Organizational Behavior 13 Leadership: Power and Negotiation Flashcards

Terms Definitions
leadership
the use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers toward goal achievement
power
the ability to influence behavior of others and resist unwanted influence in return
organizational power
legitimate powerreward powercoercive power
legitimate power
from a position of authority inside the org.aka formal authorityhave a title
reward power
someone has control over resources or rewards another person wants
coercive power
a person has control over punishments in an org.
personal power
expert powerreferent power
expert skill
derives from a person's expertise, skill, or knowledge on which others depend
referent power
when others have a desire to identify and be associated with a person, derived from affection, admiration, or loyalty
contingency factors
substitutabilitydiscretioncentralityvisibility
substitutability
degree to which people have alternatives in accessing resources
discretion
degree to which managers have the right to make decisions on their own
centrality
how important a person's job is and how many people depend on that person to accomplish their tasks
visibility
how aware others are of a leader's power and position
influence
the use of an actual behavior that causes behavioral or attitudinal changes in othersdirectional (downward, lateral, upward) andrelative
influence tactics
rational persuasioninspirational appealconsultationingratiationpersonal appealexchange tacticapprisingpressurecoalitons
rational persuasion
use of logical arguments and hard facts to show the target that the request is a worthwhile one; must be important and feasibleconsistently successful in upward influence
inspirational appeal
designed to appeal to the target's values and ideals, thereby creating an emotional or attitudinal reacton
consultation
target is allowed to participate in deciding how to carry out a request
ingratiation
use of favors, compliments, or friendly behavior to make the target feel better about the influencer
personal appeals
when the requestor asks for something based on personal friendship or loyalty
exchange tactic
offer a reward or resource to the target in return for performing a request
apprising
requestor clearly explains why performing the request will benefit the target personallyfocuses solely on benefit to the target; benefit not necessarily something requestor gives target
pressure
use of coercive power through threats and demands
coalitions
influencer enlists other people to help influence the target
responses to influence tactics
internalizationcomplianceresistance
internalization
target of influence agrees with and becomes committed to the influence request
compliance
target is willing to do what leader asks, but with a degree of ambivalence
resistance
target refuses to perform the influence request and puts forth an effort to avoid doing so
organizational politics
actions by individuals directed toward the goal of furthering their own self-interests
political skill
ability to effectively understand others at work and use that knowledge to influence others in ways that enhance personal and/or org. objectivesnetworking ability (adept at id-ing and developing diverse contacts)social astuteness (tendency to observe others and accurately interpret their behavior)interpersonal influence (have an unassuming and convincing personal style flexible enough to adapt to different situationsapparent sincerity (appear to others to have high levels of honesty and genuineness)
conflict resolution
competingavoidingaccommodatingcollaborationcompromise
competing
high assertiveness, low cooperationone party attempts to get her own goals met w/o concern for the other party's results
avoiding
low assert, low coop1 party wants to remain neutral, stay away from conflict, postpone conflict to gather info or let things cool down
accommodating
low assert, high coopone party gives in to the other and acts in a completely unselfish way
collaboration
high assert, high coopboth parties work together to maximize outcomes; win-winmost effective
compromise
mod assert, mod coopconflict resolved through give-and-take concessionsmost common form
negotiation
process in which two or more interdependent individuals discuss and attempt to come to an agreement about their different preferences
negotiation strategies
distributive bargainingintegrative bargaining
distributive bargaining
involves win-lose negotiating over a fixed-pie of resourcesone person gains, one person loses (zero sum condition)
integrative bargaining
use of problem solving, mutual respect to achieve outcome good for both partieswin-win
negotiation strategies
preparationexchanging infobargainingclosing and commitment
preparation
most important stageeach party determines what its goals are for the negotiation, whether or not other party has anything to offer and determine best alternative to a negotiated agreement (BATNA)
exchanging info
nonconfrontationaleach party makes case for position, attempts to put all favorable info on the table; inform other party how it arrived at the conclusions it has and which issues it believes are important
bargaining
both parties make concessions, give up something to get something in return
closing and commitment
formalize an agreement reached during bargaining stage
power and influence
moderate correlation with job perfmoderate correlation with org. commitment
alternative dispute resolution
two parties resolve conflicts through the use of neutral 3rd partymediation, arbitration
mediation
3rd party facilitates dispute resolution process, though has no formal authority
arbitration
3rd party determines a binding settlement to a dispute
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