Rita8 - Quality Management Flashcards

Terms Definitions
What are the steps in the Quality Management Process?
1.Quality planning
2.Perform quality assurance
3.Perform quality control
Definition of quality
Quality is defined as the degree to which the project fulfills requirements.
What is the Prevention over Inspection principle?
Quality must be planned in, not inspected in.
Marginal Analysis
Optimal quality is reached at the point where the incremental revenue from improvement equals the incremental cost to secure it.
Continuous Improvement (or Kaizen)
Small improvements in products or processes to reduce costs and ensure consistency of performance of products or services.
A company using Just in Time (JIT) must have high
quality
Total Quality Management (TQM)
A philosophy that encourages companies and their employees to focus on finding ways to continuously improve the quality of their business practices and products.
Impact of poor quality
1.Increased cost
2.Low morale
3.Low customer satisfaction
4.Increased risk
5.Rework
6.Schedule delays
What are the costs of Conformance to quality?
1.Quality training
2.Studies
3.Surveys
What are the costs of Nonconformance to quality?
1.Rework
2.Scrap
3.Inventory costs
4.Warranty costs
Tasks done to accomplish quality planning
1.Cost-Benefit Analysis
2.Benchmarking - learning from past projects
3.Design of Experiments (DOE) - statistical method of systematically change all of the important factors in a process and see which combination has a lower impact.
4.Cost of Quality
Outputs of Quality Planning
1.Quality Management plan
2.Checklist
3.Process improvement plan
4.Quality Baseline
5.Quality Metrics
Define Mutual Exclusivity
Two events are said to be mutually exclusive if they cannot both occur in a single trial.
Define Normal Distribution
A normal distribution is the most common probability density distribution chart. It is in the shape of a bell curve and is used to measure variations.
Define Statistical Independence
Statistical Independence is the probability of one event occurring does not affect the probability of another event occurring.

e.g., the probability of rolling a six on a die is statistically independent from the probability of rolling a five on the next roll.
Define Standard Deviation (or sigma)
A measure of a range is its standard deviation.
Also sometimes stated as a measure of how far you are from the mean (not the median).
(P-O)/6
Define 3 or 6 Sigma
Sigma is another name for standard deviation. 3 or 6 sigma represents the level of quality that a company has decided to try to achieve.

At 6 sigma, less than 1.5 out of 1 million.
At 3 sigma, 2,700.
Sigma percentages
+/-1 sigma = 68.26%
+/-2 sigma = 95.46%
+/-3 sigma = 99.73%
+/-6 sigma = 99.99985%
Seven Basic tools of Quality
1.Cause and effect diagram
2.Flowchart
3.Histogram
4.Pareto chart
5.Run chart
6.Scatter diagram
7.Control chart
Cause and Effect Diagram uses (Fishbone diagram, Ishikawa diagram)
Cause and effect diagrams can be used in quality planning to look forward at what might contribute to the highest quality on the project. In quality control they are used to look backwards
What is being described here
1.A creative way to look at the causes or potential causes of a problem (as in quality control).
2.Helps stimulate thinking, organizes thoughts and generates discussions.
3.Can be used to explore the factors that will re
Cause and effect diagram, fishbone diagram or Ishikawa diagram
What is a flowchart?
A flowchart shows how a process or system flows from beginning to end and how the elements interrelate.
How is a flowchart used?
Flowchart is used in quality control to analyze quality problems, but can also be used in quality planning to analyze potential future quality problems and determine quality standards.
What is a Pareto chart?
A pareto chart is a type of histogram where problems are stacked into piles of like problems.
How are pareto charts used?
1.Help focus attention on the most critical issues
2.Priorities potential "causes" of the problems
3.Separates the critical few from the uncritical many
What is a Run Chart?
To look at history and see a pattern of variations, you would use a run chart.
What is a Scatter Diagram?
Scatter Diagram tracks two variables to see if they are related.
What is a Control Chart?
Control charts graphically help you to determine if a process is within acceptable limits. A "special cause variation" means the process is out of control
What are Upper and Lower Control Limits in a Control Chart?
The acceptable range of variation of a process often shown as two dashed lines on a control chart.

Data points outside this range mean the process is out of control.
What is the Mean (Average) in a control chart?
A line in the middle of the control chart that shows the middle of the range of acceptable variation of the process.
What are specification limits in a control chart?
While control limits represent the performing organization's standards for quality, specification limits represent the customer's expectations or contractual requirements.
When is a process out of control when using a control chart?
1.A data point falls outside of the upper or lower control limit. 2.Non-random data points that are still within the upper and lower control limits, such as the rule of seven.
What is rule of seven?
Rule of seven is a rule of thumb or heuristic. It refers to non-random data points grouped together in a series that total seven on one side of the mean.
What is assignable Cause/Special Cause variation?
A data point, or rule of seven, that requires investigation to determine the cause of the variation.
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