MCAS Vocabulary Cell Division Flashcards

Terms Definitions
cell division
division of a parent cell into daughter cells
centriole
structure that helps to form the spindle
spindle
microtubule structure that separates chromosomes during mitosis
cell cycle
cell grows, prepares to divide, then divides to start growth process again; interphase + M phase
telophase
last phase of mitosis, chromosome are in two new cells and nuclear membranes start to reform
interphase
cell grows, performs its normal functions, and prepares for division; consists of G1, S, and G2 phases
mitosis
division of the nucleus or chromosomes
metaphase
phase of mitosis in which chromosomes line up in the center of the cell
prophase
first phase of mitosis in which chromosomes become visible and nuclear membrane disappears
cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm (cytosol and organelles)
anaphase
phase of mitosis in which sister chromatids are pulled to opposite sides of the cell
cancer
uncontrolled cell division
G1 phase
stage of interphase in which cell grows and performs its normal functions
S phase
stage of interphase in which DNA is replicated
G2 phase
stage of interphase in which cell duplicates its cytosol and organelles
gamete
sex cell, sperm or egg
meiosis
type of cell division that creates gametes; cell divides twice to create four cells that are genetically unique
crossing-over
process by which homologous chromosomes exchange pieces, resulting in greater genetic variety
transcription
copying the code from DNA onto mRNA
codon
three mRNA nucleotides that code for a specific amino acid
translation
process by which a ribosome uses the code on mRNA to make proteins
nucleotide
building block of a nucleic acid (DNA and RNA)
chromatin
DNA that is coiled around proteins
amino acid
building block of a protein
mRNA
messenger RNA; type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome
polypeptide
synonym for protein; chain of amino acids
replication
process in which DNA is copied
rRNA
ribosomal RNA; type of RNA that makes up part of the ribosome
mutation
a change or error in the DNA sequence
tRNA
transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome
/ 30
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online