Understanding Network Principles Flashcards

IP address
Terms Definitions
A Network
Links 2 or more computers together to communicate and share resources.
File Locking
The first software programs that ran on a LAN were not capable of permitting more than one user at a time to use a program (This constraint was known as what?)
Servers, Clients or Workstations, and Resources
When looking at the devices or resources available on a network, there are 3 types of components to be aware of.  What are they?
A network operating system (NOS) and some kind of shared medium.
Every network requires 2 or more items to tie the three comenents together. What are they?
File Servers
Servers that provide files to the users on the network are called what?
Print Servers
Servers that host printing services for users are called what?
A file server and printer server
If a server is multi-purpose, they can be what at the same time?
A file server OR A printer server
What type of server is a single-purpose server?
A _____ server is assigned to provide specific applications or services for the network, and nothing else.
_______ servers are assigned to provide one or more network services and local access.
Computers on which the network users do their work are called what?
Client Computers
Workstations are also known as what?
Network Interface Card (NIC)
A special expansion card that allows the PC to talk on a network.
Site License
The arrangement allowing multiple users to use a single installation of an application.
Network Operating System (NOS)
Networks use a _____ to control the communication with resources and the flow of data across the network.
In a _____ network, the computers act as both service providers and service requestors.
Peer-to-peer networks are also referred to as what?
Server Based (client-server)
______ networks use one or more dedicated, centralized servers.
Server-based networks are also known as what?
Domain Controller
When you log into the network, the login request is passed to the server responsible for security, sometimes known as what?
A Topology
A way of laying out a network.
Physical Topologies
Describes how the cables are run.
Logical Topologies
Describes how the network messages travel.
Bus (can be both logical and physical)
Star (physical only)
Ring (can be both logical and physical)
Mesh (can be both logical and physical)
Hybrid (usually physical)
What are 5 primary topologies?
Bus Topology
It consists of a single cable that runs to every workstation.
Star Topology
Branches each network device off a central device called a hub, making it easy to add a new workstation.
Ring Topology
Each computer connects to two others , joining them in a circle and creating a unidirectional path where messages move from workstation to workstation.
Mesh Topology
Each device is connected to every other device.
(x*(x-1)) / 2
Formula to determine number of cables needed in a mesh topology.
Hybrid Topology
A simple mix of of the other topologies.
A network architecture's performance is usually discussed in terms of what?
Only one signal can be passed along a cable at one time.
Multiple signals can be transmitted on the medium at one time.
Token Ring
Uses a physical star, logical ring topology.
To facilitate communication across a network, computers use a common language called _____
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)
The ISO introduced the __________ model to provide a common way of describing network protocols
Application Layer
Allows access to network services. This is the layer at which file services and print services will operate.
Presentation Layer
Determines the "look," or format, of the data. This layer performs protocol conversion and manages data compression, data translation, and encryption. The character set information is also determined at this level
Session Layer
Allows applications on different computers to establish, maintain, and end a session. A session is one virtual conversation. This layer enables network procedures, such as identifying passwords, logons, and network monitoring.
Transport Layer
Verifies that all packets were recieved by the destination host on a TCP/IP network. This layers most important job is to provide error checking and reliable, end-to-end communications.
Network Layer
Responsible for logical addressing of messages. At this layer, the data is organized into chunks called packets.
Data Link Layer
Arranges data into chunks called frames. This layer is very important because it makes transmission easier and more manageable and allows for error checking within the data frames. This layer also describes the unique physical address (also known as the MAC address) for each NIC.
Physical Layer
Describes how the data gets transmitted over a physical medium. This layer defines how each long piece of data is and the translation of each into the electrical pulses that are sent over the wires.
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Based on the IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD standard, what is the most well known example of a protocol?
Token Passing
A special chunk of data called a token circulates through the ring from computer to computer. Any computer that has data to transmit must wait for the token.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
The _______ suite is the most popular network protocol in use today, thanks mostly to the rise of the internet.
Any device with an IP address is referred to as a what?
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
File Transfer Protocol
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
Post Office Protocol
Transfer Control Protocol (TCP) and  User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
At the Host-to-Host layer of the DoD model there are only 2 protocols, _____ and _______ .
Internet Control Message Protocol
Address Resolution Protocol
Media Access Control
Network ID and Host ID
Each IP address is made up of 2 components. What are they?
Subnet Mask
Computers are able to differentiate where the network address ends and the host address begins through the use of what?
Default Gateway
The IP address of the device that will take you outside your network.
Class A
What class of IP address is used for large networks
Class B
Class of IP address used for medium-sized networks
Class C
Class of IP address for smaller networks with few hosts
Class D
Class of IP address reserved for multicasts (sending messages to multiple systems)
Class E
IP address class reserved for testing.
Network basic input/output system
NetBIOS Extended User Interface
Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange
A communication protocol similar to TCP/IP, but it's used primarily in LAN's
Not just a protocol, its a proprietary network architecture for Macintosh computers
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA)
Appletalk uses _____ technology to put data on the cable.
The default networking protocol on Macs
Network Interface Card (NIC)
Provides the physical interface between computer and cabling.
Coaxial Cable, Twisted Pair Cable, Fibre Optic Cable, and Wireless.
What are the 4 main types of cabling methods?
Fiber-Optic Cabling
__________ is immune to electromagnetic or radio-frequency interference.
Which IEEE 802 standard defines a bus topology using coaxial baseband cable and is able to transmit at 10 Mbps?
Transport Layer
Which OSI layer signals "all clear" by making sure the data segments are error free?
Which TCP/IP protocol uses port 80?
A type of password used to help secure a wireless connection
What is the primary function of the SSID?
What is the most secure wireless encryption standard for the 802.11x networks?
If you are going to run a network cable in the space above the drop ceiling in your office, which type of cable should you use?
Which wireless communication standard is often described in terms of a wireless personal area network?
Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), and Code Division Multiple Access(CDMA)
The 2 major cell standards in the US are?
Infrared Network
A ______ is a point-to-point network between 2 devices.
Secure and Fast Encryption Routine (Safer+)
For security, Bluetooth uses the __________ encryption routine, a 128-bit algorithm.
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