USC BUAD 304 Ch. 17 and 18 Robbins and Judge Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Ch. 17
 
Selection Practices (3)
1.    Initial Selection. an app2.    Substantive Selection. Using tests/interviews3.    Contingent Selection. drug test
 
 
 
Substantive Selection (3 Tests)
 
 1. Written Tests.
2. Performance – Simulation Tests
a. work sample tests "simulations"
b. assessment centers - situational judgment tests
3. Interviews
 
 
New Way to Do Interviews
 
 
“behavioral structured interviews” that reduce interview biases
 
 
Types of Training/Development (4 Programs)
1. Basic Literacy Skills (40% of US needs it)
2. Technical Skills
3. Interpersonal Skills 4. Problem-solving skills (e.g. logic)
(5. ethics training)
 
Training Methods
Formal vs. Informal
 
 
formal training – traditional structured wayinformal training – (70% of learning) unstructured, unplanned and easily adapted
 
 
 formal off-the-job training
 
 
– live classroom lectures, courses, and group activities ( popular - $51 billion largely spent on this)
 
 
Effectiveness of Training Depends on....
 
Individual
 
“internal locus of control, high conscientiousness, and high self-efficacy” + chance to practice new skills 
 
 
What is Performance? (3 Types of Behavior)
1.    Task Performance. Doing yo job
2. Citizenship. Being nice.
3. Counterproductivity. Damaging organization by being a bitch
 
 
Three Traits Evaluated by Performance Evals
 
 
   a.  Individual Task Outcomes, e.g. sales
b.    Behaviors, better e.g. leadership, promptness, etc
c. Traits. Weak!
 
 
Five Methods of Performance Evaluations
1. Written Essays.
2. Critical Incidents
3. Graphic Rating Scales
4. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (combo of 2 & 3)
5. Forced Comparisons, i.e. rankings
 
 
 
Four Ways to Improve Performance Evaluations
1. Use more evaluators
2. Train evaluators
3. Evaluate selectively (only what evaluator is familiar with)
4. Provide Employees with Due process
 
 
Managing Work-Life Conflicts
 
Five Initiatives
 
ch. 17
1. Time-based, e.g. flextime, telecommuting
2. Information-based, e.g. counseling
3. Money-based, e.g. insurance, scholarships
4. Direct services, e.g. child care, fitness center
5. Culture-change strategies, establishing balanced life
 
When it comes to selection...
High Power distance ->
 
 
organization reputation more important than job choice
 
 
Individualistic vs. Collectivistic Cultures:
Performance evals
Important in individualistic cultures
Less important in collectivistic cultures (changing in Korea though)
 
 
Effect of Training and Development Programs
Ch. 17
- Training helps improve employees rely on their motivation to improve - more qualified employees are more confident and thus have higher self-efficacy
 
 
Forces for Change (6)
1. workforce demographics 2. economy
3. technology
4. politics
5. competition
6. social trends
 
 
 
 change agents
 
 
“people who see a future .. and are able to motivate and implement this vision” e.g. Lawrence Summers
 
 
Two Major Sources of Resistance to Change
1. Individual Sources: habit, security, economic factors
2. Organizational Sources: stuructural inertia, power relationships
 
 
Overcoming Resistance to Change (8 Ways)
1. Education and Communication
2. Participation
3. Building Support/Coalitions
4. Develop Positive Relationships
5. Implementing Changes Fairly
6. Manipulation, Cooptation
7. Selecting Change-minded People
8. Coercion
 
 
Lewin’s Three-Step Model
 
 
1.    Unfreeze the status quo2.    Move toward a desired end state3.    Refreeze the new change
 
 
Kotter’s Eight Step Plan
 
 
 
Just like Lewin's but longer
p. 598
 
 
 
Action Research (5 Steps)
1. Diagnosis of problem
2. Analysis of problem and ideas
3. Feedback from employees
4. Action
5. Evaluation of effectivness
 
 
 
Organizational Development (OD) (5 Values)
i.    Respect for people. ii.    Trust and support. iii.    Power equalization. iv.    Confrontation. Openly confront issues. v.    Participation. Engage people and seek commitment
 
 
 
Six Methods for Organizational Development
 
S, S, PC, T, Int, AI
1. Sensitivity Training (talk about feelings... outdated)
2.  Survey Feedback.
  3. Process Consultation (PC) = 1+2 clients participate in diagnosis and solutions
4. Team Building
 5. Intergroup Development, e.g. between departments
6. Appreciative Inquiry (AI) - identify organization's strengths
 
Appreciative Inquiry (AI)
 
4 D's
 
Ch. 18
 
Discovery.  Organization’s strengths
Dreaming. Possible futuresDesign. Common visionDestiny. How to achieve their dream
 
 
Culture of Innovation's
Three Categories
 
structural
cultural
human resource categories
 
 
 
Structural source of innovation
 
 
e.g. organic structures “positively influence innovation”
or
more committees and cross-functional teams
 
 
Cultural and HR Sources of Innovation
Cultural: encourages experimentation and rewards success/failure both
Huam resources: promotes training and development
 
 
 
idea champion
 
 
person who encourages individuals to support an idea and its implementation
TERM
 
learning organization
 
 
has continuous capacity to adapt and change
 
 
single-loop learning
vs
double-loop learning
 
single-loop - only responds to errors with old ways
double-loop - modifies objectives and challenges the past
 
 
 
Three (3) Fundamental Problems of Trad. Orgs:
FCR
 
fragmentation - from specialization
competition
reactiveness vs. creation
 
 
Managing Learning (3 suggestions)
 
S, S, C
 
 Establish a strategy
Redesign organization’s structure. - more cross-functional teams
Reshape org’s culture. - reward risk-taking and functional conflict
 
 
 
 
Two Types of Stressors
 
1. challenge stressors - pressure to get things done
2. hindrance stressors - stuff that stops you from getting things done
 
 
 
Potential Sources of Stress (3)
 
1. Environment
2. Organizational
3. Personal
 
 
 
Environmental Factors of Stress
 
  a. economic     b. political    c. technological
 
 
Organizational Factors of Stress (3 Demands)
 
T, R, I
 
task demand - design of job, variety, conditions
role demand - people's expectations of you
interpersonal demands - pressure from employes, lack of social support, etc.
 
 
Individual Differences and Stress (Four variables)
 
PESP
i.      Perception. ii.    Experience. More is better for copingiii.    Social support. Friendships at work can helpiv.    Personality. Type A is bad
 
 
Consequences of Stress
 
PPB
 
+ that graph
 
1. Physiological
2. Psychological
3. Behavioral -> productivity .
 
 "inverted-U relationship"
 
 
 
Stress Management: Individuals (3-4)
 
 time management,
exercise,
relaxation,
having a social support network
 
 
Stress Management: Organizational (4-5)
 
 improved selection and placement
better training
realistic goals
better communciation
redesigned jobs
 
 
Organizational Change: Japan vs. U.S.
 
Japan is more mellow
U.S. wants it NOW!
 
 
Change is implemented autocratically in _____ power distance.
 
high
 
 
 
“the real world is turbulent, requiring organizations to undergo dynamic change if they are to remain competitive”
 
 
yeah
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