NCTI Computers & Broadband Flashcards

applications software
Terms Definitions
1) The four basic functions used by hardware and software in order to perform a computing task are
B) Input, processing, storage, and output.
2) To operate compatibly with the CPU, hardware devices
A) Must be able to send data to or receive data from the CPU
3) Typical input devices of the PC are
E) A keyboard and mouse.
4) The two types of cables used inside the computer case are the
D) Data cable and power cable.
5) The system board
A) Contains or connects to the CPU.
6) Out of the five component types normally found on a system board, the one that is made up of random access memory (RAM) and cahce memory is the
C) Temporary storage component
7) The two main techniques for memory storage used by the PC are
E) Volatile and nonvolatile.
8) Data, instructions, and power move from component to component on the system board using
C) Bus lines or traces.
9) The three types of expansion slots found on a system board are
B) Peripheral component interconnect (PCI), accelerated graphics port (AGP), and Industry Standard Architecture (ISA).
10) In the computer's electrical system,
C) The power supply converts and reduces the electricity to a voltage that the computer can handle.
1) The three categories of software used in a PC are
<c> Firmware, OS, and applications software.
2) The primary function of start-up BIOS is
B) Running many computer start-up functions and bringing the computer to a state in which it can be managed by the OS.
3) Software layers interact with the PC hardware by
<c> Determining how the software interacts so that high-level software can depend on low-level software to manage the hardware for it.
4) What tools manage and share information when the computer is running?
The applications software, OS, BIOS, and device drivers.
5) One of the functions of an operating system (OS) is to
<e> Diagnose problems with software and hardware.
6) When starting up the operating system
<d> All programs must be copied into RAM before the CPU can read them.
7) When interfacing with the OS,
B) The interface can be one of three types: command-driven, menu-driven, or icon-driven.
8) Which of the following is true?
Cooperative multitasking occurs when you have two or more applications open, each in its own window.
9) Which of the following is true of operating systems?
<e> In operating methods known as protected mode, the OS ensures that the memory assigned to one program is protected from interference by other programs.
10) Applications software
<d> Fits into eight categories: world processing, spreadsheet, database management, graphics, communications, games, mathematical modeling, and software development tools.
1) The power-on self-test is
<d> When the start-up BIOS tests essential hardware components.
2) A hard boot
Involves initially turning on the power with the on/off switch.
3) The reset button
B) Typically is located on the front of the case.
4) What are the four steps of the booting process?
<e> POST, loading the OS, system configuration, and loading and executing an application
5) During the power-on self-test,
<c> Before the CPU has checked the video system, errors encountered up to this point are communicated by beeps.
6) When referring to beep codes,
<c> Combinations of short and long beeps are used to indicate an error.
7) When loading the OS into the RAM,
B) Certain minimum information is required on the had drive.
8) MSDOS.SYS in a DOS boot record program
B) Contain software to manage files, run applications software, and interface with hardware.
9) The boot process is completed
<d> After the AUTOEXEC.BAT file has finished executing.
10) When booting in the Windows XP environment,
<e> <c> The MBR program executs the OS boot program NTLDR. <d> NTLDR loads the OS and then passes control to the OS.
1) System resource types used by hardware and software include
<e> Input/output addresses and memory addresses. B) Interrupt request numbers and direct memory access channels.
2) Interrupt request numbers
Refer to bus lines on which voltage is placed for sending a signal to the central processing unit, telling the CPU that a device has a request that needs processing.
3) Memory addresses
<d> Are assigned to both ROM and RAM so that the CPU can access that memory.
4) Input/output addresses
<c> Are numbers that the CPU can use to access hardware devices, in much the same way it uses memory addresses to access physical memory.
5) Direct memory access channels
<e> Allow an input/output device to send data directly to memory, bypassing the CPU.
6) At start-up, a hardware device is assigned
<e> A DMA channel to speed up sending data to memory.
7) A software interrupt
<c> Requires the CPU to get instructions from memory in order to send an I/O address to the hard drive.
8) Configuration data
<e> Stored in the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor chip is changed by accessing the setup program stored in ROM BIOS.
9) As a method to protect data,
The user should keep a backup disk of setup information and a rescue disk of the operating system.
10) An electrostatic discharge
<c> Can build up on the surface of a nongrounded conductor and nonconductive surfaces such as clothing or plastic.
1) On a system board
B) The CPU is housed and the board allows all devices to comminicate with the CPU and each other.
2) Which components are included on the computer system board?
<c> Power supply connection, system bus, and complementary metal-oxide semiconductor configuration chip.
3) Which of the following is true?
CPU capabilities are compared on bus speed, processor speed, multiplier, and memory cache.
4) Intel's
<e> Pentium 4 is optimized for 32-bit applications running on advanced 32-bit operating systems.
5) The difference between reduced instruction set computer (RISC) technology and complex instruction set computer (CISC) technologies is
<d> The number of instructions contained directly on the CPU chip itself.
6) Plug-and-play
On a Windows 2000/XP system, it is not important that a motherboard BIOS be plug-and-play.
7) The difference between dynamic RAM (DRAM) and static RAM (SRAM) is
B) DRAM chips hold data for a very short time.
8) Buses
Handle traffic that travels in a digital (on and off) manner rather than in an analog (continuous) manner.
9) A FireWire bus
<d> Is similar in design to USB, using serial transmission of data, but faster.
10) The difference between an accelerated graphics port (AGP) and an on-board port is
<c> On-board ports my include a parallel printer port and one or two serial ports on the system board.
1) Read-only memory (ROM)
<c> Chips contained on a network card provide the programming to communicate with the network.
2) Which of the following is true?
<d> Electrically erasable programmable ROM (EEPROM) chips also are known as Flash ROM chips.
3) Memory caching
Requires a chache controller that anticipates what data or programming code the CPU will request next and copies that data or programming code to the SRAM chips.
4) Regarding computer main memory modules,
B) The major differences among a DIMM, a SIMM, and a RIMM are the width of the data path and the way data moves from the system bus to the module.
5) Which of the following is true of memory modules?
<d> Corrosion can create intermittent memory errors and even make the PC unable to boot.
6) In a Windows operating system environment,
<e> Windows NT, 2000, and XP provide a pure protected mode OS whose program segments use 32-bit data flow.
7) Which of the following is true of memory addressing?
<c> In order to access physical memory, the CPU assigns addresses to RAM and ROM BIOS (on the system board and expansion cards) during booting.
8) Memory above 1MB is called _________ memory.
<e> Extended
9) Windows
NT, 2000, and XP are not contrained in memory management by having to deal with conventional, upper, and extended memory.
10) On a PC,
<d> Pentium, Celeron, and Athlon system boards that have DIMMs use only one socket to a bank, since a single DIMM accommodates a data path of 64 bits.
1) The floppy drive
Is connected to the system board by a 34-pin data cable.
2) In the writing of data on a floppy disk,
<c> It first must be formatted, or mapped in concentric circles called tracks and in pie-shaped wedges called sectors.
3) Sectors
<e> Refer to the entire pie-shaped wedge on one side of a disk and the single segment of one track or circle that falls within the wedge.
4) The master boot record
<d> Contains basic information about how the disk is organized, including the number of sectors, the number of sectors per cluster, and the number of bits in each file allocation table entry.
5) A root directory
B) Contains information about each file and subdirectory stored in it.
6) A rescue disk
<c> Is a bootable disk with some utility programs used to troubleshoot a failed hard drive.
7) A hard drive
<d> In today's systems contains two or more platters that are stacked together and spin in unison.
8) An integrated drive electronics (IDE) standard hard drive
Controller is mounted on a circuit board on or inside the drive housing and is an integral part of it.
9) A small computer system interface (SCSI)
<e> Device interfaces with the host adapter rather than directly with the central processing unit.
10) Fragmentation
<e> Places a single file in several cluster locations that are not right next to each other.
1) A controller
Can be embedded on the system board as part of the chip set or on a host adapter in an expansion slot.
2) An add-on peripheral device
<e> <c> Requires a device and a device driver that must be installed. <d> Requires application software to be installed.
3) Modems
B) Sometimes use normal telephone lines for communication, whereas other times they use dedicated circuits.
4) Changing resource parameters
<d> In BIOS often is done to prevent a conflict in the assignment of computer resources.
5) For Windows 98/Me, device drivers
Are installed at the time the hardware device is installed, and executed automatically each time Windows 98/Me starts or the device is used.
6) Device drivers can be changed
<c> For an improved driver by downloading it from the manufacturer's Web site.
7) In Windows 98/Me/2000/XP, installation of applications software
B Should be done using the "Add or Remove Programs" icon in the "Control Panel."
8) A universal serial bus (USB)
B Device does not need system resources assigned manually by the user because the operating system and USB host controller automatically do that at start-up.
9) The peripheral component interconnect (PCI) bus master
<e> Is part of the system board chip set and manages the PCI bus and the expansion slots.
10) When installing a new device to a PC that already has devices which are not plug-and-play compliant,
<c> The tool to use to help you identify and resolve conflicts between nonplug-and-play devices in Windows 98/Me/2000/XP is the "Device Manager."
1) The "DOCSIS" acronym stands for
<c> Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification.
2) For cable modem DOCSIS certification,
B The vendor must provide completed test documentation and data along with 15 identical cable modems.
3) The DOCSIS architecture
Protocol stack follows the open system interconnection (OSI) model.
4) Modems
<c> Contain a tuner, a modulator, a demodulator, a MAC address, a microprocessor, and a transmitter.
5) Which of the following is true about equipment connections to a cable modem?
<e> Utilizing the computer's USB port requires the computer to have Windows 98 or MAC operating system (OS) 7.6.1 or higher.
6) Inside the CMTS is
<d> A MAC processor for managing modems and neighborhood nodes.
7) With regard to rules that define the functions of the CMTS and modem relationship,
<c> SNMP enables the cable operator to configure, maintain, and monitor the performance of the agents in the network.
8) The MAC
Protocols provide the procedures for transmission of data between the modem and CMTS.
9) The OSS back-office management uses
<d> Configuration management to provide the necessary software upgrades for all network components without disrupting normal network operations.
10) In long loop AGC,
B The procedure ensures that signal strength levels in the network attain and remain at system specifications.
1) Synchronization data sent as an instruction set by the cable modem termination system to the cable modem includes
<e> B Global timing references and quadrature amplitude modulation symbol timing. <d> MPEG-2 packet definitions and forward error correction synchronization framing.
2) During the initial maintenance interval,
B The cable modem sends data at the lowest possible power and slowly increases during each interval until the received power level at the CMTS is nominal, usually 0dBmV.
3) When the cable modem must change its transmit frequency,
B The modem sends an acknowledgement response to the CMTS's upstream channel change request (UCC-REQ) and then "hops" to the proper frequency.
4) During the registration process,
<c> The cable modem obtains an address to operate on the Internet, obtains date and time, downloads necessary files, and becomes authorized to use the network.
5) Before the cable modem can become authorized to use the network for transmitting data,
The CMTS must accept the modem's registration request, respond with a new SID, and complete the registration process.
6) Noise
<d> Can be picked up from a variety of outside sources such as home appliances, electrical transformers, and even the atmosphere.
7) Ingress noise can be minimized by
<c> Using high-quality coaxial drop cable and removing corrosion on the tap and home connectors.
8) When verifying that a cable modem is functioning properly,
<e> The technician begins by checking the modem front panel status indicator lights.
9) Quality of service
<d> Defines the standards for minimizing delivery delay, minimizing delay variations, providing consistent throughput capacity, and optimizing bandwidth.
10) DOCSIS data transport security
Is provided by encrypting traffic flows across the cable network, between the modem and the CMTS.
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