Ohio State Biology 101 Final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
people should collect data before making judgments
Francis Bacon, who is often credited with the scientific method, believed:
data driven, scientific method, and by trial and error
Three ways in which science is done in the modern world are:
good science matches its results to its conclusions
One way to tell good science from bad science is:
capturing energy
Living things escape the natural tendency towards disorder by
the cell
The fundamental unit of living things is:
homeostasis
Maintenance of a constant and moderate internal environment by living things is called:
the emergent properties of life
Properties of life that appear from the arrangement of single molecules to higher and higher levels of
from the bottom up
Emergence occurs:
the parts and the local rules of how they interact
Emergence is dependent on two factors
to accept or rationalize contradictions from their own candidate
According to modern studies, when analyzing political candidates, partisans are most likely:
is a way of attaching long-term meaning to sensory information
A belief:
natural causality and universality
Assumptions that underlie the scientific worldview are:
is backed by a comprehensive amount of studies
In science, the word "theory" is used different than the common use of the word because a scientific theory:
to test our beliefs and make the world more predictable
According to class discussion, the two primary reasons why we as humans do science are:
Francis Bacon
The sixteenth century scientists/philosophers who promoted using inductive rather than deductive reasoning
at all levels
In biology, structure and function are correlated
starch is branched, cellulose is long and fibrous
The difference between starch and cellulose is best described as:
oxygen
Which of the following element is the most electronegative?
Saturated, increased packing
Fatty acids that are more _______________ tend to be solid at room temperature because of
lipids (fats)
Which of the following "molecules of life" form the most effective barrier to water and other polar
lipids
On a gram per gram basis, the macromolecules with the most energy are:
75 kg
An average size human male weighs about 75 kg. The amount of ATP an average human male uses in a
glycerol groups
Which of the following do not make-up portions of the structures of nucleic acids?
amino acids
The building blocks (monomers) of proteins are:
collagen is a protein that binds oxygen in both plants and animals
Which of the following is not true of the protein collagen?
long hydrocarbon chains; exclude water
Waxes are made of __________ and serve primarily in biology to ________:
have a strong pull towards other atoms' electrons
Atoms like oxygen that are highly electronegative:
The polarity of water allows it to dissolve hydrophobic chains
Which of the following is not a property of water that allows it to support life?
autopoiesis
The cells that make up the human liver are completely replaced with new liver cells within about 3 months
both the organism and the mechanism of reproduction.
Genetic continuity means when organisms reproduce they reproduce:
their ability to cross the street with human traffic
In crows, pattern recognition and conscious awareness is demonstrated by:
they are always moving around and they are sticky
Self-assembly at the molecular level is possible because of which two properties of molecules?
ACT TAT GAG
Which of the following DNA sequences is the most related to the original?
at all levels
In biology, structure and function are correlated:
DNA is a double helix, RNA is a single strand
A difference between DNA and RNA is that:
proteins
Which of the following macromolecules is made of a choice of twenty monomers:
carbon dioxide, a small non-polar molecule
Which of the following molecules would have the easiest time crossing the phospholipids bilayer without a
the fluid nature of the cell membrane and the many proteins imbedded in the cell membrane
The fluid mosaic model refers to:
more solid
Cholesterol and saturated fats imbedded into lipid rafts in the cell membrane make that portion of the
either a carrier or a channel
If a molecule is too polar or too large to traverse the membrane, it must go through __________ to get from
a carrier changes shape and cycles from one side of the membrane to the other
The difference between a channel and a carrier is that:
an extension of the nuclear envelope
The endoplasmic reticulum in a eukaryotic cell is:
move locations in in the cell membrane over time
If channel proteins act like the phospholipids observed in the cell fusion experiment by Frye and Edidin
Bacteria
According to class discussion and the film Origins, which of the following dominated Earth for the longest
photosynthesis, bacteria
The great liberator, which allowed life to spread on the surface of the earth was __________ and was first
It was difficult because there were no protected environments for life to begin from chemicals
According to the film Origins showed in class, which of the following statements is not true concerning life
the development of cellular life in stages hypothesis
Concerning the origin of life on earth, scientists today most favor:
formation of self-replicating molecules of DNA
Which of the following has not been accomplished by scientists studying the origin of life?
Air, water, and electricity
Stanley Miller's experiments simulating the formation of life included:
RNA can copy itself and evolve
Which of the following is the reason why RNA is favored over DNA as the "original" information carrier?
biogenesis
The idea that living organisms come from other living organisms is called:
endoplasmic reticulum
The cellular organelle responsible for allowing many proteins to fold correctly is the:
lipid vesicles
Large contents are moved along tracks in the cell from one membrane organelle in the endomembrane
llama
Hemoglobin binds most tightly in the:
changes a single amino acid in hemoglobin
Sickle cell anemia, a hemoglobin-related disease is caused by a genetic mutation that:
4,000,000,000 years old
Scientists estimate life on earth to be about:
all of the answers listed
Cells use energy for:
with their gradient (from high concentration to low concentration)
Energy in the cell can be made into ATP by the motor protein when protons flow:
an electrochemical gradient
The spatial variation of chemical concentrations and charges across a membrane is known as:
a carrier and ATP
Active transport requires:
a lock and a key
Concerning enzymes and their substrates, which analogy is most accurate?
air
A tree is made mostly from:
carbon dioxide, a small non-polar molecule
Which of the following molecules would have the easiest time crossing the phospholipids bilayer without a
any one of the above
If a molecule is too polar or too large to traverse the membrane, it must go through a __________ to get from
a channel is open from one side of the membrane to the other
Which of the following descriptions best fit a channel in the membrane?
all of the above
Cell energy comes in the following forms:
branched or folded
In biology, when surface area is favored over volume, structures are:
the phosphate group
Energy from ATP, a nucleotide, comes from:
proteins
Enzymes (biological catalysts) come primarily from which branch of macromolecules?
active
In __________ transport, molecules are moved across a membrane against their gradient with the addition
passive
In __________ transport, molecules are moved across a membrane with their gradient.
a late product and an early enzyme
Feedback inhibition involves:
an early substrate and a late enzyme
Feed forward activation involves:
they fit together because of complimentary size, shape, and charge
Enzymes bind their substrates because:
ATP
The energy currency of the cell is:
endosymbiosis can occur between two distinct organisms
Experiments in the 1980s by Kwang Jeon demonstrated that:
water
Electrons stripped from chlorophyll are replaced in the light reactions by electrons from:
ATP
One result of the light reactions of photosynthesis is:
a proton gradient passing through the ATPase motor
ATP is made in the light reactions of photosynthesis by:
works with accessory pigments in the photo part of photosynthesis
A chlorophyll pigment:
chlorophyll after sunlight hits it
As discussed in class, the most electronegative molecule known to biology, ie the one with the strongest
contains chlorophyll, highly folded
The inner chloroplast membrane _________ and is ________.
mitochondria and chloroplasts
Which of the following organelles is thought to have an endosymbiotic origin?
incorporation of mitochondria as an endosymbiont
Which event occurred first in the history of life on earth?
all of the above
Purple halophile bacteria use the protein bacteriorhodopsin to:
light
Oxygen is produced in the __________ reactions of photosynthesis?
an enzyme reaction makes ATP
Substrate level phosphorylation was thought to be how most ATP was made. Substrate-level
Use proton gradients to make ATP
Photosynthesis and respiration are similar because they both:
all cells contain the same genes
Genomic equivalence for an organism with many cells means that:
Proton gradient
Oxidative phosphorylation relies most directly on what energy source to make ATP (from the ATPase motor
growing in crowds of other cells
As discussed in class, cells from multi-cellular organisms do all of the following except:
Oxidative phosphorylation (chemiosmosis)
Most of the energy (ATP) from respiration is made through:
some proteins important for mitosis cycle are in abundance
Studies in sea urchins talked about in class demonstrated:
Both
The process of communication from outside the cell to inside involves:
is at the end of the electron transport chain in mitochondria, is a product of photosynthesis after water is split, is not available when lactic acid (lactate) is made in muscle
Oxygen:
chromosome number is maintained
In mitosis:
oxygen and ATP production
Uncoupling agents discussed in class uncouple the link between:
both internal and external factors
The cell cycle is controlled by:
DNA is replicated in S phase and divided in M phase
In the cell cycle:
reducing genetic content
Which of the following is not a reason for mitotic cell division (cell division through mitosis) in organisms?
NADH
In respiration the electrons given to the electron transport system come from:
cyclin and cdc(k)
MPF (mitosis promoting factor), originally discovered as a diffusible factor in cells, turned out to be:
the same as
After mitosis, the chromosome number of a daughter cell is ______ the parent cell's.
walking along the spindle to opposite sides of the cell
As discussed in class, chromosomes are separated in mitosis by:
cell division can be controlled internally by diffusible factors
Experiments with cells undergoing mitosis (cell division) that were artificially fused with cells in a resting
Hayflick limit
The finite number of cell divisions of many eukaryotic cells is called the:
are unpacked and uncoiled
Genes are more active (produce proteins) on chromosomes when the chromosomes:
apoptosis factors, which lead to cell suicide
Which of the following is not a target for MPF?
a toxin that kills cells
Which of the following is not a potential cause of cancer?
the blood vessels feed the cancer cells
During angiogenesis, a process that promotes tumor growth
obey the Hayflick limit
Cancer cells do not:
lost the ability to stimulate apoptosis
Many cancer patients receive radiation as a therapy to kill transformed (cancerous) cells. Radiation works in
Overactive
Oncogenes are genes that cause cancer when they are:
Underactive
Tumor-suppressor genes are genes that cause cancer when they are
Can survive and grow unanchored and move through the body
In the later stages of cancer progression, which include metastasis, cancer cells:
Accumulated DNA damage occurs over time
Cancer is a disease of aging mostly due to the fact that:
Senescence
According to class discussion, the general decline in memory tests for older adults can be attributed to:
Selection for delayed senescence in human populations
The development of weaponry and the expansion of organized social communities have allowed humans to
cancer cells send out a signal and blood vessels respond to signals
Angiogenesis (recruitment of new blood vessels) occurs in tumors because:
Antagonistic pleiotropy
For some species of spiders, their first meal upon hatching from their eggs is their own mother (yes, they eat
annuals invest in seeds, perennials invest in carryover of root stocks or existing tissue
As discussed in class, the difference between annual and perennial plants is that the two types take different
r selection and short lifespan
Semelparous organisms breed only once in their lifetime. There are many examples of semelparous
disposable soma theory
Queen bees, queen ants and other queens of social insects are genetically identical to bees and ants of other
reduced extrinsic mortality
An animal species colonizing an island with no natural predators is predicted to evolve a longer life span
separate a working genome (macronucleus) from a genome involved in sex (micronucleus)
Paramecium
Senescence (gradual decline) is programmed in some organisms
In yeast, single gene mutations can affect lifespan greatly. One gene, called SIR2 (sirtuin), allows the yeast
Damage to a cell's DNA from repeated exposure to environmental toxins randomly accumulates
One explanation for senescence of organisms is that it reflects senescence within an organism's cells
have limited doublings
Cells that obey the Hayflick limit:
calorie restricted diets
The only one treatment that has been shown to increase the lifespan of every species of animal so far tested
Body size and metabolic rate
In mammals and birds, there is generally an inverse relationship (meaning as one goes up, the other goes
body size and lifespan
In mammals and birds, there is generally a direct correlation (both go up together) between
damage produced in the mitochondria
The rate of living theory of aging is due mostly due to
mitochondria, electron flow
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in the ________ as a result of ________.
Birds have an easier time avoiding predators (reduced extrinsic mortality)
Consistent with class discussion on aging, one potential reason birds may have longer lifespans than
telomeres (cellular aging) and mitochondria (metabolic aging)
Resveratrol, the chemical compound in red wine, has been associated with increased lifespan possibly
25 %
A man and a woman who are both carriers (heterozygous) of the recessive gene that causes sickle cell anemia
One phenotype
If you were to perform a hybrid cross between two true breeding organisms of different phenotypes, in their
flies with one red-eyed allele and one white-eyed allele
In a fruit fly population, the red eye trait is fully dominant to the white eye trait. True-breeding red-eyed
Particulate and equally contributed by both parents
Mendel concluded that the hereditary material was:
nurture
A major question that Mendel intended to answer with his experiments was concerning the role of "nature vs
whether it or another allele determines the phenotype when both are present
Whether an allele is dominant or recessive depends on:
recessive phenotypes
Heterozygous individuals would also be all of the following except:
the gene offers benefits under some situations in the heterozygous state
Cystic fibrosis is a recessively-inherited condition that is pleiotropic in nature (has many and various effects).
epistatic
Florida deer mice fur color is due to two separate genes. One gene determines the amount of dark pigment
1 yellow, 2 cream, 1 white
Pure-breeding yellow guinea pigs crossed with pure-breeding white ones produce only cream-colored
affect more than one system
Pleiotropic genes:
offspring that are all white
In edible peas, the purple trait for flower color is fully dominant to white. A self-fertilized white plant
Pp and Pp
You decide to replicate Mendel's pea plant experiments involving inheritance of pea flower color in your
man with blood type AB
Before DNA typing and before Maury Povitch, scientists and doctors had to rely on blood typing to aid in
intermediate cholesterol levels
Hypercholesterolemia is a human disease that is passed as an incompletely dominant trait. Individuals
pleiotropy
Sickle cell anemia is a recessive genetic disorder that causes misfolded hemoglobin and altered red blood
9 black, 3 brown, 3 grey, 1 tan
Cat fur color is affected by two genes. The B gene codes for fur color. The dominant form (B) produces
epistatic to B
Cat fur color is affected by two genes. The B gene codes for fur color. The dominant form (B) produces
from mother to all children
Diseases with an origin on the mitochondrial genome would be passed:
mother to son
Most human sex-linked traits are passed from:
skip a generation
Recessive alleles:
its symptoms are experienced late in life
Huntingtons disease, an autosomal dominant disease, according to Darwin's theory of natural selection
50% for boys, 0% for girls
Hemophilia is a sex (X)-linked recessive gene. A normal woman whose father had hemophilia marries a
50%
The allele for albinism (c) is recessive to the allele for normal pigmentation (C) and it is not a sex-linked
organisms are always perfectly adapted due to evolution
All of the following statements are true concerning evolution except:
organisms are not perfectly designed, just good enough to take hold in a niche
The Panda principle essentially means that :
meteors from outer space
Evidence for Darwinian evolution comes from all of the following except:
Darwin's ideas put into question the place of humans in the world
Darwin's ideas posed a threat to existing world views and continue to cause controversy because
common ancestry
The similarity of the embryos of fish, frogs, birds, and humans is evidence of:
grow exponentially
According to Darwin natural selection is a two-step process, development of variation within a population
vestigial structures
Leg bones in whales would be best described as an example of
An example of convergent evolution and the structures are analogous
Structures that appear to be similar are found in species that do not appear to be related (e.g. the wings of
simple prokaryotic bacteria have survived the longest of any known organism
Which piece of evidence argues strongly against the philosophical idea of finalism?
Essentialism
Darwin's theory of evolution is most at odds with:
No two individuals are the same
The fact that some bacteria die and some survive when exposed to antibiotics is a direct demonstration of
their ancestral way of swimming, transitional forms from modern whales to wolf-like ancestors, and transitional forms showing the migration of nostrils from the front to the top of the body
Whales demonstrate their evolutionary origin in:
the sudden appearance of diverse types of animals in the fossil record
The Cambrian explosion refers to:
genetic drift
The likelihood of inbred dogs having the same negative alleles (gene types) is due to:
stabilizing selection
In a particular bird species, individuals with average-sized wings survive severe storms more successfully
a population that has the potential to successfully interbreed
According to the biological definition, a species is:
a female that lays 100 eggs but only 50 survive to reproductive age
Which of the following female moths has the greatest Darwinian fitness?
the lack of genetic variety and pairing of negative alleles (gene types)
Many inbred horses (horses bred from a very small breeding stock) have an increased likelihood of genetic
Reproductive success
Darwinian fitness measures:
decreased due to the founder effect
A small population of birds, finding food scarce among a large population of its kind on the mainland,
gene flow is stopped
Organisms exposed to diversifying selection pressure have the potential to develop into new species over
Is caused by a small number of genes that are common to most mammals
Paedomorphosis is commonly seen in domestic animals selected for tameability. Some common features
increased
Following a bottleneck event in a population, the likelihood of two individuals having the same negative
dogs evolved from wolves by feeding near to and off of human waste
Concerning dog evolution and according to class information most scientists believe:
selection for tameness brings out many unexpected traits
The farm fox experiment showed that:
inbred dogs are genetically the most healthy
Which of the following is not true concerning dog breeding?
Because it allows for variance in the face of many changing conditions
"Ultimately", the reason sex exists is probably:
amount of DNA
Which of the following is not a difference between the two gamete types (egg and sperm) that has most
Cost of courtship behavior and display
According to sexual selection theory, male and female differences can be attributed to differences in
Male fitness varies; female fitness is limited
According to sexual selection theory (Bateman model in class) males and females have developed different
Peacock eyespots are an honest indicator of good genes.
Peacocks (males) are known for their beautiful tails. Studies have shown that peahens (females) prefer
in some way handicap the male carrying that trait
The handicap principle says that in order for a trait to be an honest indicator of male fitness it must:
it cannot recombine and fix broken genes
According to class discussion the reason that the Y chromosome is shrinking is that:
eliminating variety so that mistakes are not made
Meiosis works in all of the following ways except:
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