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Information technology management
Terms Definitions
Services
a means of delivering value to customers without requiring the customer to own specific costs and risks
Service Management
a set of specialized capabilities for delivering value to customers in the form of services
Good Practices
best practices which have gained wide acceptance and adoption
Good Practices may come from a number of sources including:
* Standards* Public frameworks* Academic research* Proprietary knowledge
What are the 5 phases of the service life cycle?
*Service Design*Service Strategy*Service Operation*Service Transition*Continual Service Improvement
Processes
structured sets of activities designed to achieve a specific objective
What are the four basic characteristics of processes?
1. They transform inputs into outputs2. They deliver results to a specific customer or stakeholder3. They are measurable4. They are triggered by specific events
What are the three layers of the process structure?
Process control, the process itself, and process enablers
What are some examples of things that fall under process control?
policies, ownership, documentation, and review programs
What are some examples of things that fall under the process itself?
steps, procedures, work instructions, roles, triggers, metrics, inputs, and outputs
What are some examples of things that fall under process enablers?
resources and capabilities required to support the process
What are the four processes in the Service Strategy life cycle phase?
Service Strategy, Service Portfolio Management, Demand Management, and Financial Management
What are the seven processes in the Service Design life cycle phase?
Service Catalog Management, Service Level Management, Availability Management, Capacity Management, Service Continuity Management, IT Security Management, Supplier Management
What are the three processes in the Service Transition life cycle phase?
Change Management, Service Asset and Configuration Management, Release and Deployment Management
What are the five processes in the Service Operation life cycle phase?
Incident Management, Problem Management, Event Management, Service Request Fulfillment, Access Management
How many steps are in the Continual Service Improvement process?
Seven
Functions
self-contained subsets of an organization intended to accomplish specific tasks
Roles
defined collections of specific responsibilities and privileges
Who may fill a role in an organization?
An individual or team
What are the standard roles ITIL emphasizes?
Service Manager, Product Manager, Service Owner, and Process Owner
What is a Service Manager Accountable for?
development, performance, and improvement of all services in the environment.
What is a Product Manager Accountable for?
development, performance, and improvement of a group of related services
What is a Service Owner accountable for?
overall design, performance, integration, improvement, and management of a single service
What is a Process Owner accountable for?
overall design, performance, integration, improvement, and management of a single process
What are the four major ITIL functions?
Service Desk, Technical Management, Application Management, and IT Operations Management.
What does the Service Desk provide?
a single point of contact between users and the IT organization
What process does the Service Desk usually own?
Incident Management
Define the Local Service Desk Configuration.
Users and support staff are located on the same premises
Define the Centralized Service Desk Configuration.
Multiple user locations are serviced by a single support location
Define the Virtual Service Desk Configuration.
Multiple user locations are serviced by multiple support locations, utilizing call routing to appear to respond to user requests as a single entity
Define the Follow-the-Sun Service Desk Configuration.
Identical to the virtual Service Desk configuration, except shifts are set up to service the working hours of any time zone
What is the Technical Management function charged with?
procurement, development, and management of the technical skill sets and resources required to support the infrastructure and the IT Service Management effort
What is the primary objective of technical management?
to ensure that the Service Provider has the right skill sets available to deliver the services it offers.
Application management does not replace, but is supported by ___________.
Core Processes
What is IT Operations Management concerned with?
the day-to-day maintenance of the IT infrastructure and the facilities which house it
What are the two sub functions IT Operations Management are divided into?
Operations Control and Facilities Management
What is the Operations Control sub-function concerned with?
regular maintenance cycles associated with infrastructure management
What is the Facilities Management sub-function concerned with?
maintenance of the facilities which house IT operations
What are the four roles within the RACI Model?
Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, and Informed
In the RACI model, for every task AT LEAST one person must be _________, and ONLY one person must be ____________.
Responsible; Accountable
Service Strategy
the selection of services a Service Provider will offer to customers
What are the four reasons services are selected?
* Provide value to customers* Enable the Service Provider to capture value* Fall within cost parameters acceptable to the Service Provider* Fall with risk parameters acceptable to the Service Provider
How does the Service Strategy offer value to Service Providers and customers?
* Ensuring that the services they offer align with business objectives.* Ensuring that the services they offer are likely to offer value.* Ensuring that customers can be charged for the services or that some mechanism exists by which the services allow the value offered by the Service Provider to be recognized.* Ensuring that the Service Provider is in a position to handle the costs and risks associated with the services it offers.
Business Case
a structured and documented justification for investment in something expected to deliver value in return
Value of service consists of what two components?
Utility and Warranty
Utility
‘fitness for purpose’ involves the ability of the service to remove constraints or increase the performance of the customer
Warranty
‘fitness for use’ is the ability of the service to operate reliably
Service Assets
resources and capabilities which a Service Provider must allocate in order to offer a service
Resources
raw materials which contribute to a service
Capabilities
specialized skills or abilities an organization applies to resources in order to create value
Resources and Capabilities are types of __________.
Assets
Service Portfolio
the entire set of services under management by a Service Provider
What are the three major parts of a Service Portfolio?
Service Pipeline, Service Catalog, and Retired Services
What is the purpose of the Service Portfolio?
to help the Service Provider understand how its resources are allocated toward maximizing the value it offers to customers in the form of services.
The cyclical relationship between the service provider and the customer is known as the _____________.
Service Belt
Service Strategy Process
is concerned with the development of service concepts in preparation for selection of services to be provided
What are the four major activities in the Service Strategy Process?
Understand the market, Develop the offerings, Develop strategic assets, Prepare for execution
How does service portfolio management organize the process?
by which services are identified, described, evaluated, selected, and chartered
The Demand Management process
concerned with understanding and influencing customer demand
Demand management models demand in terms or __________ and ____________.
User Profiles; Patterns of business activity
IT Financial Management
provides a means of understanding and managing costs and opportunities associated with services in financial terms
What are the three basic activities of IT Financial Management?
Accounting, Budgeting, and charging
What is the Service Design life cycle about?
the design of services and all supporting elements for introduction into the live environment
How does Service Design offer value?
* Ensuring that services are aligned with business objectives* Ensuring that services are able to provide the utility and warranty required for them to meet the objectives outlined during Service Strategy* Ensuring that service management systems and tools are capable of supporting service offerings* Ensuring that service-e management processes are capable of supporting service offerings* Ensuring that services are constructed according to agreed architectural standards* Ensuring that services are designed so as to be implemented efficiently* Ensuring that services are designed so that their performance can be measured
What life cycle phase targets quality?
Service Design
Service Catalog
the subset of the Service Portfolio which contains services currently available to customers and users
What are the four P's of Service Design?
People, Products, Processes, and Partners
What are the Five Aspects of Service Design?
1. The new or changed service itself – with special attention to service requirements2. Service Management processes required to support the service3. Service Management systems and tools required to support the service (especially the Service Portfolio)4. Technology Architectures used or referenced by the service5. Measurement systems and metrics necessary to understand the performance of the service
Service Catalog Management
involves management and control of the Service Catalog which contains information about services currently available to customers for use
Service Level Management
the process charged with securing and managing agreements between customers and the service provider regarding the levels of performance (utility) and levels of reliability (warranty) associated with specific services
Service Level Management results in the creation of ____________.
Service Level Agreements
Operation Level Agreements
performance agreements nearly identical in nature to SLAs except that they exist between parts of the service provider organization specifically for the purpose of supporting ‘upstream’ SLAs which require dependable performance by multiple business units, functions, or teams within the service provider organization
What is the Availability Management process concerned with?
management and achievement of agreed availability requirements as established in Service Level Agreements
Availability
the ability of a system, service, or configuration item to perform its function when required
What is Capacity Management concerned with?
ensuring that cost-effective capacity exists at all times which meets or exceeds the agreed needs of the business as established in Service Level Agreements
Capacity
the maximum throughput a service, system, or device can handle
What are the three major activities of Capacity Management?
Business Capacity Management, Service Capacity Management, and Component Capacity Management
What capacity factors does Business Capacity Management address?
capacity factors which exist primarily at the business level such as mergers, acquisitions, plans for new facilities, reductions in force, etc.
What capacity factors does Service Capacity Management address?
capacity factors at the service level.
What is the primary task of Service Capacity Management?
to translate business capacity factors into capacity requirements for services
What capacity factors does Component Capacity Management address?
capacity factors at the level of components or Configuration Items.
What is the primary task of CCM?
to translate Service Capacity Management factors into capacity requirements for individual components or Configuration Items
What is ITSCM, and what is it responsible for?
The IT Service Continuity Management process (ITSCM) is responsible for ensuring that the IT Service Provider can always provide minimum agreed Service Levels
What does ITSCM result in?
the production of the IT Service Continuity Plan which is an aspect of the overall Business Continuity Plan
What is the IT Security Management process concerned with?
protection of IT assets (including services) from security threats
What are the five basic qualities of information assets that IT Security Management protects?
Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability, Authenticity, Non-Repudiation
What is the Supplier Management process charged with?
obtaining value for money from third-party suppliers
What is Service Transition concerned with?
management of change and, more specifically, with the introduction of new and changed services into the live environment
Service V-Model
defines progressive levels activity and corresponding levels of testing/valid toward a define objective such as a release or major change
Change
the addition, removal, or modification of anything that could have an effect on an IT service
What are the three types of change?
Normal, Standard, and Emergency
Who reviews Emergency Changes?
Emergency Change Advisory Board
Who approves requests for changes?
Change Authority
Change Model
a template or pre-defined set of steps, procedures, and guidelines for execution a specific type of change
Release
a collection of changes which must be implemented together in order accomplish a specific objective or set of objectives
Release Unit
the particular set of configuration items released together for a specific deployment effort
Baseline
the documented and validated configuration of a component, system, service, etc.
Configuration Management System
the controlled repository and interfaces for management of information concerning items under configuration control (Configuration Items) in the environment.
Configuration Item
anything which has significance for the delivery of an IT Service.
At a minimum, what should the record of a configuration item include?
a unique identifier and the location of the CI
What is Change Management concerned with?
recording, evaluating, approving, testing, and reviewing changes to services, systems, and other Configuration Items
What are the seven major activities which make up the Change Management Process?
Recording RFC's, Reviewing RFC's, Assesment and Evaluation of RFC's, Authorization of RFC's, Planning, Implementation Coordination, Review and Closure
What are the five components of Service Asset and Configuration Management?
Planning, Identification, Control, Status Accounting, Verification and Audit
What are the four minor Service Transition Processes?
Transition Planning and Support, Service Validation and Testing, Evaluation, and Knowledge Management
What is the only service life cycle phase in which value is realized by customers?
Service Operation
ITIL® emphasizes the importance of striving to achieve and maintain balance during Service Operation in the form of specific balances between:
* Reactive and Proactive Focus* Internal and External Focus* Cost and Quality* Stability and Flexibility
During Service Operation, the importance and criticality of ____________ is especially acute
communication
Incident
any occurrence which causes or may cause interruption or degradation to an IT Service
Problem
the unknown underlying cause of one or more incidents
Error
the known underlying cause of one or more incidents
Known Error
the known cause of an incident for which a workaround also exists
Event
any change of state of an infrastructure or other item which has significance for the delivery of a service
Who, in most cases, owns the Incident Management Process?
The Service Desk
Incident Management consists of a what basic activities or steps?
Detection, Logging, Classification, Prioritization, Investigation and Initial Diagnosis, Escalation, Resolution and Recovery, Closure
What is Problem Management concerned with?
the identification and correction of flaws or errors in the environment which cause incidents
What are the major sub processes of Problem Management?
Reactive and Proactive Problem Management
What two things does the Problem Management Process issue?
Requests for Change and Work Arounds
What is one of the most important outputs of the Problem Management process?
the Known Error Database (KEDB)
What is Event Management concerned with?
detection of events in the infrastructure and with selection of appropriate response actions
What are the three basic types of events?
Informational, Warning, and Exception
Service Request Fulfillment is:
the process charged with assisting users in situations where no service degradation or interruption is involved
How can Service Request Fulfillment reduce the load on the Incident Management process?
by providing a means of addressing non-incident related requests before they enter the Incident Management stream
What is the Access Management process charged with?
providing authorized parties with appropriate access to service and information as specified in the Information Security Policy
Does the Access Management process ever set security policy?
no
What is Continual Service Improvement about?
the alignment and re-alignment of services, processes, functions, etc. with changing business needs
What are the four basic purposes for measurements?
Justify, Direct, Intervene, and Validate
Objectives
establish the reason for measurement
Critical Success Factors
define specific things that must happen if objectives are to be achieved
Key Performance Indicators
are metrics which specifically indicate progress or performance around or toward Critical Success Factors
Metrics
are the definitions of what will be measured and how it will be measured
Measurements
are the actual readings taken based upon a specific metric
What are the four steps of the Deming Cycle?
Plan, Do, Check, Act
What are the guiding questions in the Continual Service Improvement Model?
What is the Vision, Where are we now, Where do we want to be, How do we want to get there, Did we get there, how do we maintain momentum
What should Continual Service Improvement produce?
Service Improvement Plan
What are the steps in the Seven Step Improvement Process?
* Decide what should be measured* Decide what can be measured* Gather the data* Process the data* Analyze the data* Present and use the data* Implement corrective action
Bounded Rationality
refers to the limits which constrain humans’ ability to entertain more than a few factors at a time when seeking to make decisions in complex situations.
True or False: all phases of the Service Lifecycle can be supported very effectively using technology and automation.
True
Processes should be _________ prior to automating them.
Simplified
The application of service management has varying degrees of ROI, depending on the business impact. Which of the following tangible measures is commonly associated with Improved reliability?
MTBF - Mean Time Between Failure
What is the correct order for the ISPL acquisition process from a customer-supplier-interaction point-of-view?
1. Make RFP 2. Make Proposal 3. Select 4. Negotiate Contract 5. Make Decisions
What is the initial Incident Management process in the correct order?
1. Incident Logging 2. Incident Categorization 3. Incident Prioritization 4. Incident Diagnosis 5. Incident Escalation
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