OSU Biology 211 Fall 2008 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
early amphibian
Transition to terrestriality
ability to extract oxygen from the air
- lungs
terrestrial locomotion
- limbs
Movement onto land
to escape from predators
new food sources
new habitats
What did early amphibians evolve from?
lobe-finned fishes
What gave rise to webbed toes in amphibians?
Amphibians consist of what animals
frogs, salamanders, caecilians
how do spirilians grow?>
grow by adding mass
how many extant species of amphibians are there?
about 4000 extant species (frogs, salamanders, and caecilians)
egg laying
How many extant species of amniotes are there?
about 18100 (mammals, "reptiles' and birds
four muscular limbs with well-defined joints and digits (fingers and toes
worldwide distribution
what kind of environment do tetrapods inhabit?
mostly terrestrial, but several have returned to the aquatic environment
What important adaptation have tetrapods demonstrated that is important for life on land?
skeletal strengthening (over fish)
Amphibia characteristics
need water for reproduction
- external fertilization
- unshelled eggs (oviparous)
- 3-chambered heart
are all frogs carnivorous?
all adult frogs and toads, some tadpols
what is external fertilization?
females lay eggs in aquatic environment and male spreads his sperm over entire are (such as in frogs and fish)
how do amphibians respire?
via gills, lungs and through skin
where do amphibians exhibit gas exchange?
across the skin due to inefficient lungs
3- chambered heart
shows patterns of double circulation
- pulmonary and systemic circuit
Double Ciculation
pulmonary and systemic circuitry
an animal whose body temp is determined by the temp of its immediate environment
an animal whose body temp is determined by its own metabolic heat production
an animal that has a variable body temp (amphibian and reptiules)
an animal that has a constant body temp (birds and mammals)
Order Urodela (Caudata)
salamanders and newts
Order Apoda
order Anura
frogs and toads
Characterisitcs of Order Urodela (Caudata) - salamanders and newts
Loss or reduction of limbs
Elongation of the trunk
No middle ear (no vocalization)
larvae similar to adults
teeth on both jaws
Characteristics of Class Apoda - Caecilians
live under leaf litter
giant worm like creatures
What is the main cause in amphibian decline?
Habitat Destruction
How does UV radiation affect amphibians
kills the eggs
What are the causes of habitat destruction
Habitat Destruction***main reason
Global Climate change
Ozone Depletion
Introduction of Exotic Species
Over Harvest
Prorifera first seperated from what group?
What are the two orders that comprise eumetazoans?
Cnidaria (hydras and jellyfish) and Ctenophora (like jellyfish)
Are Acoelomates and psuedocoelomates protostomes?
What two subgroupings make up Bilateria?
protoostomes and deuterostomes
Class Myxini
Hagfish - jawless fishes
Class Cephalaspidomorphi
lampreys - jawless fishes
Class Amphibia
frogs toads and salamanders
Class Testudines
turtles and tortoises
Class Lepidosauromorpha
snakes and lizards
Class Crocodilia
alligators, caemens, and crocodiles
Class Aves
Chordata is comprised of what classes?
• Several classes of fishes
– Class Myxini (hagfish) -- Jawless fishes
– Class Cephalaspidomorphi (lampreys) – Jawless fishes
– Class Chondrichthyes (Sharks and rays) – Cartilaginous fishes
– Class Sarcopterygii (coelocanth, lungfish) – lobe-finned fishes -- bony
– Class Actinopterygii (salmon, perch, flounders, etc.) ray-finned fish -– bony fishes
• Class Amphibia (frogs, toads, salamanders)
• Class Testudines (turtles, tortoises) **
• Class Lepidosauromorpha (snakes, lizards) **
• Class Crocodilia (alligators, crocodiles) **
• Class Aves (birds)
• Class Mammalia (mammals)
What makes up the 3 classes the histrorically were considered the class Reptilia?
• Class Testudines (turtles, tortoises) **
• Class Lepidosauromorpha (snakes, lizards) **
• Class Crocodilia (alligators, crocodiles) **
Class Mammalia
All Chordates have what kinds of egg?
What are the 4 extramembryonic membranes of an amniote egg?
1.amnion - surrounds embryo
2.allantois - stores and sequesters nitrogenous wastes
3.yolk sac
4.chorion - gas exchange
All animals above what class are amniotes?
What are the big differences between amphibians and crocodiles
how they stnad on their legs and amphibians have a body plan at an angle
solids skull; shell formed by a carapace and plastron
Lizards, tuatara and snakes
highly modified skulls, active predators
specialists in aquatic/ terrestrial interface
scaly exterior prevents what?
water loss (dehydration
Tutatar is a lizard (t/f)
egg laying
live birth, no true placental connection
What did is the closest extant class to dinosaurs
birds (aves)
Bird (class ave) characteristics
endoderm, 4-chambered hard, only animal that has feathers, air sacs, hollow bones, evolution for flight, largest amniotic group
Flight in birds
-escape from predators
-exploit flying insects for food
-facilitates hunting
-allows exploitation of new habitats
-migration between areas for feeding and breeding
Adaptations for flight in birds
Adaptations for flight
-light weight and streamlined form
-forelimbs are modified into wings
-hollow bones
-reduced organs (one ovary)
-no teeth- gizzard (muscular grinding organ type)
-oviparous (lay eggs)
-nitrogenous wastes in solid form (uric acid)
Acute sense in birds
-fine motor coordination -relatively large brains
-most have a poor sense of smell
-have air sacs
all have hair and only mammals have hair, all do not look the same, HUGE diversity
Mammary glands
to feed and nourish young in mammals
helps to insulate the animal and maintain Tb
Glands in Mammals
sweat glands, sebacious and mammary glands
Only flying mammal?
Placental mammals
placenta gives nourishment
what are egg laying mammals called
Include the platypus and echinda
Phylum Echinodermata
approx 7,000 species
all marine
true coelomates
• larvae are bilaterally symmetric
• adults show radial
• water vascular system
• ring canal, radial canals, ampullae and tube feet
• spiny skin
• gills, spines, pedicellariae
6 Echinoderm Classes
Class Asteroidea
– starfish or sea stars
Class Ophiuroidea
– brittle stars
Class Echinoidea
– sea urchins, sand dollars
Class Crinoidea
– sea lilies
– sessile
Class Holothuroidea
– sea cucumbers
Class Concentricycloidea
– sea daisies
Class Asteroidea
starfish or sea stars
Class Ophiuroidea
brittle stars
Class Echinoidea (sponges)
sea urchins and sand dollars
Class Crinoidea
sea lillies
- sessile
Class Holothuroidea
sea cucumbers
Class Concentricycloidea
sea daisies
Phylum Hemichordata
• Evolution among the hemichordates and chordates led to new ways of capturing and handling food.
Phylum Chordata Characteristics
• triploblastic
• bilaterally symmetric
• true coelomates, deuterostomes
• dioecious
• segmented
4 characteristics that all chordates have at some stage in their life cycle
Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
Pharyngeal gill slits
Postanal tail
Name the 2 invertebrate subphylum of Chordates
Urochordata and Cephalochordata
Name the 3 subphylum of Chordates
Subphylum Urochordata
Subphylum Cephalochordata
Subphylum Vertebrata
Subphylum Urochordata
– tunicates, sea squirts
– adults are sessile
• have gill slits but lose other three characteristics
Subphylum Cephalochordata
– called lancelets, Branchiostoma, or Amphioxus
Vertebrate Characteristics
5 % of all animals
– show specializations associated with increased size and activity:
• cephalization
• greater physical support (in most, notochord is replaced by a skeleton with vertebrae and a skull)
• adaptations that support greater metabolic demand
– closed circulatory system
– hemoglobin in blood
– feeding specializations
Colonization of land
Two fish lineages—lobe-fins and lungfishes—evolved jointed fins. Amphibians, the first terrestrial vertebrates, arose from one of these lineages.
How did jaws in fishes evolve
-Jaws evolved from anterior gill arches, allowing grasping and chewing of prey. Jawed fishes rapidly became dominant marine and fresh water animals.
What kind of heart does a fish have?
2 classes of Bony Fishes
What are the two most biodiverse ecosystems
Coral reefs and tropical rainforests
Possible causes for loss in biodiversity
Habitat Destruction
Global Climate Change
Ozone Depletion
Introduction of Exotic Species
** There are no pristine environments
How are all animals related
Degenerate animals
evolutionarily complex but has led to a more simplified version
specialized animals
eat specialized things or live in specific areas (Opposite degenerate animals)
What are the two types of symmetry
radial and bilateral
Sensory structures contain what?
Food intake
the consumption of energy in the form of food. Animals have evolved a diverse array of remarkable ways by which they eat
Internal transport
an exchange of substances between an animal and its environment including respiratory gases, nutrients and waste products
Characteristics of repspiratory surfaces
thins a moist, lungs, gills and skin
balance of salt and water
What is responsible for the coordination of activities in animals?
the nervouse system and endocrine system (hormones)
T/F Crocodiles are more related to birds and to lizards
Do sponges have symmetry?
3 levels of Construction
cellular, tissue and organ
process that zygotes grow
Sensory Structures
part of the body that are specialized to respond to input from the environment
cells that respond to stimuli like light, sound, touch, etc.
Internal transport
the exchange of substances between ana nimal and its environment
mechanism by which small organisms move small molecular weight substances from one part of the organism to another
T/F Most animals don't need a circulatory system
most animals DO need a circulatory system
Eciological interaction
predators, prey and parasties
All animals are Eukaryotic and heterotrphic (T/F)
conveys evolutionary relationships
what percentage range of animals have a backbone?
Therefore, 95-97% are inverts
What is the largest and oldest animal environment?
The sea (ocean)
free swimming animal
any floating animal in the ocean
Are most animals protostomes or deuterostomes?
no body cavity
have a psuedocoel
have coelem
Acoelomates and psuedocoelomates are always protostomes or deuterostomes?
Two major clades of protostome phylogeny
Spirilians and Ecdysozoans
grow by adding mass to an existing body
two main groups of Spirilians
lophotrochozoa (mostly coelomates) and Platyzoa (mostly acoelomate)
lack tissues, organs and a definite symmetry
have comple multicellularity
Include sponges (phylum Porifera)
Sponges (phylum Porifera)
Are parazoans
include marine and freshwater species
lossely organized
lack cell layers and body symmetry
have Choanocytes (collar cells) and spicules
2 key characteristics of a sponge
Spicules and Choanocytes (collar cells)
Coanocytes (Collar cells)
used in feeding and reproduction of a sponge
Used for a sponges structure
Sponge life cycle
Larval sponges are free swimming but adults are anchored onto submerged objects
Cell-Cell recognition
sponges demonstrate the use of this
Where does water flow of a sponge occur
In flow through the pore and out the osculum
Phylum Cnidaria
Sea anemones, corals, hydra, jellyfish
The "radiate"
Cnidarian characteristics
Have a digestive cavity, digestive lining, and solid tissue and a body wall
Class hydrozoa
class Sycphozoa
Class Anthozoa
Sea anemones and corals
What kind of animals have a complex life cycle
all are marine
Comb jellies
have ctenes
specialized structure that is sticky on tentacle to catch prey
Ctenophore Characteristics
a. Descendants of first split lineage of bilaterally symmetric animals
b. Marine carnivores
c. Simple life cycle
d. Biradial symmetric (some radial some bilateral)
e. Ctenes- rows of radially arranged ciliary plates
f. Tentacles-not present around the mouth
g. Colloblasts- adhesive cells that trap the zooplankton they eat
h. No nematocysts (except one species)
i. Larval form is different than the cnidarians larvae
Characteristics of Bilaterially symetric animals
rapid movement
have head and tail
Zoonotic disease
a human disease that has an animal reservoir
Aspects of diseases that are important
Antibiotic resistance
Evolution of virulence
Social interactions
Common behaviors
Influence how pathogens spread and emerge
What are the 2 goals of an organism
survival and reproduction
What animal behavior has in common to get rid of a parasite
groom (to get rid, or eat parasite)
-avoiding parasites (horse swishing tail)
-sexual selection of healthy males by females
How to get rid of a parasite
1. Consume medical plants
2. Inducing diarrhea
3. Inducing behavioral fever (sun themselves in the hottest part of the day)
flat worms
Characterisitcs of Platyhelminthes (flatworms)
First bilateral symmetry
Ability to move forward using aggregations of nerve cells, ganglia
True organs begin to evolve
Many are free living—planarians
Some are parasitic—tape worms and fluke
3 classes of Platyhelminthes
Class Turbellaria (Planarians)
Class Trematoda (Flukes) PARASITE
Class Cestoda (Tapeworms) PARASITE
Class Tubellaria
free living worms
mostly marine
Have a head, eyespots, ganglia, pharynx
Use of flame cells for excretion
Exhibit a digestive, excretory and nervous system
Collection of nerve cells (some call it a brain)
Mouth hole that protrudes to eat in a flatworm
Flame cells
Used for excretion in flatworms
Are planarians hermaphroditic?
Yes, both male and female sex organs on one body
light sensitive
Planarians demonstrate this
Evolution of the Turbellaria
Turbellaria turned into Trematoda (flukes) and Cestoda (Tapeworms)

Both are parasitic
Definitive Host
The organism in or on which the parasite reaches sexual maturity
Intermediate Host
Where the parasite undergoes some development & morphological change but does not reach sexual maturity
transmit infections from one host to another
Characteristics of Trematoda (flukes)
have male and female organs (hermaphroditic)
Complex life cycles
Change hosts
Characteristics of Cestodes
Have hooks and suckers to attach to intestine
Is a parasite
True Coelom structure
surrounded by a mesoderm and partly lined by a cellular membrane
Psuedocoelom structure
have a psuedocoelom that lacks the mesodermal peritoneal lining
Functions of a Coelom and Psuedocoelom
• Provides surface area for absorption of nutrients
• Provides flexibility
• Body cavity may circulate nutrients, oxygen, water, and ions and compliments the circulatory system
• Body cavity may hold excess wastes & water
• Body cavity may act as a hydrostatic skeleton, providing a semi-rigid body structure against which muscles can contract
equivalent to the kidney and used for excretion
sexual dimorphism
sexes look different
Three germ layers
mesoderm, ectoderm and endoderm
General characteristics of Psuedocoelomates
• Bilateral symmetry
• Unsegmented
• Three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm)
• Usually small
• Complete digestive system
• Protonephridia (equivalent to the kidney) for excretion
• No circulatory or respiratory organs (no lungs and gills, not well developed blood vessels and hearts)
• Nervous system: Cerebral ganglia (a bunch of nerve in one area), nerve ring
some have eye spots
• Sexes usually separate; sexual dimorphism (sexes look different)
• Development direct or complex
Can Psuedocoelomates be free-living and parasitic?
Phlyum Rotifera characteristics
Have head and tail
Corona-tuft of cilia at the top of the mouth
Cement glands to cement to substrate
Generally aquatic
Highly predacious
Hypodermic impregnation- male finds female and can penetrate it on any part of her body
-Sexual way
Rotifers can mate asexually too
Phylum Gastrotricha
It's basically a rotifer without a corona
Phylum Kinorhyncha
have zonites (body segments)
live in the marine intertidal zone
Body segments
Phylum Acanthocephala characteristics
All are parasitic (mammals, fishes, birds)
Cylindrical evaginable proboscis- has barbs that attack host
Sexually dimorphic
Females are larger than male
Cylindrical evaginable probiscus
has barbs that attack host
Phylum Acanthocephala
spiny headed worms
round worm
Nematoda Characteristics
• Advanced gastrovascular cavity
– Tubular
– Two openings
• Advanced sensory "ganglionic brain"
• Lack circulatory and respiratory systems
• Depend on diffusion for gas exchange
• Most are harmless
• Some parasitic
– Hookworm
– Trichinella
– Dog heartworm
gastrovascular cavity
two openings
type of suspended animation that is like dormancy
Sort of like “Suspended Animation”
Lower their metabolic to incredibly low level so that their metabolism is so low that it is often immeasurable and the animals essentially appear to be dead
Psuedocoelomates and cryptobiosis
• Some pseudocoelomates can withstand radiation more than 1000 times stronger than a human lethal dose
• Some pseudocoelomates can withstand temperatures from 150 degrees Celsius to near absolute zero
Adaptive value of cryptobiosis
Seems clear for animals that live in temporary habitats subject to various
What does the blastopore in protostomes develop into?
What does the blastopore in dueterostomes develop into?
true coelom
Three phyla of Lophophorates
coelomates that have tough tentavles (called lophophores)
used to bu in clam/ oyster group until they found the lophophores
Lophophorate Lineage
the lophotrochozoan lineage split into two branches, the lophophorates and the spirilians
chemical cues and signals
Phylum Annelida
Annelida characteristics
approx 15000 extant species
live in marine, freshwater and terrestrial habitats
Characteristics of Annelids
• Triploblastic (three layers of tissue: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm)
• bilaterally symmetric
• protostomes
– true coelom
• complete digestive tract
• segmentation
– leads to specialization
– allows coordinated movement
• coelom is partitioned by septa
• longitudinal and circular muscles
• closed circulatory system
– blood is completely contained in vessels
allows for coordinated movement
- coelem is partitioned by septa
- longitudinal and circular muscles
Segmented Bodies in annelids
improved locomotion
Annelids are a diverse group of segmented worms that live in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial environments.
3 classes of Annelids
Hirudinea - leeches
Oligochaeta - earthworms
Polychaeta - sandworms
Class Hirudinea
– leeches
– carnivorous; some are blood suckers
• secrete an anaesthetic and an anticoagulant
Class Oligochaeta
– earthworms
– few setae
– clitellum
– monoecious
• but don’t self fertilize
Class Polychaeta (sandworms)
– mostly marine
–many setae
•used for gas exchange and locomotion
–some have no permanent gonads
–trochophore larvae
used for gas exchange and locomotion
have both male and female sexual organs on same body
Reasons for preserving biodiversity
1. Aesthetic Reasons
2. Ecological and ecosystem services
3. Medical health
4. Ethical reasons
5. Religious reasons
Three parts of biodiversity
genetic, species, ecosystem
Genetic biodiversity example
variation in beetles
Species biodiversity example
coral reef
Ecosystem biodiversity example
tropical rainforest
tube feet
used for motility in sea stars
used for locomotion
Class Oligochaeta
earth worms
True segmentation
leads to specialization
allows for coordinated movement
coelom is partitioned by septa
longitudinal and circular muscles for movement
What is the first segmented animal phylum?
Earth Worm Characteristics
have 5 hearts
have a nervous system
Phylum Mollusca importance
important phyla in terms of species richness and nearly ubiquitous in most ecosystems
Molluscan Characteristics
Mostly Marine but also terrestrial and freshwater
-Bilateral symmetric
-coelom reduced to area around the heart
-open circulatory system
-complete digestive tract
-dioecious (male and female mollusks)
-marine forms have larval forms:
-trochophore larvae
-veliger larvae
Molluscan body plan
-mantle (secretes shell)
-visceral mass
-foot (used for locomotion)
-at somepoint over evolution the foot turned to tentacles
-radula (scraping organ, or tooth)
4 Classes of Phylum Mollusca
Class Polyplacophora
Class Gastropoda
Class Bivalvia
Class Cephalopoda
Class Polyplacophora
Class Gastropoda
snails, slugs, and sea hares
Class Bivalvia
shells with two halves
no cephalization
no radula
sedentary filter feeders
Class Cephalopoda
– well developed sensory structures, nervous system
– fast moving
– reduced or missing shell
– closed circulatory system
•blood is completely contained in vessels
• The most intelligent, fastest moving and highly modified molluscs
• all are marine predators with good/ excellent vision
• include the largest invertebrate (giant squids)
• foot is modified into tentacles with suckers
• swim by jet propulsion
Phylum Arthropoda
Ex: Insects, spiders, lobsters, cockroaches
Extreme Importance: Economic, Ecological, Medical
Arthropod Characteristics
• The world arthropod population has been estimated at a billion billion (1018) individuals.
• Nearly a million arthropod species have been described - two out of every three organisms known are arthropods.
• This phylum is represented in nearly all habitats in the biosphere.
• Most successful phylum
• On the criteria of species diversity, distribution, and sheer numbers, arthropods must be regarded as the most successful animal phylum.
• The body of an arthropod is completely covered by the cuticle, an exoskeleton constructed from layers of protein and chitin.
Arthropod body plan
Have head and thorax and abdomen (ex bee)
Cephalothorax: where head and thorax are combined together (ex: lobster)
Compound eyes: broken into sections which can each see an individual image
Trilobites are extinct arthropod s only know about them through the fossil record
Main sense: chemical signals
Arthropod sensory
• Arthropods have well-developed sense organs, including eyes for vision, olfactory receptors for smell, and antennae for touch and smell.
is a cavity or series of spaces between the organs of organisms with open circulatory systems
Arthropodic gas exchange
terrestrial arthropods generally have internal surfaces specialized for gas exchange
Class Arachnida
scorpions, spiders, ticks, mites
open circulatory system
hemolymph fluid is propelled by a heart through short arteries into sinuses (the hemocoel) surrounding tissues and organs
Class Arachnida characteristics
eight walking legs
simple eyes with a single lens (not compound
Compound eyes
broken into sections which can each see an individual image
where head and thorax are combined together (ex: lobster)
Class Crustacea
– Crabs
– Crayfish
– Lobster
– Shrimp
– Barnacles
Class Crustacea Characteristics
• Size varies from microscopic to 12 feet (3.7 m)
• Vary in number of appendages
• Have two pairs of antennae
• Generally with compound eyes
• Exchange gases using gills
Class Insecta
What is a key to the great success of Insects?
• Flying animals can escape many predators, find food and mates, and disperse to new habitats faster than organisms that must crawl on the ground.
Eusocial insects
have complex social behaviors
Chemical communication
Order Hymenoptera
ants, bees, wasps
Irder isoptera
Queens in eusocial insects
Eusocial insect have a single reproductive queen
Caste System in insects
QUeen, workers, soldiers
Through evolutionary time, it is thought that turbellarians gave rise to....
cestodes and trematodes
What two groups have comples life cycles?
Frogs and rotifers
Dengue fever
Found primarily in the tropics
transmitted by mosquitos
may be increasing its range
can infect humans
structure used for excretion in psuedocoelomates
Larval amphibians and adult fish are alike in that....
both groups breath via gills
The opening of a newly developed embryo is known as a
If you were in southern Italy and you found an ectothermic, winged animal with a hard exoskeleton and jointed appendages that was very colorful, it would most likely be
an arthropod
Chorate characteristics
have a post-anal tail
pharyngeal gill slits
a notochords
dorsal hollow nerve chord
What are the 2 invertebrate chordate classes?
cephalochordates and urochordates
Cartilaginous fishes
sharks and rays
What group contains the use of collar cells
if you found an animal in the desert that was bilaterally symmetrical, had lungs, did not have scales, had a three chambered heart and was ectothermic, it is probably a...
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