Life Science Ch. 5 Heredity Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Passing of traits from one generation to another...
Heredity
Different forms of the same gene...
Alleles
Study of how alleles affect offspring...
Genetics
An allele inherited on a sex chromosome...
Sex-linked Gene
A trait that is hidden...
Recessive
The chance that an event will take place...
Probability
Genetic makeup of an organism...
Genotype
Organism with two alleles that are the same...
Homozygous
Physical appearance resulting from the genotype...
Phenotype
Both alleles are expressed in offspring...
Incomplete Dominance
More than one set of genes controls a trait...
Polygenic Inheritance
Chart showing the location of genes on each chromosome...
Genome
In a punnett square, a capital letter stands for a ___________ allele
Dominant
The combination of Tt represents a ___________ genotype
Heterozygous
Experiments with four o'clock flowers produced examples of ___________ dominance
Incomplete
Blood type is an example of ___________
Multiple Alleles
Sickle-cell anemia is an example of ___________
A Genetic Disorder
Hemophilia results from an allele that is ___________
X-Linked
Genetic Engineering has already helped people by ___________
Producing Medicine
Mapping all the genes on human chromosomes may help ___________
Prevent Inherited Disorders
(T/F) Genes control the traits that show up in an organism
T
(T/F) Genes are never inherited by some people
F
(T/F) Gregor Mendel is the Father of Genetics
T
(T/F) Gregor Mendel arrived at his conclusion by accident
F
(T/F) Gregor Mendel Changed the thinking of scientists of his day
F
(T/F) Gregor Mendel determined the basic laws of genetics
T
(T/F) A punnett square is used to predict results in genetics.
T
(T/F) A punnett square uses numbers to represent the offspring of two or more parents
F
(T/F) Alleles are forms of a gene
T
(T/F) Alleles are the subject of genetics
T
(T/F) Alleles for a trait from both parents are found in one sex cell
F
(T/F) A genotype of an organism is a polygenic trait
F
(T/F) A genotype of an organism determines the phenotype
T
(T/F) A recessive factor can seem to disappear in a generation of organisms
T
(T/F) A recessive factor is represented by a capitol letter in a punnett square
F
(T/F) An organism that is heterozygous for a trait has two different alleles for that trait
T
When both alleles of a gene are expressed in the offspring, the condition is called...
Incomplete Dominance
Because alleles A and B for blood type are inherited by incomplete dominance, a person with genotype AB would have the phenotype...
AB
(Polygenic or Multiple Allele)A group of genes acts together to produce a single trait...
Polygenic
(Polygenic or Multiple Allele)One trait is controlled by more than two alleles of a gene...
Multiple Allele
(Polygenic or Multiple Allele)There are three alleles for human blood type...
Multiple Allele
(Polygenic or Multiple Allele)Up to 6 genes may control the color of human skin...
Polygenic
(Polygenic or Multiple Allele)The effect of a single allele may be small, but the combination of alleles from many genes produces a wide variety in a trait...
Polygenic
(Polygenic or Multiple Allele)Human traits such as eye and hair color, height, and weight are controlled by two or more gene pairs...
Polygenic
Some ________________ or alterations in DNA, have resulted in genetic disorders
Mutations
The inherited disease in which red blood cells are sickled-shaped instead of disc-shaped is called ________________
Sickle Cell Anemia
Sickle-shaped cells cannot carry enough ________________ for the body
Oxygen
In cystic fibrosis, a thick ________________ affects the lungs and digestive system
Mucus
The disease in which blood does not clot properly and puts the affected person in danger of bleeding to death from even a small scrape is called ________________
Hemophilia
A heterozygous individual who has one allele for a disease but is not affected by it is a ________________
Carrier
Scientists use a chart called a ________________ to study the inheritance pattern of a trait
Pedigree
The branch of science in which scientists change genes is called ________________
Genetic Engineering
Sickle cell anemia and cystic fibrosis are caused by ________ alleles
Recessive
A person who is heterozygous for a disorder caused by a homozygous recessive allele combination ________________ be affected by the disorder
Will Not Be
In order to be affected by hemophilia or color blindness, a male must inherit ________________ for the disease
One Allele
Males are affected by sex-linked genetic disorders ________________ than girls
More Often
A male has ________________ in his cells
An X and Y Chromosome
A female has ________________ in her cells
Two X Chromosomes
There are ________________ alleles that code for the human blood type
3
The A and B alleles, when together, are called ________________ because neither one dominates or covers up the other.
Codominant
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