____, the transcription of the remaining nod genes occur in
Rhizobium
flavonoid
In the presence of this flavonoid, the transcription of the remaining _____genes occur in Rhizobium
nod
nod genes in Rhizobium
encode for such things as root hair curling, nodule development etc
These genes encode for such things as root hair curling, nodule development etc in the Rhizobium
nod genes
the bacteria rhizobium are rich with this enzyme that enables them to fix atmospheric nitrogen
nitrogenase
nitrogenase
enzyme in Rhizobium that enables them to fix atmospheric nitrogen
Nitrogen fixation continues in the plant until _______ then it ceases
seed formation
Frankia
another Nitrogen Fixing bacteria
an actinomycete forms a symbiotic relationship with Australian pine trees, and over 180 other plants.
This process requires large amounts of energy, up to 30 moles of ATP. The energy expenditure is to reduce the N≡N bond.
Nitrogen Fixation
Nitrogen Fixation
his process requires large amounts of energy, up to 30 moles of ATP. The energy expenditure is to reduce the N≡N bond.
the nitrogenase enzyme consists of what 2 distinct protiens
nitrogenase and nitrogenase reductase
nitrogenase and nitrogenase reductase both contain what element
Iron
The complete genes for nitrogen fixation and nitrogenase have been determined and sequenced on the ______ genes
NIF
on the nif genes _____ have been
determined on this gene cluster
20
the nif genes have been determined to contain _____ operons
7
what are the requirements of nitrogenase to fix atmospheric nitrogen
The nitrogenase enzyme requires ATP and Mg and a reducing agent, (ferrodoxins)
what is the name of the reducing agent the nitrogenase enzyme requires for nitrogen fixation
ferrodoxins
what is the purpose of the ferrodoxins(reducing agents) in the nitrogenase enzyme
The reducing agents transfer the electrons to the nitrogenase reductase
rhizobiums enzyme nitrogenase is sensitve to what (or will cause a inactivation of enzyme)
oxygen
rhizobium evolved a mechanism to protect the nitrogenous enzyme from oxygen this acts as a oxygen scavenger in Rhizobium
a red hemoglobin protein
A plant like structure made up of a fungus, and a algae or cyanobacterium living mutualistically
Lichen
Lichen
A plant like structure made up of a fungus, and a algae or cyanobacterium living mutualistically
in the lichen relationship between fungus and algae or cyanobacterium the fungus provides what
the support to anchor the lichen to the surface, the fungal hyphae tightly pack around the algal cells
in the lichen relationship between fungus and algae the fungus also
absorbs water from the environment
in the lichen relationship between fungus and algae the algae provides
photosynthesis which provides organic compounds to the fungus
lichens are sensitive to WHAT
pollution
Mycorrhiza
symbiotic relation ship between fungi and vascular plants
symbiotic relation ship between fungi and vascular plants
Mycorrhiza
in mycorrhiza fungi do what for plants in this symbiotic mutualistic relationship
increase the surface area of the roots to help with the absorption of minerals
what types of Mycorrhiza are known to be found in nature
endomycorrhizae and Ectomycorrhizae
Ectomycorrhizae
surround the plant roots but do not penetrate
endomycorrhizae
the most common mychorrhizae, organic compounds produced by the plant attract the fungus the fungal hyphae form intracellular vesicles in the plants cortical cells
in this type of mycorrhizae organic compounds produced by the plant attract the fungus the fungal hyphae form intracellular vesicles in the plants cortical cells
endomycorrhizae
in this type of miycorrhizae the fungus suuround the plant roots but do not penetrate
Ectomycorrhizae
mycorrhiza help the plant to absorb what element
phosphorus
the sybiotic relationship from this organism between the anomalopidae fish family are a type of luminescent bacteria these fish are also known in flashlight fish
Photobacterium and Vibrio
Photobacterium and Vibrio bacteria
are the organism that provide luminescence in flashlight fish
what type of enzme is produced by photobacterium that break down aldehydes to give light for luminescence
luciferase
this was discovered in the process in discovering bioluminescence
Quorum Sensing
Quorum Sensing
a single bacterium is able to sense a critical mass of bacteria
a single bacterium is able to sense a critical mass of bacteria
Quorum Sensing
Quorum Sensing was determined from the discovery of what signal molecule
N-acyl homoserine lactone
N-acyl homoserine lactone(AHL)
the signal molecule that allows a single bacterium to sense a critical mass of bacteria (i.e quorum sensing)
True or False
N-acyl homoserine lactone(AHL)is produced intially at high levels, as it decreases it induces expression of the luminescence genes
False N-acyl homoserine lactone is produced initailly at low levels, as it increases it induces expression of the luminescence genes
mutualism between what protozoa and a bacteria
Paramecium aurelia
Paramecium aurelia
protozoa that has mutualistic symbiotic relation ship with bacteria
true or false
during the mutualistic relation ship between the protozoan Paramecium aurelia and bacteria the bacteria infect the protozoa and they produce toxic particles that kill sensitive strains but not killer strains
true
the giant amoeba have 2 types of endo symbiotes that seem to function as what cellular structure in the amoeba
mitochondria
some protozoa bacteria produce what enzyme that helps them break down what substrate for digestion
cellullases/ cellulose
cellulases
enzyme in protozoa bacteria that assists in cellulose digestion
cellulase producing bacteria help break down what in the guts of insects
wood
wood is broken down by what enzyme produced by a bacteria
cellulase
the name of this symbiot is represented by plant eating mammals and bacteria
Ruminants
Ruminants
Ruminants are plant eating mammals that are incable of breaking the beta 1,4 linkage in cellulose whithout the help of the symbiotic bacteria
true or false bacteria assist ruminants to break down the beta
1,4 linkage in cellulose in the rumen of these animals
true
Rumen
Large organ, 100 liters in a cow, 6 liters in a sheep. Anaerobic environment contains (10)^10 bacteria /ml.
the rumen is an anaerobic enviroment that contains how many bacteria per ml
(10)^10 bacteria /ml.
true or false the bacteria in the rumen are aerobic cellulose degraders
False the bacteria in the rumen are anaerobic cellulose degraders
list the cellulose degrading bacteria that are located in the rumen
Bacteroides, Ruminococcus, Butyrivibrio.
Bacteroides, Ruminococcus, Butyrivibrio.
cellulose degrading bacteria located in the rumen
list the starch degrading bacteriea located in the rumen of plant eating mamamals.
Bacteroides, Succinomonas, Selenomonas
Bacteroides, Succinomonas, Selenomonas
starch degrading bacteriea located in the rumen of plant eating mamamals
list the methane producing bacteria located in the rumen of
plant eating mammals
Methanobrevibacter
Methanobrevibacter
methane producing bacteria located in the rumen of
plant eating mammals
name the major acids formed by bacterial fermentation in the rumen.
acetic, propionic, and butyric acids
acetic, propionic, and butyric acids
the major acids formed in the rumen as a result of bacterieal fermentation these acids enter the blood stream and provide energy for cows
name the products formed by bacterial fermentation in the rumen of cows (incidently also all plant eating mammals that have rumen)
carbohydrates, proteins, organic acids, and gases
carbohydrates, proteins, organic acids, and gases are products of WHAT
bacterial fermentation of cellulose or starch in the rumen of rumen containing mammals
WHAT is the true stomach of the rumen, fully degrades the plant material before it passes to the intestine for absorption
abomasum
abomasum
the true stomach of the rumen, fully degrades the plant material before it passes to the intestine for absorption
True Or False Rechewed material flows from the mouth into the reticulum, bypassing the rumen, omasum, abomasum
True
Parasitism
This symbiosis is often associated with diseases in plants and animals.
This symbiosis is often associated with diseases in plants and animals.
Parasitism
these are obligate predators of Gram negative bacteria, survive only on other bacteria. All members of this genus, posses a long sheathed flagellum, penetrate its prey via the periplasmic space, grow as filaments inside this space
Bdellovibrio
Bdellovibrio
A curved Gram negative bacterium that has the unique property of preying on other bacteria
Name the primary prey for the bdellovibrio and describe what occurs during infection of this
bacteria
They attack other Gram negative bacteria, they bore through the outer membrane of the host, causes leakage grows on the nutrients of the host cell. The host cell lysis and releases new Bdellovibrio.
name the predator that parasitizes the mitochondria of Ixodes ticks
Rickettsiales
name the host for the predatory bacteria Rickettsiales
the mitochondria of Ixodes ticks
name the six predatory bacteria discussed in class
Rickettsiales
Myxococcales
Bdellovibrioales
both of the δ-proteobacterium phylum
Myxobacteria
Bdellovibrio
this predatory bacteria is a are facultative predators that feed on a wide array of alive or dead bacteria
Myxobacteria
the genomes for predatory bacteria encode for what type of enzyme
hydrolytic enzymes
true or false in the bacrterial world predator y size matters meanning small cannot eat big
false Size doesn’t matter, ie in the bacterial world “small eats big” Predators couple feeding with multiplication
Obligate intracellular parasites that cause disease in birds and humans. They are the agents of psittacosis, trachoma, lymphogranuloma venereum.
Chlamydiae
Chlamydiae
Obligate intracellular parasites that cause disease in birds and humans. They are the agents of psittacosis, trachoma, lymphogranuloma venereum
True or false
Chlamydiae have a distinct cycle of replication, grow only inside host cells, their cell walls resemble Gram negative bacteria and contain muramic acid.
False Chlamydiae have a distinct cycle of replication, grow only inside host cells, their cell walls resemble Gram negative bacteria but lack muramic acid
causes psittacosis
Chlamydia psittaci
Chlamydia psittaci
causes psittacosis
causes ocular, respiratory, and genital infections
Chlamydia trachomatis
Chlamydia trachomatis
causes ocular, respiratory, and genital infections
causes atypical pneumonia.
Chlamydia pneumoniae
Chlamydia pneumoniae
causes atypical pneumonia.
Chlamydia psittaci
causes psittacosis natural host birds, transmitted to humans via the inhalation of dried bird feces. This is a pneumonia
causes psittacosis natural host birds, transmitted to humans via the inhalation of dried bird feces. This is a pneumonia
Chlamydia psittaci
Chlamydia trachomatis
causes Urethritis, pneumonia, conjunctivitis natural host humans, mode of transmission, sexual contact, perinatal transmission.
causes Urethritis, pneumonia, conjunctivitis natural host humans, mode of transmission, sexual contact, perinatal transmission.
Chlamydia trachomatis
Chlamydia pneumoniae
causes Atypical pneumonia natural host humans, mode of transmission via respiratory droplets
causes Atypical pneumonia natural host humans, mode of transmission via respiratory droplets
Chlamydia pneumoniae
describe the replicative cycle of chlamydia
Replicative cycle: the small, inert extracellular elementary body (EB) enters the cell and becomes the larger metabolically active reticulate body (RB). The RB, undergoes binary fission to form daughter EB, these are released from the cell.
EB’s enter a host cell by inducing phagocytosis, RB’s replicate in vacoules in the host cell.
what stain is used in the laboratory diagnosis of chlamydia
Chlamydiae form cytoplasmic inclusions, which are seen with special stains, Giemsa’s stain. Chlamydiae can only be grown in cell cultures.
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