Lifespan Development Midterm 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
What is puberty?
The time between the first onrush of hormones and full adult physical development
What are hormones?
Organic chemical substances that are produced by one body tissue and conveyed via the bloodstream to another to affect some physiological function
Which are sex hormones?
Estradiol and testosterone
Define and differentiate between spermarche and menarche
Menarche is a girl's first menstral period, signaling she has begun ovulation. Spermarche is a boy's first ejaculation
What is HPA axis and what does it do?
HPA is the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis which is a route that many kinds of hormones follow to trigger changes of puberty and bodily changes.
Define and differentiate between primary and secondary sex characteristics
Primary Sex Characteristics:

the parts of the body that are directly involved in reproduction, including the vagina, uterus, ovaries, testicles, and penis

Secondary Sex Characteristics:
physical traits that are not directly involved in reproduction but that indicate sexual maturity, such as a man’s beard and a woman’s breasts
What is adolescent egocentrism?
a characteristic of adolescent thinking that leads young people (ages 10-13) to focus on themselves to the exclusion of others
Define and differentiate between invincibility fable and imaginary audience.
Invincibility fable:
an adolescent’s egocentric conviction that he or she cannot be overcome or even harmed by anything that might defeat a normal mortal

Imaginary audience:

the other people who, in an adolescent’s egocentric belief, are watching, and taking note of, his or her appearance, ideas, and behavior
In Piaget’s theory, what is formal operational thought?
Cognitive development characterized by more systematic logic and the ability to think about abstract ideas
What is hypothetical thought?
Reasoning that includes propositions possibilities that may not reflect reality
Define and differentiate between deductive and inductive reasoning
Deductive Reasoning:

reasoning from a general statement, premise, or principle, through logical steps, to figure out (deduce) specifics—top-down thinking

Inductive Reasoning
reasoning from one or more specific experience or facts to a general conclusion, may be less cognitively advanced than deduction—bottom-up reasoning
Define and differentiate between analytic and intuitive thought
Intuitive Thoughts:

thought that arises from an emotion or a hunch, beyond rational explanation—past experiences, cultural assumptions, and sudden impulses are the precursors of intuitive thought—contextualized or experiential thought

Analytic Thought:

thought that results from analysis, such as a systematic ranking of pros and cons, risks and consequences, possibilities and facts… analytic thought depends on logic and rationality
What is Erikson’s fifth stage of psychosocial development?
Identity versus Role Confusion

Erikson’s terms for the fifth stage of development, in which the person tries to figure out “Who am I?” but is confused as to which of many possible roles to adopt.
What is identity?
A consistent definition of one’s self as a unique individual, in terms of roles, attitudes, beliefs, and aspirations.
What is identity achievement?
Erikson’s term for the attainment of identity, or the point at which a person understands who he or she is as a unique individual, in accord with past experiences and future plans.
What is identity diffusion?
identity diffusion is the opposite of identity achievement…
it is a situation in which an adolescent does not seem to know or care what his or her identity is.
What is identity foreclosure?
Erickson’s term for premature identity formation, which occurs when an adolescent adopts parents’ or society’s roles and values wholesale, without questioning and analysis
What is moratorium?
A way for adolescents to postpone making identity achievement choices by finding an accepted way to avoid identity achievement.
What is a clique?
A group of adolescents made up of close friends who are loyal to one another while excluding outsiders
What is a crowd?
A large group of adolescents who have something in common but who are not necessarily related
What is peer pressure?
social pressure to conform to peer activities
What is comorbidity?
a situation in which two or more unreleated illnesses or disorders occur at the same time
Define suicidal ideation.
Thoughts of suicide without the suicidal act itself
Define parasuicide
Attempted suicides and self-injury
Define and differentiate between incidence and prevalence
Incidence:

How often a particular behavior or circumstance occurs

Prevalence:

How widespread within a population a particular behavior or circumstance is
Define senescence
the process of aging, whereby the body becomes less strong and efficient
Define homeostasis.
the adjustment of the body’s systems to keep physiological functions in a state of equilibrium
What is organ reserve?
the capacity of young adults’ organs to allow the body to cope with stress
Define and differentiate between Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa.
Anorexia Nervosa:

a serious eating disorder in which a person restricts eating to the point of emaciation and possible starvation

Bulimia Nervosa:
an eating disorder in which the person, usually female, engages repeatedly in episodes of binge eating followed by purging through induced vomiting or use of laxatives
Define and differentiate between drug abuse and drug addiction.
Drug Abuse:
the ingestion of a drug to the extent that it impairs the user’s biological or psychological well-being

Drug Addiction:
a condition of drug dependence in which the absence of the given drug in the individual's system produces a drive—physiological, psychological, or both—to ingest more of the drug
What is delay discounting?
the tendency to under-value, or downright ignore, future consequences and rewards in favor of more immediate gratification
What are social norms?
the standards of behavior within a given society or culture
What is postformal thought?
following Piaget’s fourth, a stage that goes beyond adolescent thinking by being more practical, more flexible, and more dialectical
Define and differentiate between subjective and objective thought
Subjective Thought:

rises from the personal experiences and perceptions of an individual

Objective Thought:

devalues subjective feelings, personal faith, and emotional experience while overvaluing objective, logical thinking
What is dialectical thought?
a most advanced cognitive process, characterized by the ability to consider a thesis and its antithesis simultaneously and thus to arrive at a synthesis
What is a thesis?
a proposition or statement of belief; the first stage of the process of dialectical thinking
What is an antithesis?
a proposition or statement of belief that opposes the thesis; the second stage of the process of dialectical thinking
What is synthesis?
a new idea that integrates the thesis and its antithesis, thus representing a new and more comprehensive level of truth; the third stage of the process of dialectical thinking
In Gilligan’s view, what is the difference between morality of care and morality of justice?
Morality of care:

moral principles that reflect the tendency of females to be reluctant to judge right and wrong in absolute terms because they are socialized to be nurturant, compassionate, and nonjudgmental

Moral principles that reflect the tendency of males to emphasize justice over compassion, judging right and wrong in absolute terms
What is Erikson’s sixth stage of psychosocial development?
intimacy versus isolation:

the sixth of Erikson’s eight stages of development… adults seek someone with whom to share their lives in an enduring and self-sacrificing commitment… without such commitment they risk profound aloneness and isolation
Define and differentiate between homogamy and heterogamy.
homogamy:

marriage between individuals who tend to be similar with respect to such variables as attitudes, interest, goals, socioeconomic status, religion, ethnic background, and local origin

heterogamy:
marriage between individuals who tend to be dissimilar with respect to such variables as attitudes, interest, goals, socioeconomic status, religion, ethnic background, and local origin
Define social exchange theory.
the view that social behavior is a process of exchange aimed at maximizing the benefits one receives and minimizing the costs one pays
What is diathesis-stress model?
the view that mental disorders, such as schizophrenia, are produced by the interaction of a genetic vulnerability (the diathesis) with stressful environmental factors and life events
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